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Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. How can we conserve biodiversity? – Ecological methodologies The Futurability.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. How can we conserve biodiversity? – Ecological methodologies The Futurability."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. How can we conserve biodiversity? – Ecological methodologies The Futurability of Biodiversity Chapter 8 Plan 1 Keep off their home range Plan 3 Artificially feed their chicks Plan 2 Keep off their nesting place Lets conserve golden eagles. Choosing Plan 2 and practicing it Practicing a measure and monitoring it Deciding the purpose Forming measures Monitoring Population sizes of golden eagles, other animals… Estimating the changes caused by the measures and reexamining measures How can we conserve biodiversity? - Ecological methodologies -

2 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. In review Biodiversity enriches our lives (food, regulation of environments, culture, economics, etc.). However, biodiversity is in a state of crisis now (biological extinction, influences of human activities).

3 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Todays Topics 1. Principles of ecosystem managements What should we be conscious of in ecosystem managements? Precautionary and adaptive managements How should we manage ecosystems for conservation of biodiversity?

4 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. What should we be conscious of in ecosystem managements? 1) Importance of precautionary and adaptive managements 2) Principles of adaptive management 1. Principles of ecosystem managements

5 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. What has happened once is sometimes irrecoverable. Why are precautionary and adaptive managements essential? 2. We cannot predict every effect caused by changes that occur in an ecosystem. 1. Principles of ecosystem managements 1) Importance of precautionary and adaptive managements

6 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Level of species (Example) Extinction What has happened once is sometimes irrecoverable. Level of ecosystem (Example) Destruction of tropical rainforest Japanese wolf, Canis lupus hodophilax, eradicated about 100 years ago 1. Principles of ecosystem managements 1) Importance of precautionary and adaptive managements A cutover area in Sarawak, Malaysia Photo: (left) taken by Hidefumi Kuwabara, owned by Wakayama University

7 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. It is essential to take measures suited to the ecological changes. Competition (Paine 1966) Predation MusselsBarnacles 1. Principles of ecosystem managements 1) Importance of precautionary and adaptive managements We cannot predict every effect caused by changes that occur in an ecosystem.

8 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Plan 2 Keep off their nesting place The process of adaptive managements 1. Principles of ecosystem managements 2) Principles of precautionary and adaptive managements Plan 1 Keep off their home range Plan 3 Artificial feeding of their chicks Choosing Plan 2 and practicing it Practicing a measure and monitoring it Lets conserve golden eagles. Deciding the purposeForming measures Monitoring Population sizes of golden eagles, other animals… Estimating the changes caused by the measure & reexamining measures

9 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Regionality We should utilize species of the target area as much as possible, and avoid introducing a population from another area. 1. Diversity Biodiversity in a conserved area should be restored or recovered. 3. Genetic variation We should attempt not to disturb the genetic composition of the population in the target area. 4. Precaution When scientific evidence is insufficient, we should avoid taking action which may bring irreversible effects. (Ecological Society of Japan 2004) Principles of ecosystem managements 1. Principles of ecosystem managements 2) Principles of precautionary and adaptive managements

10 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Diversity an example of reconstructing an ecosystem Asaza (water fringe) project in Kasumigaura, Japan 1. Principles of ecosystem managements 2) Principles of precautionary and adaptive managements Flower of Asaza (Nymphoides peltata) Photo & Illustration: Nonprofit Organization Asaza Fund

11 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Regionality & Genetic variation an example of recovering a symbolic species Photo: Yasunori Maezono 1. Principles of ecosystem managements 2) Principle of precautionary and adaptive managements Firefly (Luciola cruciata)

12 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Genetic variation in Luciola cruciata Northeastern group Kanto group Central group Southwestern Honshu group Northern Kyushu group Southern Kyushu group (Suzuki 2001) 1. Principles of ecosystem managements 2) Principles of precautionary and adaptive managements

