2 History of the PledgeWritten in 1892 by Francis Bellamy for the 400th anniversary of Columbus celebrations.The original pledge was quick and to the point.Bellamy felt that after the Civil War, patriotism was on the wane and it needed a shot in the arm. The Pledge was promoted in every school and efforts to get U.S. flags into the classrooms was undertaken.I pledge allegiance to my flag and the republic for which it stands, one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.
3 History of the Pledge 1923In 1923, the National Flag Conference called for the words “my flag” to be replaced with the “flag of the United States” so new immigrants wouldn’t be confused as to whose flag they were pledging allegiance to.Bellamy disliked the change because it upset the rhythm of the original pledge.I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States and to the republic for which it stands, one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.
4 History of the Pledge 1924The word “America” was added when the U.S. Congress officially recognized the pledge for the first time in 1924.I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands; one nation indivisible with liberty and justice for all.
5 History of the Pledge 1942The Bellamy salute was officially replaced in 1942 because of the adoption of similar salutes by the Italian fascists and German Nazis.From that time forward, the official civilian salute was a hand over the heart.
9 History of the Pledge 1954-present Sons of the Revolution, Daughters of the Revolution, and the Knights of Columbus (a Catholic organization) began voluntarily adding the words “under God” to the pledge.The Knights of Columbus lobbied for the inclusion of “under God” in the official pledge. The attempts failed.President Eisenhower listened to a sermon his pastor, George Docherty, was giving on the Gettysburg Address. He said something was missing in the pledge--God.Eisenhower prodded legislation resulting in the addition of “under God” being officially added to the pledge.
10 History of the Pledge 1954-present The inclusion of “under God” also provided a contrast in the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States. The Soviet communists were godless while American capitalists were god-fearing.I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.
11 SB 223In the 2012 legislative session, the Utah Code was changed to require all public schools begin each school day with the recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance in each classroom. The previous law allowed 7-12 grades to begin each week with the pledge as opposed to each day.Also, the pledge is to be student-led and the students should take turns leading it.The pledge cannot be led school-wide over a loudspeaker.
12 Concerns:Sen. Howard Stephenson (R-Draper) amended the bill to include a provision for schools “to teach students at least once a year that the pledge is voluntary and that students who choose not to say it for religious or other reasons should still be shown respect.”SB 223 passed unanimously in the Utah SenateThe debate was more involved in the Utah House. Concerns we raised about the effectiveness of reciting the pledge more often impacting the levels of patriotism and the role of peer pressure in forcing students to recite the pledge who might have objections to it.SB 223 passed the Utah House and was signed into law by the Governor
13 Groups usually opposed to reciting the pledge: Jehovah’s Witness: They believe that reciting the pledge is akin to idolatry.Libertarian minded people: They believe that government has no business in passing legislation mandating students to recite the pledge at the direction of government employees and view the pledge as contrary to freedom and democracy and symptomatic of a totalitarian state.Atheists: They believe that the pledge in schools violates that establishment of religion clause in the First Amendment because of the phrase “under God.”
14 Why the change?Sen. Aaron Osmond (R-West Jordan) noticed that students, especially those from immigrant families were not really involved in reciting the pledge. (Deseret News, Feb. 22, 2012)Sen. Osmond said he “hopes the change would make reciting the pledge a more meaningful experience.” (Salt Lake Tribune, Feb. 28, 2012)
15 What is patriotism? Utah Code: R277-475-1 "Patriotic" means having love of and dedication to one's country."Patriotic education" means the educational and systematic process to help students identify, acquire, and act upon a dedication to one's country.Dictionary.comdevoted love, support, and defense of one's country; national loyalty.Linda and Richard EyreReal patriotism is essentially another word for thankfulness. Being truly thankful for our freedoms, for our heritage, for our constitution, and for this extraordinarily beautiful land does not bring about pride or exclusivity--it brings humility and the desire to share what we have and to expand and export our freedom and opportunity to others.