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$ Network Support for Wireless Connectivity in the TV Bands Victor Bahl Ranveer Chandra Thomas Moscibroda Srihari Narlanka Yunnan Wu Yuan.

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Presentation on theme: "$ Network Support for Wireless Connectivity in the TV Bands Victor Bahl Ranveer Chandra Thomas Moscibroda Srihari Narlanka Yunnan Wu Yuan."— Presentation transcript:

1 $ Network Support for Wireless Connectivity in the TV Bands Victor Bahl Ranveer Chandra Thomas Moscibroda Srihari Narlanka Yunnan Wu Yuan

2 $KNOWS-Platform This work is part of our KNOWS project at MSR (Cognitive Networking over White Spaces) [see DySpan 2007] Prototype has transceiver and scanner Transceiver can dynamically adjust center-frequency and channel- width with low time overhead (~0.1ms) Transceiver can tune to contiguous spectrum bands only! Scanner acts as a receiver on control channel when not scanning Scanner Antenna Data Transceiver Antenna

3 $ Design a MAC protocol for cognitive radios in the TV band that leverages device capability -- dynamically adjusting central-freq and channel-width Goals: Exploit holes in spectrum x time x space Opportunistic and load-aware allocation Few nodes: Give them wider bands Many nodes: Partition the spectrum into narrower bands Problem Formulation Frequency 5Mhz 20Mhz

4 $ Context and Related Work Context: Single-channel IEEE MAC allocates only time blocks Multi-channel Time-spectrum blocks have pre-defined channel-width Cognitive channels with variable channel-width! time Multi-Channel MAC-Protocols: [SSCH, Mobicom 2004], [MMAC, Mobihoc 2004], [DCA I-SPAN 2000], [xRDT, SECON 2006], etc… MAC-layer protocols for Cognitive Radio Networks: [Zhao et al, DySpan 2005], [Ma et al, DySpan 2005], etc… Regulate communication of nodes on fixed channel widths Existing work does not consider channel-width as a tunable parameter! Existing work does not consider channel-width as a tunable parameter!

5 $ KNOWS Architecture

6 $ Allocating Time-Spectrum Blocks View of a node v: Time Frequency t t+ ¢ t f f+ ¢ f Primary users Neighboring nodes time-spectrum blocks Node vs time-spectrum block

7 $Outline

8 $ CMAC Overview Use a common control channel (CCC) Contend for spectrum access Reserve a time-spectrum block Exchange spectrum availability information (use scanner to listen to CCC while transmitting) Maintain reserved time-spectrum blocks Overhear neighboring nodes control packets Generate 2D view of time-spectrum block reservations

9 $ CMAC Overview Sender Receiver DATA ACK DATA ACK DATA ACK RTS CTS DTS Waiting Time RTS Indicates intention for transmitting Contains suggestions for available time-spectrum block (b-SMART) CTS Spectrum selection (received-based) (f, ¢ f, t, ¢ t) of selected time-spectrum block DTS Data Transmission reServation Announces reserved time-spectrum block to neighbors of sender Time-Spectrum Block t t+ ¢ t

10 $ Network Allocation Matrix (NAM) Control channel Frequency The above depicts an ideal scenario 1) Primary users (fragmentation) 2) In multi-hop neighbors have different views Time-spectrum block Nodes record info for reserved time-spectrum blocks Time

11 $ Network Allocation Matrix (NAM) Control channel Time The above depicts an ideal scenario 1) Primary users (fragmentation) 2) In multi-hop neighbors have different views Primary Users Nodes record info for reserved time-spectrum blocks Frequency

12 $B-SMART Which time-spectrum block should be reserved…? How long…? How wide…? B-SMART (distributed spectrum allocation over white spaces) Design Principles 1. Try to assign each flow blocks of bandwidth B/N 2. Choose optimal transmission duration ¢ t B: Total available spectrum N: Number of disjoint flows Long blocks: Higher delay Long blocks: Higher delay Short blocks: More congestion on control channel Short blocks: More congestion on control channel

13 $B-SMART Upper bound T max ~10ms on maximum block duration Nodes always try to send for T max Find placement of ¢ bx ¢ t block that minimizes finishing time and does not overlap with any other block T max ¢ b=10MHz T max ¢ b= d B/N e =20MHz T max ¢ b=5MHz

14 $ Estimation of N 1 (N=1) 2(N=2) 3 (N=3) (N=5) 4 (N=4) 40MHz 80MHz 78 6 (N=6) 7(N=7) 8 (N=8) 2 (N=8) 1 (N=8) 3 (N=8) 21 We estimate N by #reservations in NAM based on up-to-date information adaptive! Case study: 8 backlogged single-hop flows 3 Time T max

15 $ Simulation Results - Summary Simulations in QualNet Various traffic patterns, mobility models, topologies B-SMART in fragmented spectrum: When #flows small total throughput increases with #flows When #flows large total throughput degrades very slowly B-SMART with various traffic patterns: Adapts very well to high and moderate load traffic patterns With a large number of very low-load flows performance degrades ( Control channel)

16 $ Conclusions and Future Work Summary: CMAC 3 way handshake for reservation NAM Local view of the spectrum availability B-SMART efficient, distributed protocol for sharing white spaces Future Work / Open Problems Control channel vulnerability QoS support Coexistence with other systems


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