Presentation on theme: "If we know anything, it is because we stand on the backs of Giants!"— Presentation transcript:
1 If we know anything, it is because we stand on the backs of Giants! Origins of today’s Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment
2 Lao-Tse (also Lao-tzu) In the 5th-century BC, this philosopher wrote:"If you tell me, I will listen.If you show me, I will see.But if you let me experience, I will learn."And so began one of the first active learning philosophies.Other Chinese philosophers, such as Kung Fu-tse (Latinized as Confucius) and Han Fei-Tzu, followed Lao-Tse by using a method that closely resembles what we now call the case method or case study.A member of the study group would present a paradox, which would be in the form of a parable.They would then discuss it and explore possible resolutions.
3 Socrates ( BC)In 300 BC, he engaged his learners by asking questions (know as the Socratic or dialectic method).He often insisted that he really knew nothing, but his questioning skills allowed others to learn by self-generated understanding.
4 Plato ( BC),A student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, he wrote down the Dialogues, which have inspired thinkers for more than two thousand years. Plato called this process the dialectic, and considered it the pinnacle of learning..One of the significant features of the dialogical (dialectic) method is that it emphasizes collective, as against solitary activity This is a question and answer form of arguing with an "expert" on one side and a "searcher" on the other.In the dialogues, the questioning of the expert by the searcher often exposes gaps in the reasoning.It is through this back and forth argument amongst friends (or adversaries) that understanding grows and becomes revealed to the learners.Such philosophical pursuit alongside and within a full education allows humans to transcend their desires and sense in order to attain true knowledge.
5 Plato founded what is said to be the first university - his Academy (near Athens) around 385 BC. He also believed that all knowledge is innate at birth and is perfectible by experiential learning during growth.This was an early suggestion to the current theory of constructivism.
6 Along with many others in his time, Aristotle ( BC) placed a strong emphasis on an all-round and balanced development.Play, physical training, music, debate, and the study of science and philosophy were to all have their place in the forming of body, mind and soul.Like Plato before him, he saw such learning happening through life - although with different emphases at different ages.Aristotle was the first to observe that "association" among ideas facilitated understanding and recall.He believed that comprehension was aided by contiguity, succession, similarity, and contrast.
7 techneAlthough we often view the term technology as hardware items, it is actually a system of practical knowledge. Technology is derived from the ancient Greek word techne.It can be translated to refer to art, craft or skill. Plato viewed techne and systematic or scientific knowledge as being closely related.Aristotle went a step further by asserting that techne was the systematic use of knowledge for intelligent human action.
8 Education for work had its beginning in about 2000 B. C Education for work had its beginning in about 2000 B.C. [organized apprenticeship] for scribes in Egypt.Thus, education for work was organized in such a way that basic knowledge could be developed in the a classroom setting and applied skills could be developed on-the-job."
9 Code of HammurabiThe rules for governing apprenticeships were included in the Code of Hammurabi, who placed a code of his laws in the temple of Shamash in 2100 B.C.However, apprenticeships did not really become widespread until the Middle Ages. As tools became more complex, and the knowledge and skills to use them became more specialized, parents or others could no longer teach their children everything.Children were apprenticed to craftspersons or artisans who had the specialized skills and tools for a particular trade. In exchange for work, the craftsperson would teach the child the craft at which he was an expert.Apprentices normally lived with the craftsperson, and received no pay except for maintenance, as the learning of a skill was considered highly valuable.
10 Guilds, associations of people who interests or pursuits were the same or similar, were an important part in apprenticeship as they established the quality standards for the product and practice.During the peak of the guild system, which occurred between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries, the yeomen were protected by strict regulation of hours, tools, prices, and wages.
11 ApprenticeshipIn the centuries that preceded the introduction of machine-made parts, craftsmanship of high order was required to manufacture accurate, durable clocks and watchesSuch local craft organizations as the Paris Guild of Clockmakers (1544) were organized to control the art of clockmaking and its apprenticeship. A guild known as the Clockmakers Company, founded in London in 1630, is still in existence.
12 When schools became organized around the 10th century, the writings and methods of the great teachers, such as Socrates and Lao-Tse, were forgotten, and teaching was performed by transmitting content from teacher to students.This methodology maintains that the students are "empty vessels" and that the teacher can "pour" knowledge into them.This approach to learning is called pedagogy and is derived from the Greek words "paid" meaning "child" and agogus meaning "leader of."In a pedagogy classroom, the teacher is responsible for all decisions about learning.
13 Today, the term has taken on new meaning Today, the term has taken on new meaning. Now, with many schools using active inquiry techniques, the term "pedagogy" does not really apply to passive methods. In fact, it now closely resembles the term "andragogy," except it is used to refer to children.
14 Early Schools and Pedagogy Education may be thought of as the transmission of the values and accumulated knowledge of a society. In this sense, it is equivalent to what social scientists term socialization or enculturation.
15 When adult learning became systematized early in this century, pedagology was the only known means to train.Two books written in the 1920s began to change the term "adult learning" - Thorndike's Adult Learning and Lindeman's The Meaning of Adult EducationIn the 1950s, European educators started using the term "andragogy," from the Greek word "anere" for adult, and "agogus," the art and science of helping students to learn.They wanted to be able to discuss the growing body of knowledge about adult learners in parallel with pedagogy.
16 In pedagogy, development is based upon a content plan: What content needs to be covered?How can this content be organized into manageable units or modules?How can this content be transmitted in a logical sequence?What would be the most effective method for transmitting this content (media)?
17 In andragogy, development is based upon a process design: Design and manage a process for facilitating the acquisition of content by the learners.Serve as a content resource and provide leads for other content resources (e.g. peers, supervisors, specialists).
