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28-7-2014 Challenge the future Delft University of Technology Thermal collector facade A refurbishment strategy for high rise building typologies by :

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Presentation on theme: "28-7-2014 Challenge the future Delft University of Technology Thermal collector facade A refurbishment strategy for high rise building typologies by :"— Presentation transcript:

1 Challenge the future Delft University of Technology Thermal collector facade A refurbishment strategy for high rise building typologies by : Shilesh Hariharan, Building Technology External Mentor – Mr. Franklin van der Hoeven Permasteelisa guide – Mr. Stijn Schouwenaars First Mentor – Mr. Tillmann Klein Second Mentor – Mr. Arjen van Timmeren

2 2 Titel van de presentatie Permasteelisa Group (PG) Solar thermal collector systems inside their unitized facades. Building envelope and Cladding specialist Introduction Solar blinds Semi transparent solar thermal collectors Vacuum tube collectors

3 3 Titel van de presentatie Primary energy consumption 49% of primary energy consumption utilized for space heating 80% of this lies underneath 250°C, which can be powered by solar thermal systems Introduction

4 4 Titel van de presentatie Need for refurbishment 2/3 rd of office buildings in Western Europe are older than 30 years Introduction Refurbishment of buildings can save up to 75% of energy The EU has an indicative target of 20% improved energy efficiency and binding targets of a 20% use of renewable energy and a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, all by 2020 (EuroACE) Russig 1999Ebbert 2010

5 5 Titel van de presentatie Location in focus Introduction 61° June 22 14° December 22 Primary focus of study in London (UK) United Kingdom, Netherlands, Germany with same North Atlantic Oceanic climate United Kingdom Sun angle Solar irradiance

6 6 Titel van de presentatie 1. Solar thermal collectors

7 7 Titel van de presentatie Solar thermal collectors Trap incident solar heat radiation, in a storable and usable medium, for generation of consumable form of energy. Usage: Solar thermal energy

8 8 Titel van de presentatie Vacuum tube collectors Double glass tubes with vacuum created between the glass layers, reducing conduction & convection heat loss Efficiency of the entire collector unit of the order or 40 to 60%. Medium temperature heating (75°C - 150°C) Solar thermal collectors Direct flow vacuum tube collectorsHeat pipe Air vacuum tube collectors

9 9 Titel van de presentatie Solar thermal collectors Use of heat energy for the production of chiller water using Sorption Chillers used in building HVAC systems. Green, clean and free energy Space cooling Direct Fired Lithium Bromide Absorption Chiller

10 10 Titel van de presentatie State of the art of solar thermal collector

11 11 Titel van de presentatie Sorption chillers have very low efficiency. So need a lot of energy for production of chilled water Roof area of high rise not enough to provide hot water needed for space cooling Façade become the only option for large scale integration of solar thermal collectors Space cooling Solar thermal collectors

12 12 Titel van de presentatie 2. Collector facade

13 13 Titel van de presentatie Collector facade Unitized facade Unitized façade are a type of curtain wall façade which consists of a single structural frame on to which any in-fill elements can be added to make up a unit. Unitized elements are hung from horizontal cleats installed on the main structural system of the building Unitized elements are hung from bottom - up, interlocking every element with the one above it with the help of a tongue and groove setting

14 14 Titel van de presentatie Collector facade Unitized façade + & - 1.Very high efficiency 2.State of the art technology 3.Integration of Building service components 4.Low labour and fast assembly at site 5.Accuracy and perfection owing to factory production 6.Longer life span 7.Ease of replacement and repair of units 8.Ease of maintenance 9.Cost effective in large scale production 10.Modern and trendy with huge design possibilities 11.Custom made identity to building 1.Transportation of units from factory to site 2.Scale of the project: too costly for small buildings 3.If material is damaged during transportation, might lead not only the replacement of the material, but possibly entails re-manufacturing of the entire element.