13 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Photo: Yasunori Maezono 1. Principles of ecosystem managements 2) Principles of precautionary and adaptive managements Black bass (Micropterus salmoides) Precaution an example of irrecoverable results

14 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Changes in ecosystems are often irreversible, and we cannot predict every effect caused by such changes. It is essential to take measures suited to the current situation. When we manage an ecosystem, we should consider diversity, regionality and genetic variation in the ecosystem, and avoid taking any action which may cause irreversible effects. Summary 1. Principles of ecosystem managements

15 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. How should we manage ecosystems to conserve their biodiversity? 1) Grasp the situations (monitoring) 2) Conserve individual species Within habitats/outside of habitats 3) Conserve the ecosystem Establish refuges, corridors and devices for sustainable use 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements

16 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 1) Grasp of the situations (monitoring) What should be measured by monitoring? Components and conditions of ecosystem: land use, etc. Physical or biological indicators: nutrients in soils, number of species, etc. Ecosystem functions: net production, etc. (Example) Changes of land use during 34 years in Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia Primary forest (hilly land) Swamp forest Secondary forest Rice field Logging forest

17 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Providing information about changes in important ecosystem processes and human wellbeing' Requirements of suitable indicators for monitoring 2. Reflecting important changes 3. Getting highly reliable data 4. Being easily understood by policymakers 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 1) Grasp of the situations (monitoring)

18 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Conservation of individual species 1. Evaluation of risks of extinction 4. Artificial breeding of animals and reintroduction 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 2) Conservation of individual species Within habitats 2. Indicator species 3. Unique species Outside of habitats 5. Preservation of plants seeds

19 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Conservation within habitats 1. Evaluation of risks of extinction 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 2) Conservation of individual species Critically Endangered (CR) (See Chapter 3) Endangered (EN) Vulnerable (VU) Near Threatened (NT) Least Concern (LC) Categories of endangered species Risks of extinction

20 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. The refuge for yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes antipodes, which is categorized as Endangered (New Zealand) 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 2) Conservation of individual species

21 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Umbrella species Species which needs a large habitat. Environment in which the species can survive is expected to have various species. Photo: Yasunori Maezono 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 2) Conservation of individual species Owl (Strix uralensis) Conservation within habitats 2. Indicator species, which can be used for judging conditions of ecosystems

22 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Flagship species Species well-known by many people. When a certain habitat needs to be conserved, the flagship species is used as a symbol for conservation. Koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) Photo: Yasunori Maezono Column 1: Flagship species

23 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Relict (living fossil) Species which retains characteristics of ancestors from several hundreds of thousands of years before 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 2) Conservation of individual species Tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) Conservation within habitats 3. Unique species which is taxonomically and evolutionarily uncommon Indigenous species Native species whose habitats are limited to a certain area

24 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Photo: Toyooka city, Hyogo prefecture 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 2) Conservation of individual species Oriental stork (Ciconia boyciana) Conservation outside of habitats 4. Artificial breeding of animals and reintroduction species eradicated locally are bred and reintroduced

25 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Access date: 6, July Precautionary and adaptive managements 2) Conservation of individual species Conservation outside of habitats 5. Preservation of plants seeds

26 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Conservation of an ecosystem Establishment of refuges - Why are refuges needed? - Where is the most important refuge? - What is a desirable design for a refuge? - What should we do outside of refuges? 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 3) Conservation of an ecosystem Establishment of corridors Devices for sustainable use 1. Regular rotation of logging sites 2. Reduced Impact Logging (RIL)

27 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. In a refuge, human activities which degrade biodiversity (destruction of habitat, illegal exploitation of resources, introduction of alien species, etc.) are inhibited. Primary forest (National Park) Oil palm plantation 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 3) Conservation of an ecosystem Establishment of refuges Why are refuges needed?