18 In pedagogy, the concern is with transmitting the content, while in andragogy, the concern is with facilitating the acquisition of the content.
19 John Comenius Latin Name (Jan Komensky) ( )Czech educational reformer and religious leader, born in Moravia (now part of the Czech Republic), and educated at the University of Heidelberg. In 1638 he was invited by Sweden to assist in educational reforms.
20 In the mid 17th century, Comenius created a new educational philosophy called Pansophism, or universal knowledge, designed to bring about worldwide understanding and peaceHe advised teachers to use children's' senses rather than memorization in instruction.To make learning interesting for children, he wrote The Gate of Tongues Unlocked (1631), a book for teaching Latin in the student's own language.He also wrote Orbis Sensualium Pictus (1658; The Visible World in Pictures, 1659) consisting of illustrations that labeled objects in both their Latin and vernacular names.It was one of the first illustrated books written especially for children.
21 An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). John LockeAn English philosopher, set out the principles of empiricism. He advanced the hypothesis that people learn primarily from external forces. Locke examined how people acquire ideas inAn Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690).He asserted that at birth the human mind is a blank slate, or tabula rasa, and empty of ideas.We acquire knowledge, he argued, from the information about the objects in the world that our senses bring to us.We begin with simple ideas and then combine them into more complex ones.
22 Locke believed that individuals acquire knowledge most easily when they first consider simple ideas and then gradually combine them into more complex ones.In Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1697), Locke recommended practical learning to prepare people to manage their social, economic, and political affairs efficiently.He believed that a sound education began in early childhood and insisted that the teaching of reading, writing, and arithmetic be gradual and cumulative
23 While John Locke developed a theory of testing for the validity of knowledge and John Comenius established that children learn better from experience, who supported these educational approaches?
24 Jean Jacques RousseauHis Social Contract is a classic defense of the democratic form of government Rousseau trusted the "general will" of a democratic people, as expressed by a vote of the majority, to make all important decisions.This trust in the majority contrasts greatly with the ideas of philosophers who championed minority and individual rights.
25 Jean Jacques RousseauRousseau's unconventional views antagonized French and Swiss authorities and alienated many of his friends, and in 1762 he fled first to Prussia and then to England.There, he was befriended by the Scottish philosopher David Hume, but they soon quarreled and denounced each other in public letters.
26 Jean Jacques RousseauHe wrote the influential Emile (1762). Rousseau expounded a new theory of education emphasizing the importance of expression rather than repression to produce a well-balanced, freethinking child.He explained his views on the benefits of health and physical exercise, and the belief that knowledge acquisition occurs though experience and that reason and investigation should replace arbitrary authority.He also proposed that education should follow natural inclination impulses and feelings (learning styles).
27 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi Pestalozzi theories laid the groundwork for modern elementary education.He stressed the individuality of the child and the necessity for teachers to be taught how to develop rather than to try to implant knowledge.In time, his ideas influenced the elementary school systems of the Western world, particularly in the area of teacher training.
28 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi In the late 1700's he put Rousseau's theories into practice and thus became the first applied educational psychologist.Pestalozzi believed that thought began with sensation and that teaching should use the senses. Holding that children should study the objects in their natural environment
29 Pestalozzi developed a so-called "object lesson" that involved exercises in learning form, number, and language.Pupils determined and traced an object's form, counted objects, and named them.Students progressed from these lessons to exercises in drawing, writing, adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, and reading.
30 He employed the following principles in teaching (viewed as correct even today): (1) begin with the concrete object before introducing abstract concepts;(2) begin with the immediate environment before dealing with what is distant and remote;(3) begin with easy exercises before introducing complex ones; and(4) always proceed gradually, cumulatively, and slowly
31 Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) German philosopher, psychologist, andeducator; Johann Friedrich Herbartis acknowledged as the "father ofscientific pedagogy".Herbart's system of philosophy stems from the analysis of experience. The system includes logic, metaphysics, and aesthetics as coordinate elements.He rejected all concepts of separate mental faculties, postulating instead that all mental phenomena result from interaction of elementary ideas.Herbart believed that educational methods and systems should be based on psychology and ethics: psychology to furnish necessary knowledge of the mind and ethics to be used as a basis for determining the social ends of education.
32 Herbart was the first scientist to distinguish instructional process from subject matter. According to Herbart, interest develops when already strong and vivid ideas are hospitable towards new ones, thus past associations motivate apperception of current ones.Herbartianism, in predicting that learning follows from building up sequences of ideas important to the individual, gave teachers a semblance of a theory of motivation.
33 He also stressed the study of the psychological processes of learning as a means of devising educational programs based on the aptitudes, abilities, and interests of students.The success of Herbart's methods led to their adoption in the teacher-training systems of numerous countries.
34 Herbart stressed the study of the psychological processes of learning as a means of devising educational programs based on the aptitudes, abilities, and interests of students.The success of Herbart's methods led to their adoption in the teacher-training systems of numerous countries
35 Herbart's five-step teaching method: 1. Prepare the pupils to be ready for the new lesson.2. Present the new lesson.3. Associate the new lesson with ideas studied earlier.4. Use examples to illustrate the lesson's major points.5. Test pupils to ensure they had learned the new lesson.
36 LyceumThe largest early adult education program in the U.S., the Lyceum, founded in Massachusetts in 1826 by Josiah HolbrookIt was a local association of men and women with some schooling who wanted to expand their own education while working to establish a public school system.. What became know as the "Lyceum movement" encouraged the development of other adult education institutions such aslibraries, evening schools, and endowed lecture series. Lyceum - the name is derived from the Lyceum, the school near Athens where Aristotle lectured to his students.
