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Congress House & Senate: Differences in Representation Bicameral System: Two Chambers –Part of the Connecticut Compromise –Each state has two senators.

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Presentation on theme: "Congress House & Senate: Differences in Representation Bicameral System: Two Chambers –Part of the Connecticut Compromise –Each state has two senators."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Congress

3 House & Senate: Differences in Representation Bicameral System: Two Chambers –Part of the Connecticut Compromise –Each state has two senators –Representation in the House determined by state population –Predicated on different models of representation Senate: states, with long terms House: districts, with short terms

4 House & Senate: Differences in Representation Senate: 100 Senators –Originally selected by state legislatures –Six year terms House of Representatives: 435 Members –Elected by districts –Two year terms

5 House and Senate: Differences in Representation

6 House & Senate: Differences in Representation Congressional districts can be relatively homogeneous –Ideal for organized interests claiming to represent constituents –Members tend to specialize in one committee States are far more heterogeneous –Senators have to be generalists –More open to a wider array of interests

7 House & Senate: Differences in Representation How representatives represent: –Sociological Representation: Representative shares characteristics, background and interests with constituents –Agency Representation: Representative has incentives to act in the constituents interests

8 House & Senate: Differences in Representation Sociological Representation

9 WHO ARE AMERICANS? Chapter 12 WHO ARE THE MEMBERS OF CONGRESS?

10 WHO ARE AMERICANS? Who are the Members of 111 th Congress 2009 ? U.S. Pop. 51% 49% Female Male House 15% 85% Senate 17% 83% Gender U.S. Population Key Senate House of Representatives SOURCES: Mildred L. Amer, Membership of the 111 th Congress: A Profile, CRS Report R40086, February 4, U.S. Census Bureau, (accessed 3/5/10).www.census.gov

11 WHO ARE AMERICANS? Who are the Members of 111 th Congress? U.S. Pop. 65% 13% 16% 5% 1% White Black Hispanic Asian/Pacific Native American House 82% 9% 6% 2% 0.2% Senate 96% 1% 2% 0% Race U.S. Population Key Senate House of Representatives SOURCES: Mildred L. Amer, Membership of the 111 th Congress: A Profile, CRS Report R40086, February 4, U.S. Census Bureau, (accessed 3/5/10).www.census.gov

12 WHO ARE AMERICANS? Who are the Members of 111 th Congress? U.S. Pop. 51% 24% 3% 2% 3% 17% Protestant Catholic Other Christian Jewish Other Faiths Unaffiliated House 55% 31% 4% 7% 2% 1% Senate 54% 26% 6% 13% 0% Religion U.S. Population Key Senate House of Representatives SOURCES: Mildred L. Amer, Membership of the 111 th Congress: A Profile, CRS Report R40086, February 4, U.S. Census Bureau, (accessed 3/5/10).www.census.gov

13 WHO ARE AMERICANS? Who are the Members of 111 th Congress? U.S. Pop. 13.5% 57% 19% 1.5% 9% < High school High school grad. Bachelors degree Professional/ Law degree Other advanced degree House 8% 29% 39% 25% Senate 1% 20% 57% 22% Education U.S. Population Key Senate House of Representatives SOURCES: Mildred L. Amer, Membership of the 111 th Congress: A Profile, CRS Report R40086, February 4, U.S. Census Bureau, (accessed 3/5/10).www.census.gov

14 WHO ARE AMERICANS? Who are the Members of 111 th Congress? Average Age SOURCES: Mildred L. Amer, Membership of the 111 th Congress: A Profile, CRS Report R40086, February 4, U.S. Census Bureau, (accessed 3/5/10).www.census.gov U.S. Pop House 57.2 Senate 63.1

15 House & Senate: Differences in Representation Representatives as Agents: Legislators learn about the interests of constituents Parties almost never ask a member of Congress to vote against constituent interests

