2What is Geothermal Energy? Geothermal energy is a form of renewable energy derived from heat deep in the earth's crust.Geothermal Energy has been around for as long as the Earth has existed. "Geo" means earth, and "thermal" means heat. So, geothermal means earth-heat.Geothermal energy is called a renewable energy source because the water is replenished by rainfall, and the heat is continuously produced by the earth.The entire world resource base of geothermal energy has been calculated in government surveys to be larger than the resource bases of coal, oil, gas and uranium combined.
3Where Can Geothermal Energy be Found Geothermal power is generated in over 20 countries around the world including Iceland, the United States, Italy, France, Lithuania, New Zealand, Mexico, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Russia, the Philippines, Indonesia, the People's Republic of China and Japan.Even though geothermal energy is technically a finite resource, the typical lifetime for geothermal activity around magmatic centers - from 5,000 years to 1,000,000 years - is so long that it is considered a renewable resource.A common way in which geothermal energy is obtained is through tapping into hydrothermal sites, also called geothermal springs. These sites are geologically active places where water seeps into the Earth's crust and is heated by the Earth's interior, rising to the surface as steam.For every 100 meters you go below ground, the temperature of the rock increases about 3 degrees Celsius. Or for every 328 feet below ground, the temperature increases 5.4 degrees Fahrenheit.New facilities can produce electricity from geothermal energy for between 4.5 and 7.3 cents per kilowatt-hour, making it competitive with new conventional fossil fuel-fired power plants.Iceland is situated in an area with a high concentration of volcanoes, making it an ideal location for generating geothermal energy. Over 26% of Iceland's electrical energy is generated from geothermal sources. In addition, geothermal heating is used to heat 87% of homes in Iceland. Icelanders plan to be 100% non-fossil fuel in the near future.
4How can Geothermal Energy be Used? First of all, you have the geothermal heat pump; this is where you are going to have three levels of geothermal. Geothermal heat pumps are pretty much used for heating and cooling. So that can be in any heating and cooling application that you can think of. That could include snow melting where pipes are buried in concrete slabs. There are some applications around where we have greenhouses that use the hot water directly for heating. There is an agricultural application, which is fish farming. There have been uses of crop drying, like tomato drying and garlic and onion drying. Some people are using a geothermal heat to produce ethanol and bio-fuels. There are all kinds of processes like that; any process that uses high temperature of heat, say below 200 Fahrenheit. When we get above that, we can use geothermal power plants to drive turbines to make electricity. These are the three levels of geothermal in a nutshell.Hot rocks underground heat water to produce steam.We drill holes down to the hot region, steam comes up, is purified and used to drive turbines, which drive electric generators.There may be natural "groundwater" in the hot rocks anyway, or we may need to drill more holes and pump water down to them.The first geothermal power station was built at Landrello, in Italy, and the second was at Wairekei in New Zealand. Others are in Iceland, Japan, the Philippines and the United States.In Iceland, geothermal heat is used to heat houses as well as for generating electricity.If the rocks aren't hot enough to produce steam we can sometimes still use the energy - the Civic Centre in Southampton, England, is partly heated this way as part of a district heating scheme with thousands of customers..
5Geothermal Energy and The World Ft.ChinaFranceAustralia
6China: Geothermal Energy Stocks Geothermal energy exploitation in China started approximately around In the socialist planned economy geothermal exploration was handled by national bodies with public investments. Drilled productive wells were transferred free of charge to the final user. Since the mid-'80s, under the framework of privatization and liberalization of the economy, national investment in exploration has been reduced. No new plants have been commissioned in the period (Zheng et al., 2005; Battocletti et al., 2000).The only electricity producing fields are located in Tibet. According to the "2005 Chinese Geothermal Environment Bulletin" by China's Ministry of Land and Resources, the direct utilization of geothermal energy in China will reach cubic meters per second, and the geothermal energy will reach 10,779 megawatts, ranking first in the world . However such program has not been started so far.
7China: Geothermal Energy Usage Direct uses Total thermal installed capacity in MWt: 3,687.0Direct use in TJ/yr: 45,373.0Direct use in GW·h/yr: 12,604.6Capacity factor: 0.39This country is again one of the major users of the direct-use of geothermal energy. Zheng et al. (2005) discusses the latest developments. It appears that along with the restructuring of the economy, national investment in geothermal has decreased. However, as the living standard of the population has risen, geothermal has found favor in that the waters are used more for health, tourism, and balneology in various hot springs. Investors are looking to increase their investment, which has led to an upsurge in geothermal drilling and utilization particularly in the coastal regions of Beijing and Tianjin. The management of the resource also plays a big role particularly in the large cities. Here, efficiency in utilization has improved dramatically and environmental concerns are being addressed. For example, in Beijing the total rate of extraction of hot water has been kept stable and has even decreased slightly but energy utilization in terms of GWh produced has increased significantly. The data of Zheng et al. (2005) show that for the whole of China the installed capacity has risen to 3,687 MWt with an annual energy use of 45,373 TJ/yr (including 15 heat pump units ranging from 220 to 760-kW in capacity operating at an equivalent 2,880 full-load hours annually), from the 2000 (Lund and Freeston, 2001) figures of 2,282 MWt and 37,908 TJ/yr an increase in annual energy use of about 20%.