37 In the early 1800s, factory schools were created, due to the industrial revolution, in which workers were trained in classrooms within the factory walls.The apprentice system was inadequate due to the number of learners that had to be trained as the machines of the Industrial Revolution increased the ability of the factory to produce goods. The factory owners needed trained workers quickly because there was a large demand for the produced goods.
38 Vestibule TrainingTowards the end of the 1800s, a method that combined the benefits of the classroom with the benefits of on-the-job training, called vestibule training, became a popular form of trainingThe classroom was located as close as conditions allowed to the department for which the workers were being trained. It was furnished with the same machines as used in production. There were normally six to ten workers per trainer, who were skilled workers or supervisors from the company(near-the-job) training, socalled as it offers access tosomething new (learning).
39 Vestibule Training There are many advantages of vestibule training. The workers are trained as if on the job, but it did not interfere with the more vital task of production.Transfer of skills and knowledge to the workplace was not required since the classroom was a model of the working environment.Classes were small so that the learners received immediate feedback and could ask questions more easily.than in a large classroom. Its main disadvantage is that it is quite expensive as itduplicates the production line and has a small learner to trainer ratio.
40 Case Method (Case Study) Although the case method does not actually provide real experiences, it is personal as it puts the burden of thinking on the learners and arouses their interest by making them active participants.
41 Case StudiesIn the 1880s, Christopher Langdell, the dean of the Harvard Law School, revived the case method that the early Chinese Philosophers used.It slowly won acceptance in the schools of business, law, and medicine.Langdell felt students could learn more about the law by studying actual court opinions than by reading legal texts. By the early 20th century, virtually every American law school had adopted Langdell's method. In the 1960s, most schools began to introduce some form of clinical education to supplement the classroom study of cases Although the classic Harvard case is quite comprehensive in nature, cases used in training need not be long and detailed to excite and encourage the creative efforts of the learners.
42 Correspondence Schools Correspondence Education is a method ofinstruction conducted through the mailby a school or other qualifiedinstitution.
43 In 1883, the first correspondence program in the United States gained academic respectability through recognition by the State of New York, as a valid educational program was the Chautauqua Institute, which trained Sunday school teachers.In 1891, the International Correspondence Schools (ICS) grew from the Colliery Engineer School of Mines. ICS initially used correspondence to train miners, railroad, and iron workers.
44 Correspondence education developed in the mid-19th century in Great Britain, France, Germany, and the United States, and spread rapidly. In 1840, the English educator Sir Isaac Pitman taught shorthand by mail.. The university extension movement grew out of off-campus lectures given by the Scottish educator James Stuart of the University of Cambridge, England.
45 Many educators consider correspondence education the precursor of distance education, which is instruction that uses different communication technologies such as the internet, telephones, radio, or television.Correspondence education provides instruction in almost every branch of knowledge, for cultural improvement and for vocational and professional training.
46 World War I - Show, Tell, Do, and Check To solve an urgent need to train shipyard workers in 1917, Charles R. Allen adapted Herbart's five-step process. He called it the "Show, Tell, Do, and Check" method of job instruction.
47 Prepare the Workers - Put them at ease. Find out what they already know about the job.Get them interested in learning.Place each in a correct position.
48 Present the OperationTell, show, illustrate, and question carefully and patiently.Stress key points.Instruct clearly and completely, taking up one point at a time, but no more than they can master.
49 Try Out PerformanceTest them by having them perform the job.Have them tell and show you, have them explain key points.Ask questions and correct answers.Continue until you know that they know.
50 Follow Up - Put them on their own Designate who they go to for help.Check frequently.Encourage questions.Get them to look for key points as they progress.Taper off extra coaching and close follow-ups.
51 John Dewey ( )John Dewey emphasized practical ideas in both his philosophical and educational theories, always striving to show how abstract concepts could work in everyday life.He emphasized hands-on learning, and opposed authoritarian methods in teaching.His ideas prompted a drastic change in United States education beginning in the 20th century.
52 Considered to be the leading progressive educator of this century, John Dewey wrote on the great issues in education.In Education and Experience, written late in his career, he tries to find a synthesis of the principles of traditional education and those of progressive education. Two essential components for him are the experience of the learner and critical inquiry.Dewey wrote, "any theory and set of practices is dogmatic which is not based upon critical examination of its own underlying principles."
53 John Dewey's significance for informal educators lies in a number of areas. First, his belief that education must engage with and enlarge experience has continued to be a significant component in informal education practice
54 Second, and linked to this, Dewey's exploration of thinking and reflection - and the associated role of educators - has continued to be an inspiration.He criticized educational methods that simply amused and entertained students or were overly vocational.
55 He also advocated education that would fulfill and enrich the current lives of students as well as prepare them for the future.Dewey's theory of education became known as functionalism in that it encouraged mental testing and stressed studies of adaptive behavior.
56 Role-playing Adult learners can keep tuned into a lecture for no more than 15 to 20minutes at a time
57 Role Playing LinksDr. J. L. Moreno designs the first known role playing techniques in 1910.Role playing is a primary technique to provide participation and involvement in the learning process. In a training environment, role playing allows the learner to receiveobjective feedback about one's performanceRole-playingbecome more widely known and used after he moved from Vienna, Austria to theUnited States in the 1930s.