16 The Electoral Connection Who gets elected? –Who decides to run –Incumbency advantage –Districting and gerrymandering issues

17 The Electoral Connection Who runs? –Candidates must self select to run, but some are encouraged by parties more than others –A good candidate needs: Good name recognition Success in prior elected offices Ability to raise funds Willingness to campaign Ability to reach out to voters

18 The Electoral Connection Incumbency Advantage –Members of Congress have an array of tools to keep them in office Constituency services Franking privilege Name recognition and title Pork barrel spending for district

19 The Power of Incumbency

20 The Electoral Connection Redistricting –The vast majority of incumbents in safe seats come from districts where the majority of voters are from the same party as they are –The critical election in these districts is the primary

21 Results of Congressional Reapportionment, 2000 [ Tx +4 in 2010 ]

22 The Electoral Connection, 1910 vs 2000 Apportionment and Districting

23 The Electoral Connection Direct Patronage –Pork barrel spending Earmarks –Patronage Some local and state elected officials have jobs to offer to constituents –Constituent services –Private bills

24 How Members of Congress Represent Their Districts

25 The Organization of Congress Building blocks of Congress –Parties –Committees –Staff –Caucuses –Parliamentary rules

26 The Organization of Congress Speaker of the House is the leader of majority party Both parties also elect a majority and minority leader and whip Parties determine which of their members sit on various committees

27 The Organization of Congress The Vice President officially chairs the Senate, but only takes the gavel at ceremonial events and in the case of a tie vote The President Pro Tempore usually chairs the Senate, but often hands off to another member for routine business

28 Majority Party Structure in the House of Representatives

29 Majority Party Structure in the Senate

30 The Organization of Congress Committee System –Standing committees –Select committees –Joint committees –Conference committees

31 The Organization of Congress Standing committees are permanent and are where the majority of legislation is written

32 The Organization of Congress

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34 Select Committees –Formed temporarily to focus on a specific issue Cannot present bills to the chamber Bring attention to a specific subject

35 The Organization of Congress Joint Committees –Formed from members of both Chambers –Gather information –Cover issues internal to Congress

36 The Organization of Congress Conference Committees –For a bill to become a law, the same wording of the bill must be passed by both chambers –Conference committees are formed to write the final wording when both chambers pass similar bills that need to be reconciled

37 The Organization of Congress The number of seats the minority party has on a committee is roughly proportionate to the seats it has in the House, but at an unfavorable rate. Seniority determines committee assignments –Chairs can be removed by the party caucus –Chairs are term-limited

38 The Organization of Congress Congressional Staffers –Members of Congress need staff who are experts in specific fields, and also staff to help constituents Over 11,500 staff in DC and district offices Another 2,000 staff for committees

39 The Organization of Congress Congressional Research Service –Research arm of Congress Congressional Budget Office (CBO) –Assesses costs of programs and income from tax plans General Accounting Office –Audits federal agencies and programs

40 The Organization of Congress Congressional Caucuses –Groups of Senators or Representatives who share common goals or interests –Some have large budgets and significant staffs, and are capable of pressuring Congress and the Executive branch

41 How a Bill Becomes a Law

42 A bill is a proposed law that has been sponsored by a member of Congress and submitted to the Clerk of the House or Senate The bill is given a number and assigned to a committee, which typically refers it to a subcommittee Bills taken seriously are given a hearing

43 How a Bill Becomes a Law The subcommittee and/or full committee writes the language of the bill The full committee sends the bill to the floor –Bill must pass through the Rules Committee in the House first –Rules committee gives bill an open or closed rule –Senate requires a consent agreement

44 How a Bill Becomes a Law The House rule determines how much time is allocated for floor debate; powerful comtee! The debate time is divided equally between those for and against the bill The Senate allows for unlimited discussion, requiring 60 votes to end a filibuster via cloture

45 How a Bill Becomes a Law Once a bill clears in one chamber, it is sent to the other where the process starts over If both chambers pass the same wording, the bill is sent to the president If not, both chambers create a conference committee

