2O.J. Simpson capital murder case,1/95-9/95 Odds of blood in Ford Bronco not being R. Goldman’s:6.5 billion to 1Odds of blood on socks in bedroom not being N. Brown-Simpson’s:8.5 billion to 1Odds of blood on glove not being from R. Goldman, N. Brown-Simpson, and O.J. Simpson:21.5 billion to 1Number of people on planet earth:6.1 billionOdds of being struck by lightning in the U.S.:2.8 million to 1Odds of winning the Illinois Big Game lottery:76 million to 1Odds of getting killed driving to the gas station to buy a lottery ticket4.5 million to 1Odds of seeing 3 albino deer at the same time:85 million to 1Odds of having quintuplets:Odds of being struck by a meteorite:10 trillion to 1
3Recombinant DNADef: DNA in which genes from 2 different sources are linkedGenetic engineering: direct manipulation of genes for practical purposesBiotechnology: manipulation of organisms or their components to perform practical tasks or provide useful products
5DNA CloningRestriction enzymes (endonucleases): in nature, these enzymes protect bacteria from intruding DNA; they cut up the DNA (restriction); very specificRestriction site: recognition sequence for a particular restriction enzymeRestriction fragments: segments of DNA cut by restriction enzymes in a reproducable waySticky end: short extensions of restriction fragmentsDNA ligase: enzyme that can join the sticky ends of DNA fragmentsCloning vector: DNA molecule that can carry foreign DNA into a cell and replicate there (usually bacterial plasmids)
6Steps for eukaryotic gene cloning Isolation of cloning vector (bacterial plasmid) & gene-source DNA (gene of interest)Insertion of gene-source DNA into the cloning vector using the same restriction enzyme; bind the fragmented DNA with DNA ligaseIntroduction of cloning vector into cells (transformation by bacterial cells)Cloning of cells (and foreign genes)Identification of cell clones carrying the gene of interest
8Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Amplification of any piece of DNA without cells (in vitro)Materials: heat, DNA polymerase, nucleotides, single-stranded DNA primersApplications: fossils, forensics, prenatal diagnosis, etc.
9DNA AnalysisGel electrophoresis: separates nucleic acids or proteins on the basis of size or electrical charge creating DNA bands of the same length
10Restriction fragment analysis Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)Southern blotting: process that reveals sequences and the RFLPs in a DNA sequenceDNA Fingerprinting
11DNA SequencingDetermination of nucleotide sequences (Sanger method, sequencing machine)Genomics: the study of genomes based on DNA sequencesHuman Genome Project
12Practical DNA Technology Uses Diagnosis of diseaseHuman gene therapyPharmaceutical products (vaccines)ForensicsAnimal husbandry (transgenic organisms)Genetic engineering in plantsEthical concerns?