58 Role playing techniques can be used to diagnose interactive skills, to provide models and practice, and to motivate individuals to pay more . attention to their interpersonal impact. One of its primary benefits is that itallows the learner to experience a real life situation in a protected environment
59 Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1950) Taylor called his method Scientific Management, which used time and motion studies to find the one best way to accomplish a task.In 1911, Frederick Taylor published his book The Principles of Scientific Management that conceived of a method for shortening the amount of time a task took by studying workers doing the task and removing "non-productive time.""No one can be found who will deny that in the case of any single individual the greatest prosperity can exist only when that individual has reached his highest state of efficiency; that is, when he is turning out his largest daily output.""The truth of this fact is also perfectly clear in the case of two men working together.To illustrate: if you and your workman have become so skilful that you and he together are making two pairs of shoes in a day, while your competitor and his workman are making only one pair, it is clear that after selling your two pairs of shoes you can pay your workman much higher wages than your competitor who produces only one pair of shoes is able to pay his man, and that there will still be enough money left over for you to have a larger profit than your competitor." - Frederick Taylor
60 Pavlovconducted, perhaps, the most famous of all psychological experiments (1927) whenhe showed that by pairing a conditioned stimulus (a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus(food), a dog would begin to salivate (response) when the bell was rung without presentingthe food.
61 In the early twentieth century a new movement in the field of Psychology was being felt in educational research - behaviorism. This is a theory proposed by J.B.Watson and based on the works of Pavlov and Bekhterev, two Russian psychologists who developed an animal training model known asstimulus-response (Classical Conditioning).
62 Watson argued that such conditioning is the basis of human behavior - if you stand up every time a lady enters the room, you're acting not out of 'politeness', butbecause behavior is a chain of well-set reflexes. He claimed that "recency" and"frequency" were particularly important in determining what behavior an individual'emitted' next: if you usually get up when a lady enters the room, you're likely toget up when one enters now.
64 The word Gestalt is used in modern German to mean the waya thing has been; i.e., "placed,"or "put together." There is noexact equivalent in English."Form" and "shape" are theusual translations.
65 John Stuart Mill ( )was disturbed by earlier associationists that complex ideals are just a combination of simple ideals. He added the notion that simple ideals combine into a new totality that may bear little resemblance to its parts.For example, if we combine red, green, and blue lights, we get white. So came one of the central themes of the gestalt movement, "The whole is more than the sum of its parts."
66 Max Wertheimer ( ),the founder of gestalt psychology, launched it in 1912 with an article on apparent motion. He had an insight while riding train that if two lights blink on and off at a certain rate, they give the impression that one light is moving back and forth.Wertheimer contrasts rote memorization with problem solving based on theGestalt principles. In the former, the learner has learned facts withoutunderstanding them. Such learning is rigid and can be applied without trulyunderstanding them. Learning in accordance with the Gestalt principles,however, is based on understanding the underlying principles of theproblem. This type of learning comes from within the individual and is notimposed on by someone else. It is easily generalizable and is rememberedfor a long time. When one performs upon memorized facts withoutunderstanding them, one often makes stupid mistakes.
67 Wertheimer told this story to illustrate the point: A school inspector was impressed by the children that he had observed, but wanted to ask onemore question before departing. "How many hairs does a horse have?" heasked. Much to the amazement of both the inspector and the teacher, a nineyear old boy answered "3,571,962." "How do you know that your answeris correct?" asked the inspector. "If you do not believe me," answered theboy, "count them yourself." The inspector broke into laughter and vowed totell the story to his colleagues when he returned to Vienna. When theinspector returned the following year for his annual visit, the teacher askedhim how his colleagues responded to the story. Disappointedly he replied, "Iwanted very much to tell the story but I couldn't. For the life of me, Icouldn't remember how many hairs the boy had said the horse had."
68 The Teaching MachineIn 1924, Sidney L. Pressey created a crude teaching machine suitable for rote-and-drilllearning. In 1926, he published the first paper on the use of a teaching machine inSchool and Society. He showed that automated-instruction facilitated learning byproviding for immediate reinforcement, individual pace setting, and active responding.B.F. Skinner was also interested in a He wrote, "teaching machines are unique among instructional aids, in that the student notmerely passively listen, watches, or reads but actively responds. And as he does so hefinds out whether his response is correct or not. And a record may be kept which aids inimproving the materials."teaching Machine.He conceptualizeda teachingmachine for theclassroom for useby individualstudents.
69 Thorndike had a great influence on Pressey Thorndike had a great influence on Pressey. In his machine Pressey sought toincorporate Thorndike's laws. In one version of his machine, a user had to answer aquestion twice correctly before it was eliminated; this addressed the laws of exerciseand effect.
70 Eduard C. Lindeman Lindeman suggests that education evolves from situations and not subjects and that this is the essence of adult education.Lindeman based In 1926, the first book explaining the unique characteristics of adult learners waspublished, The Meaning of Adult Education.Lindeman wrote, "...the teacher finds a new function. He is no longer the oracle whospeaks from the platform of authority, but rather the guide, the pointer-outer who alsoparticipates in learning in proportion to the vitality and relevancy of his facts andexperiences."his work on bothbeing an adultlearner and beinga teacher ofadults.
71 Edward L. Thorndike ( )Edward Thorndike is one of the great learning theorists of all time. He believed thatinstruction should pursue specified, socially useful goals. In 1928 his classic study,Adult Learning, posited that the ability to learn did not decline until age 35, andthen it declined only 1 percent per year, thus going against the grain of the time that"you can't teach old dogs new trick.""The intellect,character and skillpossessed by any man learning, not the power to learn declined with age. Thorndike also formulated thelaw of effect, which states that behaviors that are followed by pleasant consequenceswill be more likely to be repeated in the future.are the product ofcertain originaltendencies and thetraining which theyhave received." -Edward Thorndike
72 One of his most famous theories is "The Identical Elements Theory of the Transfer of Training" where the amount of transfer between the familiar situation and theunfamiliar one is determined by the number of elements that the two situations havein common.This opposed the long held view of "Formal Discipline" (mostlydiscredited now): The human mind is made up of several powers such as reasoning,attention, judgement, and memory which strengthened with practice. For example,the study of Latin and mathematics strengthened the reasoning and memory faculties.This is also known as the "Mental Muscle Approach" since it was claimed that themind was made stronger with practice just as one would strengthen their biceps.
