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RVHS CID 3 and 4 JULY 2011 Written Report (WR). A Written Report allows you to: Systematically construct and expand your ideas Scan what other people.

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Presentation on theme: "RVHS CID 3 and 4 JULY 2011 Written Report (WR). A Written Report allows you to: Systematically construct and expand your ideas Scan what other people."— Presentation transcript:

1 RVHS CID 3 and 4 JULY 2011 Written Report (WR)

2 A Written Report allows you to: Systematically construct and expand your ideas Scan what other people have written on the same topic as a way of gaining some context for your own project Carry out your own primary research

3 A Written Report allows you to: Critically analyse the implications of your research - by methodically separating your information into parts and studying their interrelations i.e. what is the problem, what are the causes, what are the effects and the resulting consequences? Construct solutions/measures to tackle problems

4 Remember: The whole report must flow logically – smooth flow of ideas from one section to another The language and tone need not be complex – simplicity is important for readers to understand - the key to effective communication

5 In PW, your WR must demonstrate Evaluate evidence gathered from research (A&E) Gather credible evidence to substantiate ideas (SI) Generate conclusions, implications &/or limitations (A&E) Organize findings into a coherent format (OI) Generate ideas & recommendations based on analysis of issues (GI) Present findings in an easily understood report (OI)

6 Assessment Requirements About 1000 (CID 3) 1500 (CID 4) words excluding references, citations & accompanying captions for tables and diagrams Must meet all project task requirements Must include in- text citations & references Clearly paginated Typewritten, double-spaced, font-size no smaller than 12 Refer to question paper for more details

7 Assessment– Band Descriptors CriterionApproaching Expectation Meeting Expectation Exceeding Expectation Substantiation of ideas (SI) Main ideas are supported by few relevant details and examples Main ideas are supported by relevant details and examples Main ideas are well supported by relevant details and examples Generation of Ideas (GI)Ideas are largely rehashed with little or no modification Ideas are appropriately modified and / or developed Ideas are insightful and /or innovative Analysis & Evaluation of Ideas (GI) Ideas are analysed and evaluated in a limited way Ideas are sufficiently analysed and evaluated Ideas are thoroughly analysed and evaluated Organization of Ideas (OI)Ideas are presented and organised in such a way that the report is difficult to follow Ideas are presented and organised in such a way that the report is easy to follow Ideas are presented and organised coherently

8 Generation of Ideas (GI) CriterionApproaching Expectation Meeting Expectation Exceeding Expectation Generation of Ideas (GI) Ideas are largely rehashed with little or no modification Ideas are appropriately modified and / or developed Ideas are insightful and / or innovative

9 Different ways to demonstrate GI 1. Come up with your own proposals/ideas 2. Modify someone elses original ideas 3. Transplant original ideas into a new environment and show how it is different 4. Combine different ideas into one 5. Suggest solutions to counter the limitations of a problem

10 Some pointers for GI Use a variety of methods of showcase your ideas Come up with creative twists to conventional ideas, e.g. Exhibitions, fairs, posters – how is your group going to try and do these differently? Twist? New Spin? Explain clearly how the activities/solutions are relevant to the project – otherwise your ideas remain random & disconnected

11 Analysis & Evaluation of Ideas (A&E) CriterionApproaching Expectation Meeting Expectation Exceeding Expectation Analysis & Evaluation of Ideas (A&E) Ideas are analysed and evaluated in a limited way Ideas are sufficiently analysed and evaluated Ideas are thoroughly analysed and evaluated

12 Ways to demonstrate A&E 1. A&E of primary/secondary research 2. A&E of your own proposal 3. A&E of current/past situation or problems or methods Quality & depth of A&E really counts!

13 Ways to demonstrate A&E Show detailed evaluation of ideas critically assess data; don't just regurgitate existing information Logical & coherent arguments form the key to analysis & evaluation

14 Ways to demonstrate A&E Demonstrating Evaluation – leading towards recommendations 1. Suggest possible reasons for your findings 2. Explain what you plan to do with your findings 3. How do your findings impact your final recommendations? 4. Try to draw links between primary and secondary research cited

15 Ways to demonstrate A&E Recommendations 1. Must outline the specific actions required for implementation/feasibility 2. Must be linked to previously mentioned problems/gaps/inadequacies

16 Ways to demonstrate A&E Evaluate the likely effectiveness of your recommendations 1. Who will implement the recommendations/solutions you have suggested? 2. How might they be measured for effectiveness? 3. What is a feasible/logical timeframe for the implementation of recommended solutions/strategies?

