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Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. How can we sustainably utilize biodiversity? The Futurability of Biodiversity.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. How can we sustainably utilize biodiversity? The Futurability of Biodiversity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. How can we sustainably utilize biodiversity? The Futurability of Biodiversity Chapter 11 How can we sustainably utilize biodiversity? Fifty years from now, how will the relationships have changed between human beings and various organisms? Photo (right): Echigo-Matsunoyama Museum of Natural Science, Kyororo

2 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Todays Topics 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity problems 2. Solution strategies for biodiversity problems How can we solve various biodiversity problems? What are the key points when we deal with biodiversity problems?

3 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity What are the key points to consider when dealing with biodiversity problems? 1) Human well-being 2) Global views 3) Cost for solutions

4 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity 1) Human well-being Ecosystems with high biodiversity bring us a good life. 1) Supply of safe foods 2) Agriculture with low risks of insect pests or diseases 7) Future possibilities for finding new medicines or natural resources 6) Opportunities for sightseeing or recreation 3) Prevention of various disasters 4) Cultural diversity 5) Opportunities for local education

5 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity 1) Human well-being 1) Supply of safe foods e.g., oriental stork rice in Toyooka city, Japan Photo: Toyooka city, Hyogo Prefecture - Returning oriental storks to the wild means recovery of ecosystems where oriental storks can survive. - Oriental storks require rice fields with reduced amounts of agricultural chemicals. Oriental stork rice Oriental stork foraging for food

6 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity 1) Human well-being 2) Agriculture with low risks of insect pests or diseases Parasitic wasp (Braconidae) ovipositing on a leaf beetle (Phratora laticollis) The relationships between number of parasitic wasps and forest ages (Maleque et al. 2010) Number of parasitic wasps varies among various vegetations.

7 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity 1) Human well-being 3) Prevention of various disasters Plantation forests consisting of a single species are vulnerable to disasters. Plantation forest blown down by typhoon (left: Sakhalin fir, right: cedar) Photo: (left) National institute for Environmental Studies (right) Keizou Hirai (From Chapter 5)

8 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity 1) Human well-being 4) Cultural diversity Many organisms are symbolically used in local and/or traditional festivals. Festivals in Kyoto and organisms Aoi Festival (corsage) Asarum caulescens Cercidiphyllum japonica Gion Festival (talisman) Bamboo grass Fire Festival in Kurama (torch) Japanese wisteria Azalea Cedar Asarum caulescens Torch in fire festival

9 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity 1) Human well-being 5) Opportunities for local education - Children learn the local uniqueness through the study of such ecosystems. Examining plant distributionPresentation about life in the community - Local ecosystems are useful materials for environmental education of children living there.

10 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity 1) Human well-being Jomon cedar in Yakushima island and people observing the tree Ecosystems with high and unique biodiversity captivate and attract tourists. 6) Opportunities for sightseeing or recreation

11 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity 1) Human well-being - High biodiversity provides us with a higher possibility of finding useful options in the future. - Petroleum will be exhausted in the near future. …We will need alternative materials and biofuels. Primary forest in Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia 7) Future possibilities for finding new medicines or natural resources

12 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity 2) Global views Biodiversity problems are international problems. 1) Many animals migrate beyond international borders. 2) Activities of some countries affect the biodiversity of other countries. 4) Sharing the benefits of biodiversity may not be fair among countries. 3) It is difficult to achieve a consensus about biodiversity conservation among countries.

13 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity 2) Global views Some animal species move from one country to another (or others) during their lives. Habitats of some organisms occupy several countries. In such cases, conservation in only one country is not enough for preventing extinction. Platalea minor Panthera tigris Photo: (left) Yasunori Maezawa 1) Many animals migrate beyond international borders.

14 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity 2) Global views The more foreign countries import timber or palm oil from Malaysia, the more tropical rainforest disappears. Forestry roads for logging 2) Activities of some countries affect the biodiversity of other countries. The more foreign countries import cashmere from Mongolia, the more the goat population increases, resulting in degradation of grasslands. Huge oil palm plantation

15 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity 2) Global views If some countries adopt a production method which emphasizes biodiversity conservation, they may lose the price competition to products made in other countries which do not consider biodiversity conservation. Biodiversity in paddy field where agrochemicals are reduced. Photo: Yasunori Maezono Echigo-Matsunoyama Museum of Natural Science, Kyororo 3) It is difficult to achieve a consensus about biodiversity conservation among countries.