73 He was also one of the first pioneers of "active" learning in that he held low opinions of lectures, "The lecture and demonstration methods represent an approach to alimiting extreme in which the teacher lets the student find out nothing which he couldpossible be told or shown...They ask of him only that he attend to, and do his best tounderstand, questions which he did not himself frame and answers which he did nothimself work out."Thorndike supported Dewey's functionalism and added a stimulus-responsecomponent and renamed it connectionist. His theory became an educationalrequirement for the next fifty years.
74 Thorndike specified three conditions that maximized learning: The law of effect stated that the likely recurrence of a response is generallygoverned by its consequence or effect generally in the form of reward orpunishment.The law of recency stated that the most recent response is likely to govern therecurrence.The law of exercise stated that stimulus-response associations arestrengthened through repetition.
75 Hawthorne Effect The Hawthorne effect - an increase in worker productivityproduced by thepsychologicalstimulus of beingsingled out andmade to feelimportant.Along withFrederick Taylor'swork, this studygave rise to thefield known as"IndustrialPsychology."Social groupinfluences andinterpersonalfactors must alsobe consideredwhen performingefficiency researchsuch as time andmotion studies.
76 Individual behaviors may be altered because they know they are being studied was demonstrated in a research project ( ) of the Hawthorne Plant of theWestern Electric Company in Cicero, Illinois. This series of research, first led byHarvard Business School professor Elton Mayo along with associates F.J.Roethlisberger and William J. Dickson started out by examining the physical andenvironmental influences of the workplace (e.g. brightness of lights, humidity) and later,moved into the psychological aspects (e.g. breaks, group pressure, working hours,managerial leadership). The ideas that this team developed about the social dynamics ofgroups in the work setting had lasting influence - the collection of data,labor-management relations, and informal interaction among factory employees.
77 The major finding of the study was that almost regardless of the experimental manipulation employed, the production of the workers seemed to improve. Onereasonable conclusion is that the workers were pleased to receive attention from theresearchers who expressed an interest in them. The study was only expected to last oneyear, but because the researchers were set back each time they tried to relate themanipulated physical conditions to the worker's efficiency, the project extended out tofive years.
78 Four general conclusions were drawn from the Hawthorne studies: The aptitudes of individuals are imperfect predictors of job performance.Although they give some indication of the physical and mental potential of theindividual, the amount produced is strongly influenced by social factors.
79 Informal organization affects productivity. The Hawthorne researchers discovered a group life among the workers. The studies also showed that therelations that supervisors develop with workers tend to influence the manner inwhich the workers carry out directives.
80 Work-group norms affect productivity Work-group norms affect productivity. The Hawthorne researchers were notthe first to recognize that work groups tend to arrive at norms of what is "a fairday's work," however, they provided the best systematic description andinterpretation of this phenomenon.
81 the workplace as a social system made up of interdependent parts. The workplace is a social system. The Hawthorne researchers came to viewthe workplace as a social system made up of interdependent parts.For decades, the Hawthorne studies provided the rationale for human relations withinthe organization. Then two researchers used a new procedure called "time-seriesanalyses." Using the original variables and including in the Great Depression and theinstance of a managerial discipline in which two insubordinate and mediocre workerswere replaced by two different productive workers (one who took the role of strawboss - see below). They discovered that production was most affected by thereplacement of the two workers due to their greater productivity and the affect of thedisciplinary action on the other workers. The occurrence of the Depression alsoencouraged job productivity, perhaps through the increased importance of jobs and thefear of losing them. Rest periods and a group incentive plan also had a somewhatpositive smaller effect on productivity. These variables accounted for almost all thevariation in productivity during the experimental period. Social science may have been to readily to embrace the original Hawthorne interpretations since it was looking fortheories or work motivation that were more humane and democratic. – Franke, R.H. &Kaul, J.D. "The Hawthorne experiments: First statistical interpretation." AmericanSociological Review, 1978, 43,
82 Jean Piagetwas a Swiss psychologist, whose development theories have beenwidely discussed in both psychology and educational fields. To learn, Piagetstressed the holistic approach. A child constructs understanding through manychannels: reading, listening, exploring, and experiencing his or her environment.
83 A Piagetian-inspired curricula emphasizes a child-centered educational philosophy. His work has been labeled an interactionist as well as aconstructivist. His interest in cognitive development came from his training in thenatural sciences and his interest in epistemology. He saw cognitive growth as anextension of biological growth and as being governed by the same laws andprinciples. He argued that intellectual development controlled every otheraspect of development - emotional, social, and moral.
84 Piaget may be best known for his stages of cognitive development. He discovered that children think and reason differently at different periods in theirlives. He believed that everyone passed through an invariant sequence of fourqualitatively distinct stages. Invariant means that a person cannot skip stages orreorder them. Although every normal child passes through the stages in exactlythe same order, there is some variability in the ages at which children attain eachstage
85 . The four stages areSensorimotor (birth to 2 years) - The mental structures are mainlyconcerned with the mastery of concrete objects.Preoperational (2 years to 7 years) - The mastery of symbols takesplace.Concrete operational (7 years to 11 years) - Children learn mastery ofclasses, relations, and numbers and how to reason.Formal operational (abstract thinking) (11 years and up) - The last stagedeals with the mastery of thought.