17 Ways to demonstrate A&E 4. What are the benefits of the recommendations for the stakeholders? I.e. why is your recommendation better than the previous way of doing things? Evaluate the likely limitations & future possibilities of your recommendations a) Consider the limitations & necessary conditions for success b) Suggest follow-up action

18 Some pointers for A&E Offer a balanced view of both the benefits and limitations of ideas/proposals to target group – remember that for every limitation you point out, you can score for GI by suggesting possible short- term and long-term solutions Analyse the effectiveness of the ideas as a whole; do not focus only on smaller aspects, e.g. cost, logistics – balance short-term financial costs with long-term social benefits for e.g.

19 Organization of Ideas (OI) CriterionApproaching Expectation Meeting Expectation Exceeding Expectation Organization of Ideas (OI) Ideas are presented and organised in such a way that the report is difficult to follow Ideas are presented and organised in such a way that the report is easy to follow Ideas are presented and organised coherently

20 Ways to demonstrate OI Clear sections/components Possible sections/components: Title page Table of contents Introduction Literature review Proposed project Data collection methodology Recommendations/strategies Limitations & future possibilities Conclusion See sample WRs for possible sections/components

21 Ways to demonstrate OI 1. Relevance of each section to overall project & each other Consistent use of linking phrases Sensible headings, sub-headings, numbering & bullets Refer to Handout Transition Words & Phrases 2. Use of appropriate language Tone No jargon, clichés or slang No unnecessarily complex vocabulary and sentence structures

22 Ways to demonstrate OI 3. Use of relevant examples and/or analogies to provide clarity in explanations 4. Use of tables ONLY when appropriate 5. Use of appropriate illustrations Refer to handout Checklist for Illustrations

23 A good WR is clearly organized A clear objective An introduction & conclusion Organization & Structure Clarity Reference material (in-text citations & at the end, primary/secondary references) Development of Ideas Flow

24 WR Introduction 1. Define the scope of the report State how the report will be developed i.e. areas that will be covered for e.g. hypothesis, literature review, research, proposal, recommendations, strategies etc 2. State your objectives clearly The objective/s What you intend to do/show What conclusions you are leading towards

25 WR Introduction – Thesis Statement The task requirements only define the broad areas to be covered; every WR must have a thesis statement a one-sentence statement about your topic. It's an assertion about your topic, something you claim to be true/that you will show to be true/possible Sample – WR on domestic workers

26 WR Introduction 3. Give a brief background to your chosen subject What problem or area of need did your project start with? This gives the rationale for why you chose your proposed amalgamation/alternative 4. State the links/similarities between your starting point and proposed topic – refer to the Task Requirements in Question Paper

27 WR Introduction In your introduction, show that you know what you're talking about, that you've investigated the matter thoroughly, have considered the implications of your findings, and in the report you will be offering a carefully thought-out analysis This job of uncovering and displaying your reasoning is what the assessment criteria demand

28 WR Conclusion Typically signaled by words & phrases such as: Consequently Hence we can see that… As a result… This report suggests that… Ultimately, if we consider that… This report has shown… Therefore it is clear from this report that…

29 WR Conclusion Should not provide any new information (statistics, examples, definitions, background research, literature review etc) Should be related to the introduction so that the reader is reminded of the objectives laid out in the introduction Sample WR – domestic workers

30 WR Conclusion Ask some basic questions to help you write it: And therefore? So what? What does all this finally have to do with the task? What do I most want my readers to take away from this report? What do I hope they'll know now that they've read this? What last thoughts do I want to leave them with?