15 15 Titel van de presentatie Collector facade Solar thermal collector 3 types of solar thermal collectors considered for unitized integration 1.Vacuum tube collectors 2.Semi-transparent solar thermal collector (© Permasteelisa group) 3.Solar blinds thermal collector (© Permasteelisa group)

16 16 Titel van de presentatie Collector facade Semi-transparent solar thermal collector (TSTC) As the name indicates, these are semi transparent thin nature, providing selective vision when viewed at 30° angle. 1.They provide effective sun shading and glare protection 2.The approximate weight of a 3m x 1.7m TSTC panel that is 1.5mm thick having 21 pipes at 76mm centre to centre weights around 33.5 Kg.

17 17 Titel van de presentatie Collector facade Solar blinds collector Aluminium, extruded thin louvers, coated with selective absorption coating on both side. 2 type of collectors possible Only tiltable collectors Retractable & Tiltable collectors The approximate weight of a 30 blinds of 100mmx1700mm that are 1mm thick having copper heat pipes of dia 15mm weights around 15.5 Kg.

18 18 Titel van de presentatie Collector facade Collector configurations Façade Size collectors Window collector Parapet collector Spandrel collector Collector façade combination with 3 identified types of solar thermal collectors can be placed within unitized façade in 13 different ways.

19 19 Titel van de presentatie Collector facade Collector configurations Vacuum tube collectors Semi-transparent solar thermal collector Solar blind collector

20 20 Titel van de presentatie Collector facade Design issues – Integrated concepts Installations such as Cooling ceiling, Thermally Activated Building Mass systems (TABS) are a integral part of solar cooling concept They increase the efficiency of solar cooling

21 21 Titel van de presentatie Collector facade Design issues – Façade radiation Semi-transparent Solar thermal collector & solar blinds inside a closed cavity have a working temperature of 80°C Inner glass layer of collector façade have temperature range of 29°C

22 22 Titel van de presentatie Collector facade Design issues – Maintenance Maintenance for collector system are designed to be accessed internally from the building

23 23 Titel van de presentatie Collector facade Test model & Simulation 50m x 50m building ;40 stories high (165m) with Semi transparent solar thermal collector in S, E & W facades, along spandrel & parapet of unitized facade. Area of collector in one unitized façade (53.5%) Location : Frankfurt

24 24 Titel van de presentatie Collector facade Test model & Simulation

25 25 Titel van de presentatie Collector facade Architectural expression

26 26 Titel van de presentatie Collector facade Architectural expression

27 27 Titel van de presentatie 3. High rise office façade Refurbishment

28 28 Titel van de presentatie Collector Refurbishment Façade typologies Dr.-Ing. Thiemo Ebbert, a PhD researcher from TU Delft, dealt with the technical refurbishment of Western European post-war office facades. EU backed project, co-ordinated by Fraunhofer Institute for Solare Energie Systeme ISE, in partnership with 23 other organisations and companies, in which Permasteelisa Group a partner.

29 29 Titel van de presentatie Collector Refurbishment Re-face Façade typology Classification of office façade typologies based on 3 identified characters. 22 façade typologies in total Focus of study in the countries of Unitied Kingdom (UK), Netherlands (NL) and Germany (GER)

30 30 Titel van de presentatie Collector Refurbishment Cost-Effective project Identified 5 façade categories Categories ranked based on their energy consuming

31 31 Titel van de presentatie Collector Refurbishment Identified high rise façade typologies 3 Façade typologies identified based on the structural nature of existing façade. Typology 1 : Presence of planar load bearing elements such as massive concrete parapets and beam projection in building facade Typology 2: Skeletal structure, façades with just floor slab and column, without the presence of any planar elements Typology 3: ‘Parapet + window’ façade typology having pre-cast non load bearing parapets attached to floor slab of buildings.