86 ConstructivismCognitive constructivism is based on the work of Jean Piaget. Histheory has two major parts: an "ages and stages" component thatpredicts what children can and cannot understand at differentages, and a theory of development that describes how childrendevelop cognitive abilities.Piaget's theory of cognitivedevelopment proposes that humans cannot be "given"information, which they immediately understand and use. Instead,humans must "construct" their own knowledge. They build theirknowledge through experience. Experiences enable them tocreate schemas - mental models in their heads. These schemasare changed, enlarged, and made more sophisticated through twocomplimentary processes: assimilation and accommodation
87 The main ideas underpinning constructivism learning theories are not new. They began with the insights of Socrates who claimedthat there are basic conditions for learning that are in thecognition of the individual (Kanuka & Anderson, 1998). But itwas Piaget's theory of intellectual growth that had the primaryinfluence on the development of current positions. Specifically,Piaget first emphasized the processes of conceptual change asinteractions between existing cognitive structures and newexperience
88 During the 1930s and 1940s, constructivism was the leading perspective among public school educators in the United States.In this theory, the emphasis is placed on the student rather thanthe teacher. Teachers are seen as facilitators or coaches whoassist students construct their own conceptualizations andsolutions to problems. Within this theory falls two schools ofthought, social constructivism and cognitive constructivism:
89 1. Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist and philosopher in the 1930's, is most often associated with the social constructivisttheory. He emphasizes the influences of cultural and socialcontexts in learning and supports a discovery model of learning.This type of model places the teacher in an active role while thestudents' mental abilities develop naturally through various pathsof discovery.
90 2. Cognitive constructivism is based on two different senses of "construction." First, on the idea that people learn by activelyconstructing new knowledge, not by having information pouredinto their heads. Moreover, constructivism asserts that peoplelearn with particular effectiveness when they are engaged in"constructing" personally meaningful artifacts (e.g. computerprograms, animations).
91 Discovery LearningHiero II requested that Archimedes find a method for determining whether acrown was pure gold or alloyed with silver. When he stepped into a bath herealized that a given weight of gold would displace less water than an equalweight of silver (which is less dense than gold); at this point he shouted,"EUREKA" (I have found it!). Discovery learning is based on this "Aha!"method.
92 Discovery Learning is an inquiry-based learning method. The concept of discovery learning has appeared numerous times throughout history as a partof the educational philosophy of many great philosophers particularlyRousseau, Pestalozzi and Dewey. "There is an intimate and necessary relationbetween the processes of actual experience and education" wrote DeweyItalso enjoys the support of learning theorists and psychologists Piaget, Bruner,and Papert. It has enjoyed a few positive swings of the educational-trendpendulum in American education, but it has never received overwhelmingacceptance.
93 where the learner draws on his own experience and prior knowledge to Discovery learning takes place most notably in problem solving situationswhere the learner draws on his own experience and prior knowledge todiscover the truths that are to be learned. It is a personal, internal,constructivist learning environmentBruner wrote "Emphasis on discovery inlearning has precisely the effect on the learner of leading him to be aconstructionist, to organize what he is encountering in a manner not onlydesigned to discover regularity and relatedness, but also to avoid the kind ofinformation drift that fails to keep account of the uses to which informationmight have to be put."
94 Job Instruction Training (JIT) During World War II (December 7, 1941 and lasting for 5 years), the need for amethod of fast and efficient training arose. Training Within Industry, an advisory serviceformed by the National Defense Advisory Commission, developed the systematicon-the-job training method called JIT (Job Instruction Training). Its goal was to trainsupervisors in defense plants in the skills of instructing their workers as fast as possible.At first the train-the-trainer classes were three days long, but soon grew to a 45-hourprogram.Other J programssoon followed:- JRT: JobRelations Training- JMT: JobsMethods Training- JST: Job Safety
95 Job-aid linksAlthough used for a very long time, the modern Job-Performance-Aidtraces its modern roots to the JIT method. It began as a printed card thatcontained step-by-step instructions for performing a specific task. Theworker did not have to memorize the steps.Job aids include anything that when added to the work situation improvesjob performance by guiding, facilitating, or reminding the performers intheir accomplishment of job tasks. This method of providing an alternativeto improving job performance opened the door to other interventions tochanging job performance.
96 Job aids are considered instructional interventions because they also mediate knowledge and skills problems. However, job aids are not reallyintended to produce learning, as they are a substitute for learning. Learningthat does occur as a result of using the job aid (surely considerable attimes) is incidental.
97 Abraham MaslowAmerican psychologist, Abraham Maslow, published A Theory of Human Motivation(1943) in the Psychological Review Journal which explains his "hierarchy of needs."His motivational model explained that a higher need, ultimately that for self-actualization,is expressed only after lower needs are fulfilled.This was one of the first psychologyresearch projects that looked at mentally healthy human beings, instead of the mentally ill.Dr. Maslow is one of the founders of humanistic psychology. He advocates a humanisticscience rather than a classical mechanistic science."Many things in life cannot be transmitted well by words, concepts, or books. Colors thatwe see cannot be described to a man born blind. Only a swimmer knows how swimmingfeels; the nonswimmer can get only the faintest idea of it with all the words and books inthe world. The psychopath will never know happiness or love. The youngster must waituntil he is a parent in order to know parenthood fully and to say "I didn't realize." Mytoothache feels different than your toothache. And so it goes. Perhaps it is better to saythat all of life must be first be known experientially. There is no substitute for experience,none at all. - Abraham H. Maslow - The Psychology of Science (1966).
98 Edwin R. Guthrie's study (1946) breaks skills into acts. Acts are defined as complicated behavior patterns usually involving somegoal accomplishment. Acts are made up of many individualmovements. Movements are specific responses to specific stimuli.Acts are composed of muscular contractions that are the responseto specific stimulus and are not dependent upon practice
99 But thelearning of an act does depend on practice. Learning an actrequires practice so that the proper movement is associated withits own cues. Once acquired, associations are permanent but theymay not appear in every performance due to weak associations.These weak associations cannot be retrieved because of stronginterference from other associations.