16 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity 2) Global views 4) Sharing the benefits of biodiversity may not be fair among countries. Tropical treeTropical fungus Developed countries gain profits from new medicines whose resources are taken from the forests of developing countries. The profits should be fairly shared with developing countries which conserve biodiversity of their forests.

17 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity 3) Cost for solutions Economic estimation for solution of biodiversity problems The economics of Climate Change (Stern review) - Concerned with climate changes effects on the economy - Submitted by Dr. Stern to the UKs Ministry of Finance Economic loss in the event we take no measures now: 5 to 20% of GDP Cost for measures we take now: c. 1% of GDP » Effects of climate change on the economy (agriculture, infrastructures, industry, etc.) (year, based on the total GDP in the world) As for measures against global warming, early action lessens economic loss.

18 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity 3) Cost for solutions TEEB (The Economics of Ecosystems & Biodiversity) Biodiversity version of Stern review - Edited by UN special adviser Pavan Sukhdev (Deutsche Bank AG). - Interim report was released at COP9. - Attempted to estimate the cost of degradation of biodiversity. TEEBs final report will be released at COP10. ex. The multiple values of coral reefs: Recreation value US$184 per visit globally Ecological service (protection of coastal areas in many islands of Southeast Asia) US$55 - $1,100 per hectare per year - Advanced attempts to conserve biodiversity by introducing progressive use of market mechanisms.

19 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Summary 1. Fundamental ways of thinking about biodiversity Preserving ecosystems whose biodiversity is high brings us better lives not only monetarily but also spiritually and culturally. For solutions to biodiversity problems, international cooperation is essential. Interim report of TEEB reveals the vast costs of degradation of biodiversity. Final report of TEEB will be released at COP10.

20 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Solution strategies for biodiversity problems How can we solve various biodiversity problems? 1) Certification systems 2) Harnessing market mechanisms 3) Establishment of new social institutions 4) Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 5) Reconsideration of our ways of thinking

21 2. Solution strategies for biodiversity problems 1) Certification systems Distinguishing products produced with respect for the sustainable use of biodiversity Ex. - Forest certification system (FSC) - Fair trade certification system (FLO) - Aquatic products certification system (MSC) Problem Labeled products do not sell if customers do not take into account the conservation of biodiversity. In cases where products are taken or grown using methods which degrade biodiversity as little as possible, they are certified and labeled. - Oil palm plantation certification system (RSOP)

22 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Solution strategies for biodiversity problems 2) Harnessing market mechanisms - Creating a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. - One of the forms of emissions trading, but also plays an important role in the conservation of tropical rainforests. 1) UN-REDD (Program on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries) Development of a new market which deals with biodiversity

23 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Solution strategies for biodiversity problems 2) Harnessing market mechanisms Discussion Measure Report Verify (MRV), Benefit sharing, definition of deforestation, Participation of indigenous communities Pilot Projects: 750,000 hectares of forest in Indonesias Aceh province. Objective: Reduce 85% of future reduction (10 million CO 2 tons in 30 years) Merrill Lynch (US securities company) declares they will invest US$9 million for 4 years Concept of REDD Carbon emissions due to decrease of forest Actual emissions (measured by monitoring) time Baseline (estimated by past trends) Reduced carbon emissions (Developing countries can sell the right to emit CO 2 )

24 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Solution strategies for biodiversity problems 2) Harnessing market mechanisms 2) No net loss of biodiversity (Biodiversity Offsets) Development of new market which deals with biodiversity When a habitat is developed, we try to reduce negative impacts on the habitat by avoidance or minimization. In cases where some ill effects still remain, we compensate for them by conserving alternative habitats. (Modified Tanaka 1996) Negative impacts on ecosystem Avoidance The order of priority Remaining impacts Minimization Remaining impacts Compensation by alternative habitat No net loss Biodiversity Offsets

25 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Solution strategies for biodiversity problems 2) Harnessing market mechanisms BBOP (Business and Biodiversity Offset Programme) - Partnerships between conservation organizations, governments, companies, financial institutions, etc. supporting biodiversity - Biodiversity offsets of BBOP not only compensate habitats but also improve the quality of habitats, conserve habitats and settle negative impacts thoroughly.