28 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Biodiversity hotspots 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 3) Conservation of an ecosystem 75% of endangered species of mammals, birds and amphibians inhabit biodiversity hotspots. We can find 50% of vascular plant species and 42% of terrestrial vertebrate species in biodiversity hotspots. Establishment of refuges Where is the most important refuge? Conservation International

29 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. This area suffers edge effects 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 3) Conservation of an ecosystem Establishment of refuges - What is a desirable design for a refuge (ecological aspects)? Large area is desirable. …Rate of extinction is lower in large area (see graph). When total area is the same, a round shape is desirable (see drawing). … The area that suffers edge effects is smaller in a round shape. Rate of extinction of mammals inhabiting national parks in US (Newmark 1995)

30 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. insideoutside Forest edge humiddry appropriate lightsevere light slight windstrong wind Edge effects In a forest edge, environmental conditions are different from those inside the forest. Some species cannot inhabit the forest edge. Column 2: Edge effects In a forest edge, predators or competitors easily invade, and living organisms go outside.

31 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Refuges are divided into three areas according to the intensity of human utilization. Buffer area Transition area (Human activities are permitted to some extent.) 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 3) Conservation of an ecosystem Establishment of refuges - What is a desirable design for a refuge (influences by human activities)? Core area (No human activities are permitted.) Outside the refuge (UNESCOs Man and the Biosphere Program, See Chapter 9)

32 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. (Example) Giant honeybee - Primary pollinator in tropical rainforest in Southeast Asia - Migratory honeybee Swidden and secondary forest Hilly forest Swamp forest Giant honeybees usually inhabit swamp forest, and move to hilly forest at the beginning of general flowering. - Biodiversity is high. - Protected as national park. - Many plant species are pollinated by giant honeybees. For the protection of tropical rainforest, managements that include refuges surroundings are essential. (Samejima et al. unpublished data) 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 3) Conservation of an ecosystem Photo: (upper) Tamiji Inoue Establishment of refuges - What should we do outside of refuges? - Biodiversity is low.

33 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. - Connecting fragmental habitats by corridors, which enable wild animals to move between these habitats. 1. Wild animals can easily move between isolated habitats. Expected effectiveness 2. Exchanges of genes between isolated habitats are promoted, conserving genetic variation. Pullin 2002 (Pullin 2002) 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 3) Conservation of an ecosystem Establishment of corridors

34 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Photos: Obihiro University of Agriculture & Veterinary Medicine - Hisashi Yanagawa Devices for Russian flying squirrel (Pteromys valans orii) - pole for gliding and log as pathway Column 3: Devices which eliminate barriers to movement for organisms Pole for gliding constructed along Obihiro-Hiroo Expressway

35 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. The area of a large forest has been divided into several sections. Since logging and planting are done one section at a time, the whole area contains various ages of forest. Thus, biodiversity in the large area is conserved. Photo: Keitaro Fukushima Young forest Old forest 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 3) Conservation of an ecosystem Devices for sustainable use 1. Regular rotation of logging site

36 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Trees are logged according to a detailed plan, and carefully carried away so as not to damage the forest. 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 3) Conservation of an ecosystem Devices for sustainable use 2. Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) RILUsual method

37 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Comparison: number of species according to logging methods Diversity of tree species is higher with RIL. (Seino et al., unpublished data) 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 3) Conservation of an ecosystem Devices for sustainable use 2. Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) Number of species per 0.2 ha

38 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Number of mammal species examined by automatic infrared camera Number of species Diversity of mammal species is also higher with RIL. (Matsubayashi, unpublished data) 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements 3) Conservation of an ecosystem Devices for sustainable use 2. Reduced Impact Logging (RIL)

39 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Monitoring investigates the situations of indicator species and ecosystem functions for the purpose of (re)considering the measures used in managements. Individual species are conserved both within and outside of habitats based on evaluation of their risks of extinction. In some cases, conservation of a certain species means conservation of the whole ecosystem. For conservation of ecosystems, establishment of refuges is effective. In areas surrounding refuges, devices for sustainable use are needed. Summary 2. Precautionary and adaptive managements