8China: Geothermal Energy Future Usage Geothermal space heating covers million m2 and greenhouse heating cover about 1.33 million m2. There are about 1,600 public hot spring bathing houses and swimming pools, including about 430 where balneology and medical practices prevail in the country. The details of the specific uses are as follows: district heating (550 MWt and 6,391 TJ/yr); greenhouse heating (103 MWt and 1,176 TJ/yr); fish farming (174 MWt and 1,921 TJ/yr); agricultural drying (80 MWt and 1,007 TJ/yr); industrial process heat (139 MWt and 2,603 TJ/yr); bathing and swimming (1,991 MWt and 25,095 TJ/yr); other uses (monitoring) (19 MWt and 611 TJ/yr); and heat pumps (631 MWt and 6,569 TJ/yr).China continues to improve their geothermal energy supplyOne way is that they have plans on a mega reservoir that contains and supply their electricityAnother way is that China is putting a lot of money into helping the U.S with their supply of geothermal energy. China plans on using geothermal energy to power everything in their country.
9What can China Do?Speakers from countries seeking more indigenous energy sources told of projects in operation or under way in Nicaragua, the Philippines, Indonesia, New Zealand, Iceland, Romania, Germany, Chile, Colombia and much of East Africa, where the Rift Valley offers huge resources. Ernesto Martinez Tiffer, President of the National Electric Co. of Nicaragua, said his nation currently gets 70% of its annual 3,000 gig watt-hours from petroleum fuels and 30% from renewable. With new wind, hydropower, and geothermal plants being built, he said, "in five years we hope to invert that."GEA Executive Director, said geothermal still costs more, at least initially. But Martinez and experts from other nations said with the high price of oil, domestic geothermal is economic.Mike Allen, Chair of Geothermal New Zealand, said geothermal in his nation is used for both electricity and industrial process heat, in a "totally deregulated" power market with "absolutely no government incentives."
10France: Geothermal Energy Stocks The other major turbine supplier to present was Pratt & Whitney, a division of United Technologies (UTX). Pratt& Whitney purchased Turboden in adding full size binary turbines to their small-scale mass produced PureCycle offering (I discussed PureCycle in more depth in my 2007 overview of Geothermal power.) Turboden is a European supplier of ORC turbine with 30 years experience and 174 plants installed mostly in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Most of their existing plants run off biomass and waste heat, but they have made sales in geothermal, in Germany, Austria, and France. Despite Turbo den's limited experience in geothermal markets, Pratt& Whitney's strong balance sheet and deep experience in power generation markets mean the company has to be considered a serious contender for geothermal power plants, and their competitive offerings are likely to grow stronger as they develop a longer track record in geothermal power generation.
11France: Geothermal Energy Usage France has developed rapidly the geothermal energy sector during the 80's due to a number of favorable factors mainly including attractive economic conditions, appropriate government policies and organizational structure. Followed then a period of withdrawal during the 1990's marked by very little new activity. For some years France is in a new phase of boost in activity since following the Kyoto Agreement, and the decision taken in France to resume an active policy for energy management and the development of renewable energies. Over the coming years, these activities should continue in a sustainable manner, following the implementation of the French Energy Law in 2005 and the "Grenelle de l' environment" process launched in 2007.Geothermal energy resources, developed for direct thermal applications, are mainly located in the two major sedimentary basins: the Paris Basin and the Aquitaine Basin. The recourses are found at depths between 600 and 2,000 m. Other French regions also have high potential for low- energy resources, but the geological structures are more complex and the fields much more localized and less known.In Paris area 34 doublets exploiting the Dogger aquifer work for more than 20 years to feed 29 geothermal production plants for district heating. These 34 doublets, with a total installed capacity of around 240 MWth, deliver each year over 1,100 GWh of geothermal heat (120,000 dwellings heated). This performance is obtained from the Dogger reservoir at an average depth of 1,500 to 2,000 m, containing a mineralized fluid (20g/l eq. NaCL) at an average temperature of 73 oC.