26 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Solution strategies for biodiversity problems 2) Harnessing market mechanisms 3) PES (Payment for Ecosystem Services) Development of a new market which deals with biodiversity - Paying for various ecosystem services (provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting). Mechanisms of PES in Costa Rica Public or private institutions Fuel tax Profit from credit MOE* Forest agency FONAFIFO** Landowners Payment for ecosystem services Reforestation Forest conservation Forest management Credit OCIC*** Foreign countries * the Ministry of the Environment ** Fondo Nacional de Financiamiento Forestal *** Oficina Costamicense de Implementacion Conjunta Modified from Original figures by Response Ability, Inc.

27 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Solution strategies for biodiversity problems 3) Establishment of new social institutions Ex. Environmental Tax Citizens pay environmental tax such as forest tax, carbon tax, headwater conservation tax, etc. …People who receive the benefits of biodiversity should pay the expenses for conservation of biodiversity. Present social institutions Convention on Biological Diversity Establishment of protected areas or protected species + new social institutions Development of social institutions for biodiversity

28 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Solution strategies for biodiversity problems 3) Establishment of new social institutions Examples of Environmental tax Germany Environmental tax was introduced from 1999, and tax rate was increased in five steps. - In the case of primary energy, environmental tax was set as a fuel tax. - Electricity tax was newly established as environmental tax. - Biofuels and electricity from renewable energy are tax-free. UseTaxable fuelsOil-related taxEnvironmental tax -Electricity (ct*/kwh)-2.05 Fuel for a vehicleGasoline (ct/l) Fuel for a vehicleDiesel (ct/l) Fuel for a vehicleNatural gas (ct/l) Fuel for a vehicleLPG (ct/l) Fuel for heatingDiesel (ct/l) Fuel for heatingHeavy oil (ct/l) Fuel for heatingLPG (ct/kwh) *ct: euro cent

29 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Solution strategies for biodiversity problems 3) Establishment of new social institutions Examples of Environmental tax The United Kingdom Climate Change Levy (CCL) was introduced from Tax rate (/kwh) LPG Gas or coal Electricity 0.07 pence 0.15 pence 0.43 pence Both countries (UK & Germany) succeeded in reducing consumption of fossil fuels, and environmental taxes concerned with biodiversity conservation are likely to be effective.

30 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Solution strategies for biodiversity problems 4) Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Corporations should have a responsibility to conserve social and natural environments for building a sustainable society. Concept of CSR Panasonic Corporation - Financial support of the Arctic circle project of WWF - Tree planting at schools in the world (700,000 trees in 2008) Sumitomo Forestry CO. LTD - Making available an appropriate and stable supply of sustainable forest resources while placing importance on biodiversity - As a business leader instigating growth in the forestry industry, establish a sound model for both preserving and utilizing our forests. Biodiversity conservation in CSR

31 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Solution strategies for biodiversity problems 5) Reconsideration of our way of thinking Recognition of the value of biodiversity Conservation of biodiversity means supporting our well-being. Biodiversity plays important role for education of feelings. Photo: (right) Echigo-Matsunoyama Museum of Natural Science, Kyororo Children get unique ways of thinking or fertile creativity from mechanisms of organisms or ecosystems.

32 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Solution strategies for biodiversity problems 5) Reconsideration of our way of thinking Ten things to do for the conservation of biodiversity 3. Let children play in the field. 5. Participate in traditional events in your community. 2. Pay attention to nature around you when you walk. 4. Eat foods in season. For recognizing the value of biodiversity… 1. Count the number of species which are used in your daily life.

33 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Solution strategies for biodiversity problems 5) Reconsideration of our way of thinking 6. Choose the products or services of corporations which work on the conservation of biodiversity. 7. Dont abandon foreign pets. For sustainable use of biodiversity… 8. Eat various foods as much as possible. 9. Choose crops which are dealt with by fair trade. 10. Dont take rare species, but take their picture instead. Ten things to do for conservation of biodiversity

34 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Summary 2. Solution strategies for biodiversity problems As for economic solutions, we should construct new economic mechanisms which enable us to choose products considering sustainable uses of biodiversity. Also, a new market which deals with biodiversity should be developed. As for social institutions, new ones such as environmental taxes would be effective for conserving biodiversity. Biodiversity conservation by CSR should be developed. We should realize our daily lives are supported by biodiversity.