46 How a Bill Becomes a Law The President is given ten days and 4 options –Veto bill -- Vetoes can be overridden by a two- thirds vote in each chamber –Pocket veto: If there are less than tens days left in the Congressional calendar and the president does not sign the bill into law, it dies and must begin again from scratch in the next session –Sign bill into law! –Do nothing. After 10 days, bill automatically becomes law

47 How Congress Decides

48 There are a number of influences on members of Congress Constituents –Legislators take constituents seriously if they believe it will affect their support at the next election

49 How Congress Decides Interest Groups –Can supply legislators with information about pending bills –Can make donations –Do they represent the interests of constituents?

50 Party Discipline

51 How Congress Decides Party Discipline –Congress has become bitterly partisan since the 1990s

52 How Congress Decides Party leaders have some tools at their disposal: –Leadership PACs –Committee assignments –Access to the floor –The whip system –Logrolling –Presidency

53 Oversight In 2006, the Senate Judiciary Committee responded to concerns about President Bushs authorization of secret domestic surveillance by holding hearings on the program. Former attorney general Alberto Gonzales was called to testify and explain the administrations actions.

54 Beyond Legislation Oversight –Congress is expected to oversee the activities of the Executive Branch in order to ensure funding is spent and laws are enforced properly

55 Beyond Legislation Advice and Consent –The Senate must confirm top-level executive appointments, ambassadors and federal judges –Must also approve all treaties

56 Impeachment

57 Beyond Legislation Impeachment –If high officials are thought to have committedTreason, Bribery or other High Crimes and Misdemeanors they can be impeached –The House acts as a grand jury and makes the formal charge or indictment (majority vote required) –The Senate conducts the actual trial and with 2/3 vote can convict and remove a President from office –Chief Justice of Supreme Court presides over Presidential impeachment trial

58 Debate, After the 2010 Gulf oil spill, the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee held hearings on the disaster. Executives from BP America, Transocean Limited, and Halliburton were called to testify on their companies roles in the spill.

59 The Legislators Dilemma Delegate or Trustee? –What should a legislator do when she disagrees with her constituents about an important issue? –She may know more about the issue than her constituents, and if they knew as much, they may also think differently

60 Public Opinion Poll Do you approve or disapprove of the way Congress is handling its job? a)Strongly approve b)Approve c)Disapprove d)Strongly disapprove

61 Public Opinion Poll Do you approve or disapprove of the way your member of Congress is handling his or her job? a)Strongly approve b)Approve c)Disapprove d)Strongly disapprove

62 Public Opinion Poll Do you believe we should have term limits for Members of Congress? a)Yes b)No

63 Public Opinion Poll Do you believe state legislatures should consider the racial makeup of a district when redistricting? a)Yes b)No

64 Public Opinion Poll Do you think it is important that the demographics of Congress represent the social, racial and economic demographics of the country? a)Yes b)No

65 Public Opinion Poll When members of Congress cast a vote, which of the following factors should typically most influence their decision? a)The interests of the country as a whole b)The interests of their district or state

66 Public Opinion Poll Which of the following do you believe should be the most influential factor in the voting decisions of members of congress? a)The preferences of their constituents b)The preferences of the President c)The preferences of the Members Party Leadership d)The members own ideology

67 Chapter 12: Congress Quizzes Flashcards Outlines Exercises wwnorton.com/we-the-people

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69 Following this slide, you will find additional images, figures, and tables from the textbook.

70 Differences between the House and the Senate

71 The Social Composition of the U.S. Congress

72 Party Leadership in the Senate

73 The Staff System: Staffers and Agencies

74 Party Discipline

75 Celebrities, Capitol Hill, and the 2009 Health Care Debate

76 What Is Congresss Role in Foreign Policy?

77 Get Your Representatives in Congress Working for You

78 Incumbency


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