100 . Short practice periods develop weak associations which learners are not able to magnifyinto stronger ones. - Guthrie, E. R. (1952). The Psychology ofLearning. New York: Harper & Row."Common speech defines acts in terms of their results, not interms of the movements by which those results are accomplished.We eat a dinner, sail a boat, ride a horse, play a selection on thepiano. For each of these acts there may be a thousand differentpatterns of muscular contraction in the details of the achievement,and the act may still be known by the same name. Skillful andawkward performances of the same act may use very differentmotions." - Edwin R. Guthrie - "Association and the law ofeffect" -Psychological Review (1940).
101 Adams theorized that if we practice long enough we develop a mental image. For example, professional players are often knownto utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit atennis ball or throw a football, because they can instantaneouslytell by the feel of the act what the result will produce. Not havingbalanced practice periods prevents learners from becoming fullycomfortable with the feel and use of the skill they are attempting toacquire. Learners must have enough time to develop a completemental image of the sequence of correct responses. Often we seelearners who could perform in the classroom and then not be ableto perform when they return to work. - Adams, J. (1977). MotorLearning and Retention. In Marx, M. & Bunch, M. (Eds.),Fundamentals and Applications of Learning. New York:Macmillan.
102 Hull discovered that when practice periods are spaced apart (distributed practice), performance is superior to what it is whenpractice periods are close together (massed practice). Also,during practice periods, the learners' performance will graduallyimprove until some asymptotic (maximal) level is reached. If thelearners are allowed to rest, and then resume practice, theirperformance will tend to exceed their previous asymptotic level(reminiscence effect). Learners that are provided rest or someother form of diversion between practice periods will reach higherlevels of performance than learners who practice straight throughwithout rest or diversion. - 7 Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles ofBehavior. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:
103 Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) If you want truly to understand something, try tochange it. - KurtLewin
104 Organization Behavior In 1946, social scientist Kurt Lewin launches the Research Center for Group Dynamicsat the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His contributions in change theory, actionresearch, and action learning earn him the title of the "father of organizationdevelopment."Lewin is renown for his field theory. The field theory is the "proposition that humanbehavior is the function of both the person and the environment: expressed in symbolicterms, B = f (P, E)." This means that one's behavior is related to both one's personalcharacteristics and to the social situation in which one finds oneself.Lewin is best known for his work in the field of organization behavior and the study ofgroup dynamics. His research discovered that learning is best facilitated when there is aconflict between immediate concrete experience and detached analysis within theindividual. His cycle of action, reflection, generalization, and testing is characteristic ofexperiential learning:
105 T-GroupsIn 1947, the National Training Laboratories Institute starts up in the Bethel ME. Theypioneer the use of T-groups (Sensitivity or Laboratory Training) in which the learnersuse feedback, problem solving, and role play to gain insights into themselves, others, andgroups. The goal is to change the standards, attitudes and behavior of individuals.This type of training is controversial as the behaviors it encourages are oftenself-disclosure and openness, which many people believe an organization ultimatelypunishes. Also, a lot of the sensitivity training taking place uses excessive activities. Thefeedback used in this type of training can be highly personal, hence it must be given byhighly trained observers (trainers).
106 Organizational Development A group of researchers from London's Tavistock Institute of HumanRelations, led by Eric Trist, studied a South Yorkshire coal mine in1949. Their research leads in the development of the SociotechnicalSystems Theory which considers both the social and the technicalaspects when designing jobs. It marks a 180-degree departure fromFrederick Taylor's scientific management.
107 There are four basic components to sociotechnical theory: environment subsystem, social subsystem, technical subsystem, andorganizational design.
108 Cognitive Science"I think, thereforeI am" - DescartesDescartes arguedthat the ultimatetruth can bededuced only fromthe real existenceof a "thinkingself." He assumedthat the "thinkingself" isindependent ofbody or matter, asit does have anextension we cansee and touch butdoes not think, amind has noextension butthinks.
109 By the mid 1950s, cognitive views of learning and development gained dominance over the stimulus-response approach. With this renewed interest, research went into deeperlevels into how individuals acquire, retain, recall and transform information. CognitivePsychology is an approach to the study of the human mind that relies on an informationprocessing metaphor and tests predictions of theories using human subjects engaged incognitive tasks.
110 The early views of mind had the Greek philosophers identifying three aspects of the mind: Cognition (acts of intellect), conation (acts of will), and affect (acts of emotions)These are related to what we today identify as the distinction between structure(organization) and process (action).
111 Instructional Systems Design (ISD) or System Approach to Training (SAT) ISD ModelInstructional systems design arose out of the 50-60's as educational technologydevelopment paralleled and modeled the systems approach emerging within the militaryand industrial worlds. The traditional approach to education was viewed as piecemeal.ISD attempted to integrate all the components of the instructional process into a system. This was accomplished by developing instructional systems with flow charts or lists ofsteps to be followed. The term task analysis was used by the Air Force in the early1950s to refer to procedures for anticipating the job requirements of new equipmentunder development.
112 Don Kirkpatrick and Evaluating Training EvaluationDon Kirkpatrick introduces his four-level model of evaluating training in 19591.Reaction - measures how those who participate in the program react to it.2.Learning - the extent to which participants change attitudes, improve knowledge,and increase skill as a result of attending the program.3.Behavior - the extent to which a change in behavior has occurred because theparticipants attended the training program.4.Results - the final results that occurred because the participants attended theprogram.