35 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Summary of Todays Topics 1. When we think about biodiversity problems, we should consider the following three points: biodiversity supports human well- being, international corporation is essential for the solution of biodiversity problems, and early solutions lessen economical losses. 2. As for the solution strategies for biodiversity problems, the following three measures would be effective: economic mechanisms which give incentives for conservation of biodiversity, new social institutions which regulate utilization of biodiversity, and conservation activities by CSR. However, what is most important is our consciousness. How can we sustainably utilize biodiversity?

36 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Exercises 1. Lets think about concrete methods for solving biodiversity problems. 3. How should we live with biodiversity? Offer your opinion. 2. When a corporation deals with biodiversity conservation as CSR, what are the benefits for that corporation? Lets do the exercises below:

37 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Glossary (1/2) FSC Forest Stewardship Council. The biggest certification authority of forest products. Non-profit organization established in Canada in FSC evaluates whether sustainable use is considered or not in forests or forest products. See Chapter 9 for details.Biofuel Synthesized fuel such as alcohol which is made from organisms. Major materials are crops such as corn, sugar cane, soybeans, etc. Fair trade Involving trade which supports producers in developing countries by paying fair prices and making sure that workers have good working conditions and fair pay.

38 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Glossary (2/2) Wasp which oviposits on the bodies of the other kinds of insects. Hatched larvae live on the insects and eat them, and finally kill them. Parasitic wasp plays an important role as predator of insect pests. Parasitic wasp MSC Marine Stewardship Council. This authority certificates fishery interests which use sustainable methods. In the 1990s, fishing grounds of the walleye pollock in Canadian waters were heavily damaged by excessive fishing. Taking the opportunity, WWF and Unilever established MSC in1997. In 1999, MSC became independent from the two organizations as a non-profit organization.

39 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. References Maleque, M.A., Maeto, K., Makino, S., Goto, H., Tanaka, H., Hasegawa, M. and Miyamoto A. (2010) A chronosequence of understorey parasitic wasp assemblages in secondary broad-leaved forests in a Japanese 'satoyama' landscape. Insect Conservation and Diversity 3: DOI: /j x Tanaka A. (1996) The role of mitigation in EIA Systems-Comparison of Japanese and American Experiences-IAIA96 Conference Proceedings 1: Maleque, M.A., Maeto, K., Makino, S., Goto, H., Tanaka, H., Hasegawa, M. and Miyamoto A. (2010) A chronosequence of understorey parasitic wasp assemblages in secondary broad-leaved forests in a Japanese 'satoyama' landscape. Insect Conservation and Diversity 3: DOI: /j x Tanaka A. (1996) The role of mitigation in EIA Systems-Comparison of Japanese and American Experiences-IAIA96 Conference Proceedings 1:

40 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Cited Websites Business and Biodiversity Offset Programme Deustches Generalkonsulat Osaka-Kobe, Japan FoE Japan Nikkei Inc. Panasonic Corporate Sumitomo CO. LTD. The British Embassy Business and Biodiversity Offset Programme Deustches Generalkonsulat Osaka-Kobe, Japan FoE Japan Nikkei Inc. Panasonic Corporate Sumitomo CO. LTD. The British Embassy

41 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Authors & Credits The Futurability of Biodiversity Chapter 11 How can we sustainably utilize biodiversity? Authors Application software Illustration & design Photos Tohru Nakashizuka Masahiro Ichikawa Stewart Wachs Microsoft PowerPoint ® Be4°TECH Biodiversity Photos Echigo-Matsunoyama Museum of Natural Science, Kyororo Hiromitsu Samejima Keizo Hirai Masahiro Ichikawa National Institute for Environmental Studies Ryo Tsujino Toyooka city, Hyogo prefecture Yasunori Maezono Kaoru Maeto Masahiro Aiba Tohru Nakashizuka Wataru Fujita Aya Hatada Satoshi Yamashita Martin Piddington


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