40 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Summary of Todays Topics 1. Changes in an ecosystem are sometimes irreversible, and their effects are difficult to predict completely. Therefore, precautionary and adaptive managements are desirable. 2.When we manage an ecosystem, we should consider the areas biodiversity, regionality and genetic variation. 3. When we practice precautionary and adaptive managements, we should use the most effective methods for conserving the target species, guided by careful monitoring. How can we conserve biodiversity? - Ecological methodologies -

41 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Exercises 1. In Australia, an increase in camels (Camelus dromedarius), which were introduced in the 19 th century, has brought desertification. How can we decrease the number of camels? Think up a plan and how to monitor your progress. Lets do the exercises below:

42 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Exercises 2.Think up plans for conserving the orangutan under the following hypothetical situations: a) Number of mature individuals is about 1000 (VU level). b) Number of mature individuals is about 250 (EN level). c) Number of mature individuals is about 50 (CR level). Lets do the exercises below:

43 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Glossary Method which evaluates the risk of extinction by the rate of decrease in population size, the area of habitats, etc. The results are reported in the form of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (IUCN: International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) Evaluation of risks of extinction The amount of organic matter which is found by the following formula: (the total amount of organic matter produced by photosynthesis for a certain period in a forest) – (the amount of organic matter which has been consumed by respiration of the forest) Net production

44 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. References Newmark, W.D. (1995) Extinction of mammal populations in western North American national parks. Conservation Biology 9: Extinction of mammal populations in western North American national parks. Conservation Biology 9: Paine, R. T. (1966) Food web complexity and species diversity. American Naturalist 100:65-75 Suzuki, H. (2001) Studies on biological diversity of firefly in Japan. International Journal of Industrial Entomology 2: Ecological Society of Japan (ed.) (2004) Entrance of Ecology. Tokyo – Kagaku-Doujin. (In Japanese) Pullin, A.S. (2002) Conservation Biology. Cambridge University Press. Newmark, W.D. (1995) Extinction of mammal populations in western North American national parks. Conservation Biology 9: Extinction of mammal populations in western North American national parks. Conservation Biology 9: Paine, R. T. (1966) Food web complexity and species diversity. American Naturalist 100:65-75 Suzuki, H. (2001) Studies on biological diversity of firefly in Japan. International Journal of Industrial Entomology 2: Ecological Society of Japan (ed.) (2004) Entrance of Ecology. Tokyo – Kagaku-Doujin. (In Japanese) Pullin, A.S. (2002) Conservation Biology. Cambridge University Press.

45 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Cited Websites Conservation International Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and human wellbeing' Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew change/millennium-seed-bank/index.htm Conservation International Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and human wellbeing' Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew change/millennium-seed-bank/index.htm

46 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Authors & Credits Authors The Futurability of Biodiversity Chapter 8 How can we conserve biodiversity? - Ecological methodologies - Hidefumi Kuwabara Kanehiro Kitayama Nonprofit organization Asaza Fund Tamiji Inoue Yasunori Maezono Satoshi Yamashita Naoki Agetsuma Yayoi Takeuchi Kentaro Kanazawa Stewart Wachs Application software CutPRO3 Real tough. Animal and Insect version Design Office Kyowa) Microsoft PowerPoint ® Illustration & designBe4°TECH Koubou Yecoruka Photos Data providersHiromitsu Samejima Masaaki Takyu Shin-ichiro Aiba Biodiversity Photos Hiromitsu Samejima Kentaro Fukushima Satoshi Yamashita Toyooka city, Hyogo prefecture Wakayama University Chiharu Niiyama Hisashi Yanagawa Michiko Nakagawa Shoko Sakai Kanehiro Kitayama Naoshi Matsubayashi Tatsuyuki Seino Hiromitsu Samejima Mitsue Shibata Masaaki Takyu Aya Hatada Martin Piddington


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