12France: Geothermal Energy Future Usage New wells were drilled in and 2008 to increase the geothermal production and further operations are on study. The objective is at least the doubling of the geothermal production in the next 10 years.An Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) scientific pilot plant module was coming into operation end 2008, following the R&D works conducted on the Soultz- sous-Foret site since 1987France also possesses high- energy resources that are potentially exploitable for electricity production. These are located essentially in its Overseas Departments (the volcanic islands of the French West Indies - Guadeloupe and Martinique - and the Indian Ocean - La Reunion) A 15 MW capacity power plant is in operation at Bouillant in Gouadeloupe since 2004, this represents 8% of the total electricity consumption in the island.
13What can France Do?France is now working on a geothermal energy power plant in southern FranceFrance can also improve on their energy mining unit.It is just a group of miners that found geothermal energy while mining for goldTheir geothermal energy plant is in northern France. It is still an older version of a geothermal plantIt can be updated to improve productionAnother thing France can do is to try to use only one energy rescource. France right now is using multiple energy sources. It will help them immensly because it will limit them to make a bigger plant
14Australia: Geothermal Energy Stocks Australia is not rich in geothermal resources, unlike, say, neighboring New Zealand. Only one 120KW geothermal energy plant (in Birdsville, Queensland) exists in the entire country.However, since 2001 a growing number of companies have embarked on exploration projects, and a government official has stated that geothermal energy could provide as much as 6.8 per cent of Australia’s base load power requirements by 2030.Of particular interest to the explorers are the hot fractured rock deposits of Central Australia, also referred to as Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). These are granite systems that at great depth – often as much as five kilometres – are as hot as 280 degrees Celsius. Water injected into these systems returns as steam, and can be harnessed for power generation.The Australian government has identified EGS as a technology in which Australia is a world leader. According to the Australian Geothermal Energy Group, “Initial drilling results indicate that Australia’s EGS resources are among the best in the world”. Indeed, such is the scope of the Central Australia resource that it could in theory power the entire nation.Present indications are that by 2010 at least some of the developers might be able to supply power to the national grid.Eight of the companies involved in hot fractured rock projects - not all are involved in Central Australia - are listed on the Australian Securities Exchange
15Australia: Geothermal Energy Usage Geothermal energy is currently produced at one small binary power station at Birdsville in western Queensland, supplemented by diesel- powered generators. The fluid is 98°C and derives from the Great Artesian Basin (also referred to as the Eromanga Basin) that overlies the Cooper Basin.In November 2006 Ergon Energy commenced a feasibility study into whether it can provide Birdsville’s entire power requirements and relegate the existing LPG and diesel-fuelled generators to be used only as a back-up at peak times such as the annual Birdsville races which attract large crowds for several days. The feasibility report is due by the end of March 2007.The water is run through a gas filled Organic Rankine cycle heat exchanger (shown below) which heats and pressurises the gas which drives a turbine and alternator to produce electricity. The partly cooled water is channelled into a pond for further cooling and reticulation into the town’s water supply and the lagoon.The gross capacity of the plant is 120 kW and has 40kW parasitic losses, which equates to a net output of 80kW. The plant was shutdown from December to December 2005 for upgrading to meet compliance of Australian Standards regarding handling of isopentane and is now operating. Total power generation in 2006 was kWh of which kWh was provided by the geothermal power plant. This equates to 35% of total power output.
16Australia: Geothermal Energy Future Usage Direct use of geothermal waters has been an important source of energy in the city of Portland in western Victoria. Water pumped from a 1400 metre deep bore at a temperature of 58°Celsius at rates of approximately 60 litres per second with a nominal capacity of kW and is used to heat many of the municipal buildings and public facilities. Direct use of this resource has been temporarily suspended pending the outcome of restorative operations on the bore which are in the planning phase.Geothermal waters are also used for spas at Moree, near Barradine and at Lightning Ridge in New South Wales and at Hastings in south east Tasmania. There are also two developments in Victoria on the Mornington Peninsula, south of Melbourne and another spa resort in Gippsland, Victoria. There are no available estimates of the amount of energy being produced at these locations.Ground source heat pumps are also finding increased use in Australia in both commercial and residential applications.
17What can Australia Do?Exploration involves finding vast blocks of "hot rocks" with fracture systems that could generate electricity through water being injected, circulated through the fractures, and being returned to surface as steam.There are vast deep-seated granite systems in Central Australia that have high temperatures at depth and these are being drilled by companies such as Panax Geothermal ,Geodynamics Ltd, Petratherm, Green Rock Energy and Pacific Hydro to depths of more than four kilometres.South Australia has been described as "Australia's hot rock haven" and this renewable energy form could provide an estimated 6.8% of Australia's base load power needs by According to a conservative estimate by the Centre for International Economics, Australia has enough geothermal energy to contribute electricity for 450 years.Parts of central Tasmania have been identified by KUTh Energy as having the potential to generate up to 280MW of power. Such a resource would be able to supply 25% of Tasmania's electricity needs.