32 32 Titel van de presentatie Collector Refurbishment Collector façade analysis Analysis of collector facades as refurbishment of identified façade typologies based on 2 aspects 1.Technical feasibility Maintenance Piping 2.Architectural aspects Transparency

33 33 Titel van de presentatie Collector Refurbishment Typology 1 –Planar facade Massive structural parapets that cannot be removed Unitize façade have to be fixed on these planar elements in front of them Tomado house Rotterdam (NL)

34 34 Titel van de presentatie Collector Refurbishment Typology 1 –Planar facade Outside access Maintenance Below floor or above ceiling Parapet level Piping Increase Same Reduced Transparency

35 35 Titel van de presentatie Type 1 – Double skin facade with vacuum tube collectors in parapet area

36 36 Titel van de presentatie Type 1 – Double skin facade with vacuum tube collectors in parapet area Merits Feasibility of climate skin concepts and natural ventilation for maintenance of internal comfort Venetian blinds in cavity are ideal for solar shading Higher user satisfaction can be achieved if the units are integrated with an openable windows Use of commercially available collector system makes it easy to repair and replace De-merits Fragile collector elements have to be transported and installed with extensive care.

37 37 Titel van de presentatie Type 13 – Double skin facade with Retractable and only Tiltable solar blinds up to parapet

38 38 Titel van de presentatie Type 13 – Double skin facade with Retractable and only Tiltable solar blinds up to parapet Merits They are extremely flexible design solution, with option to create highly transparent and near opaque facades according to need Seamless aesthetic integration of collector system inside the facade unit High level of visual comfort Minimal change to interior, natural lighting conditions De-merits These units have a extremely complicated construction and working principle Facade radiation of these collector facade if of major concern Not possible to integrate openable windows or any climate skin concept due to closed cavity nature of facade.

39 39 Titel van de presentatie Type 14 – Parapet collector units with vacuum tube collectors

40 40 Titel van de presentatie Collector Refurbishment Typology 2 –Skeletal facade Clear façade structure without the presence of any planar structural element Ideal for Unitized refurbishment owing to possibility to hang structure from floor slab Main Tower Frankfurt am Main (GER)

41 41 Titel van de presentatie Collector Refurbishment Typology 1 –Planar facade Outside access Maintenance Below floor or above ceiling Parapet level Piping Increase Same Reduced Transparency

42 42 Titel van de presentatie Type 9 – Double skin facade with TSTC collector over complete facade

43 43 Titel van de presentatie Type 9 – Double skin facade with TSTC collector over complete facade Merits They prevent direct sun shine, glare and overheating of interiors. They allow vision through the collector unit at a certain angle De-merits Facade radiation of these collector facade if of major concern Reduced amount of day lighting inside the building

44 44 Titel van de presentatie Type 10 – Double skin facades with Retractable and only Tiltable solar blinds

45 45 Titel van de presentatie Type 10 – Double skin facades with Retractable and only Tiltable solar blinds Merits They are extremely flexible design solution, with option to create highly transparent and near opaque facades according to need Seamless aesthetic integration of collector system inside the facade unit High level of visual comfort Minimal change to interior, natural lighting conditions De-merits These units have a extremely complicated construction and working principle Facade radiation of these collector facade if of major concern Not possible to integrate openable windows or any climate skin concept due to closed cavity nature of facade.

46 46 Titel van de presentatie Collector Refurbishment Typology 3 –Parapet + Window facade Pre case non load bearing concrete parapet attached to the floor slab They cannot be loaded with any utilizable façade as refurbishment Therefore Parapet collector units are only possible Bielefeld University Bielefeld (GER)

47 47 Titel van de presentatie 4. Conclusion

48 48 Titel van de presentatie

49 49 Titel van de presentatie General conclusion Solar thermal collector systems integrated inside unitized facades, provide immense possibilities for design innovation. Production of these units, being done in a factory line, provides space for design detailing without any compromise on their quality. Collector facade systems designed to harness solar thermal energy, become effective energy generation options only when designed with various integrated concepts the aspect of facade radiation is of at most concern at this point of time, which has to be corrected before realization of collector facades. Collector facades refurbishment of buildings on a whole depends on the nature of facade to be refurbished. Unitized facades being a type of Curtain wall facade are ideal refurbishment solutions for buildings initially designed for such facade systems.


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