31 Some pointers for OI Be systematic and structured in approach Use appropriate graphics and illustrations to lend the report an air of professionalism Do not insert unnecessary and distracting graphics, mind-maps or images Tables should include statistical information & survey results, not big amounts of text

32 WR Reminders Choose words with care – avoid ambiguity & reader misinterpretation Thoroughly check spelling & punctuation Ensure NO plagiarism – all secondary material must be acknowledged clearly (all reports will be run through Turnitin software to check for plagiarism) You may split up the writing among your members but ensure 1 person puts everything together & vets the report

33 Substantiation of Ideas (SI) CriterionApproaching Expectation Meeting Expectation Exceeding Expectation Substantiation of Ideas (SI) Main ideas are supported by few relevant details and examples Main ideas are supported by relevant details and examples Main ideas are well supported by relevant details and examples

34 Research & Data Presentation Proper use of research Research findings do not prove conclusions; at most they support ideas/conclusions (SI) Research findings must be interpreted (for GI and A&E) Improper research = weak GI & A&E

35 Research & Data Presentation Survey Data Tables Pie Charts Bar Graphs Line Graphs Place only relevant & immediate data in the main WR

36 Research & Data Presentation Interview Quote relevant excerpts only A copy of the survey questionnaire/interview questions can be included in the Annexe for reference

37 Incorporating Research 1. Briefly highlight relevant info researched about your starting point amalgamation/alternative, its unique features & lessons learnt 2. Explain how specific aspects of the amalgamation/alternative can be applied to the proposed amalgamation/conservation 3. Highlight existing/past problems/ways of doing things 4. Emphasize aspects that you are learning from & modifying/applying to the new context i.e. significant problems/inadequacies in the past/current way of doing things which will be addressed in the project

38 Incorporating Research Important to show/cite a range of sources Discuss limitations & usefulness of the research Can show briefly how any major gaps in secondary research are supplemented by primary research Be brief; do not quote at great length; extract only the ideas Use footnotes judiciously

39 Research Results & Findings 1. State clearly the purpose of the survey/interview, the number of people surveyed/name of interviewee 2. Highlight only relevant & useful findings that the survey/interview surfaced 3. Do not just describe findings; actively explain, discuss implications, analyze problems raised etc

40 Research Results & Findings 4. Present findings in as simple a way as possible 5. Graphs, charts & diagrams help your reader to identify key results & break the flow of written text 6. However, complicated info is difficult to interpret

41 Pointers for SI Have a good range of information sources (both primary and secondary) Use the surveys and interviews conducted to support your work Integrate your surveys into the project; dont present them as isolated segments

42 Some useful pointers & reminders

43 Ways to develop paragraphs 1) State the facts 2) Provide 1 or 2 solid examples – could be survey data/statistics 3) Explain what it means/implies 4) Make comparisons/show contrast between your own idea & someone elses idea Refer to Handout Topic Sentences

44 Ways to demonstrate A&E What is an ARGUMENT? An argument is made up of 2 kinds of statements: (1) the conclusion (main claim) is the statement which follows from the other statements & (2) the reasons (evidence) are those statements which are intended to support the conclusion

45 Ways to demonstrate A&E A. argument = specific position + supporting points B. argument = main claim + supporting evidence C. argument = conclusion + reasons

46 Ways to demonstrate A&E

47 Weak A&E – Fallacies in reasoning Slippery slope Assuming that a proposed solution will set off an uncontrollable chain of events There is no reason to believe that one event must inevitably follow from another without an argument for such a claim "The US shouldn't get involved militarily in other countries. Once the government sends in a few troops, it will then send in thousands to die."

48 Weak A&E – Fallacies in reasoning Hasty generalizations Reaching a broad conclusion on the statistics of a survey of a small group that fails to sufficiently represent the whole population We sampled 100 Singaporean males regarding the issue of gay marriage... Most of them disapproved, therefore most Singaporeans would disapprove of gay marriage":

49 Weak A&E – Fallacies in reasoning Appeal to common practice X is a common action. Therefore X is correct/moral/justified/reasonable, etc. Basic idea: the fact that most people do X is used as "evidence" to support the action or practice Fallacy: the fact that most people do something does not make it correct, moral, justified, or reasonable

50 Weak A&E – Circular Arguments Using conclusion as a premise Our project on solar powered cars will be a success because it doesnt pollute the environment. Because many people will use our product, it will not pollute the environment

51 The End


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