18Energy Comparison Geothermal Energy Coal Coal generation requires a large power plant, replete with handling systems, burners and boilers. Coal plants require a tall stack that emits quite a bit of carbon dioxide (CO2), plus nitrogen - and sulfur-based chemicals, and various other particulates and air pollution. Coal plants usually require one or more rail lines, and thus we see trains hauling carloads of coal from the mine to the plant and returning the empties on backhaul. And coal plants create a market for strip-mines and deep mines, which create their own environmental and legacy issues (depleted aquifers, surface subsidence, etc.) Geothermal power, on the other hand, emits almost no CO2, no nitrogen or sulfur compounds, no particulates, requires no rail line, no trains and no strip-mines or deep mines.There is no acid rain or mine subsidence. Geothermal just needs a number of wells in the ground, with which to cycle the hot water or steam, and to re-inject it after use. And geothermal is a reliable source of base-load electric power /7/ with well over 90% historical reliability.Coal wins because it is less expensive and easier to mine. But geothermal energy is still a better choice if it weren't so expensive.Although the environmental benefits of burning less fossil fuel by using renewable sources of energy—such as geothermal, hydropower, solar and wind—are clear, there's been a serious roadblock in their adoption: cost per kilowatt-hour.That barrier may be opening, however— at least for one of these sources. Two recent reports, among others, suggest that geothermal may actually be cheaper than every other source, including coal. Geothermal power plants work by pumping hot water from deep beneath Earth's surface, which can either be used to turn steam turbines directly or to heat a second, more volatile liquid such as isobutene (which then turns a steam turbine).
19Energy Comparison Geothermal Energy Hydropower Mannvit’s geothermal energy projects involve harnessing high-temperature geothermal fields and designing flash steam power plants that produce electricity and hot water (combined heat and power), as well as designing geothermal power plants that produce electricity utilizing low-temperature geothermal fields via binary cycle.The geothermal engineers, geoscientists and other company specialists at Mannvit, and its subsidiaries, have innovated unique solutions to complex challenges involving geothermal heat utilization. Over the last few years, Mannvit has established and acquired subsidiaries in Hungary, Germany, UK, US and Chile to integrate established local knowledge of geothermal development with Mannvit's experience. Partnerships have been established with geothermal developers and agents in many countries as well as cooperation and partnerships with international companies within and entering the geothermal sector.Mannvit has decades of experience in the development of hydroelectric power, having participated in the preliminary work or construction of most the hydropower plants and dams that have been built in Iceland since 1970.Our specialists offer a comprehensive suite of hydroelectric design and consulting services including, engineering, EIA, project planning, project management and supervision in all phases of hydroelectric power development including hydroelectric dams, spillways, tunnels, power transmission lines and electrical substations.Geothermal energy wins because it is more productive and less expensive than building a damn to harness hydroelectric power. Geothermal energy is also a faster way of generating energy.
20Energy Comparison Geothermal Energy Solar Power Geothermal systems use a compressor and a heat pump to circulate the piped warm water from beneath the ground into the house and raise its temperature to a toasty 72 degrees F. That’s similar to what’s used in a central air conditioning system (but backwards and in winter.)Since we don’t have central air conditioning, I was stunned to hear that during the summer, people who do have it can see their electric bills spike to $400 or $500 month.“Same thing is happening with geothermal," he said. "You’re running a pump and a compressor all of the time, and you get consistently high electric bills, but for 12 months, not just during summer. So you have to be prepared for that. Some people in this area with geothermal have had $500-a-month electric bills.”Solar may be cheaper but it is not as productive as geothermal powerSolar energy cant last forever because when the sun dies it can no longer be usefulGeothermal energy wins by production of energy and lasting time
22Global Law: Our Resolution We believe that the world should use Geothermal Energy for all electrical purposes because geothermal energy is renewable. Since we can harness geothermal energy easily without burning it, it makes it simpler and quite easier. But the cons of this occurring is that we don’t have enough money and space to use it to power our electrical items. This is an advantage because we might need the energy when who knows. Maybe in the year we would need energy for our supply but our fossil fuels will eventually run out. We can use geothermal energy to power for at least 100,000 year. The law of geothermal energy is that we can use it to make new things using electricity (i.e. Flying cars, time machine, anything we can imagine) We just have to use Geothermal energy. Geothermal energy has enough power to do anything. So basically, our law is’’ Geothermal energy power plants must be found in every country. This will increase geothermal energy harnessing production by at least 600 more electrical watts”. But for this to work the world must come together to use this power source. No more war just geothermal. Our motto is the same as Nike’s:” Just Do”. Geothermal Energy is a expensive, productive, and easier way to use as an energy source.