113 Herzberg's Hygiene and Motivational Factors In 1959, Frederick Herzberg developed a list of factors which are closely based onMaslow's Hierarchy of Needs, except it more closely related to work. Hygiene factorsmust be present in the job before motivators can be used to stimulate the workers:
114 Hygiene or Dissatisfiers: Working conditionsPolicies and administrative practicesSalary and BenefitsSupervisionStatusJob securityFellow workersPersonal life
115 Motivators or Satisfiers: RecognitionAchievementAdvancementGrowthResponsibilityJob challenge
116 B. F. Skinner (1904 -1990) Skinner designed an apparatus, called a Skinner box, that allowed him to formulateimportant principles of animal learning. Ananimal placed inside the box is rewardedwith a small bit of food each time it makesthe desired response, such as pressing alever or pecking a key. A device outside thebox records the animal's responses.B. F. Skinner's (Burrhus Frederick Skinner) elaboration of thetheory of reinforcement and his advocacy of its application tolearning helped to establish the Behaviorism and ProgrammedInstruction movement. Programmed instruction is characterizedby clearly stated behavioral objectives, small frames ofinstruction, self-pacing, active learner response to insertedquestions, and immediate feedback regarding the correctness of aresponse. Individualized instruction in essence replaces theteacher with systematic or programmed materials. Individualizedinstruction can be print-based, computer-based, or can use othermedia as long as the instruction is based on the concepts listedabove. It is linear, in that the author of the materials decided whatstep to present next, and that step is presented, no matter whatthe learner wants. Although logical subject matter is easier toindividualize into programmed materials, researchers have notfound any subject matter that could not be programmed.During his 60-year career, Skinner discovered importantprinciples of operant conditioning, a type of learning that involvesrewards and punishments. A strict behaviorist, Skinner believedthat operant conditioning could explain even the most complex ofhuman behaviors.In 1958, Skinner built a rote-and-drill teaching machine.Individualized instruction was originally presented in book form,and sometimes still is. In order to prevent students from lookingat the answers in the book ahead of time, Program Instructionbecame automated by inserting it into a teaching machine.Teaching machines are devices that house, display, and presentprinted programmed instruction. Feedback is given when theprogram is advanced through actuation of a lever and the correctanswer comes to view.Programmed instruction is linear, in that the author of thematerials decided what step to present next, and that step ispresented, no matter what the learner wants. Later, in 1958,Norman Crowder developed what is called "intrinsic" or"branching" programming, in which the learner's possibleresponses are multiple choice, and the program branchesaccording to the response chosen. In this way students could skipsteps they already knew, or study remedial material oninformation already presented
117 Theory X and Theory YDouglas McGreagor developed a philosophical view of humankind with his Theory Xand Theory Y in These are two opposing perceptions about how people viewhuman behavior at work and organizational life.
118 Theory X - With Theory X assumptions, management's role is to coerce and control employees.People have an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it whenever possible.People must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment inorder to get them to achieve the organizational objectives.People prefer to be directed, do not want responsibility, and have little or noambition.People seek security above all else.
119 Theory Y - With Theory Y assumptions, management's role is to develop the potential in employees and help them to release that potential towards common goals.Work is as natural as play and rest.People will exercise self-direction if they are committed to the objectives (theyare NOT lazy).Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with theirachievement.People learn to accept and seek responsibility.Creativity, ingenuity, and imagination are widely distributed among the population.People are capable of using these abilities to solve an organizational problem.People have potential.
120 Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Rogers and Feedback Best known for his contribution to client-centered therapy,Rogers was one of the founders of humanistic psychology,which promotes a more person-to-person approach to thetraditional therapist-patient relationship, and emphasizes theresponsibility and intention in human behavior. Rogers also hadmuch to say about educationquestions with regard to their way of being with participants,and the processes they might employ. Informal education is notso much person-centered as dialogical. . His ability to link elementstogether - helps to put into context his later achievements. Theconcern with opening up to, and theorizing from experience,the concept of the human organism as a whole and the belief inthe possibilities of human action have their parallels in the workof John Dewey. Carl Rogers was able to join these withtherapeutic insights and the belief, borne out of his practiceexperience that the client usually knows better to how toproceed than the therapist. He was also a committedpractitioner who looked to his own experiences (and was, thus,difficult to dismiss as 'academic). In short, he offered a newway, a break with earlier traditions.Freedom to Learn (1969; 1983; 1993) is a classic statementof educational possibility. Carl Rogers, himself, was a giftedteacher. His approach grew from his orientation in one-to-oneprofessional encounters. He saw himself as a facilitator - onewho created the environment for engagement. Carl Rogers hasprovided educators with some fascinating and importantquestions with regard to their way of being with participants, and the processes they might employ. Informal education is notso much person-centered as dialogical.
121 Albert Bandura Learning by Observing Observational Learning Links Self-Efficacy LinksIn the early 1960s, Albert Bandura began a series of writings thatchallenged the older explanations of imitative learning and expand the topicinto what is now referred to as Observational Learning. According toBandura, observation learning may or may not involve imitation. Forexample if you see someone driving in front of you hit a pothole, and thenyou swerve to miss it - you learned from observational learning, notimitation. What you learned was information in which you processedcognitively and then acted upon. Observational learning is much morecomplex than simple imitation. Bandura's theory is often referred to as"social learning theory" as it emphasizes the role of vicarious experience(observation) of people impacting people (models). Modeling has severalaffects on learners:
122 Acquisition - New responses are learned by observing the model. Inhibition - A response that otherwise may be made is changedwhen the observer sees a model being punished.Disinhibition - A reduction in fear by observing a model's behaviorgo unpunished in a feared activity.
123 Facilitation - A model elicits from an observer a response that has already been learned.Creativity - Observing several models performing and then adaptinga combination of characteristics or styles.In one experiment, twenty-four preschool children were assigned to eachof three conditions. One group observed aggressive adult models; asecond observed inhibited non-aggressive models; while the control grouphad no prior exposure to the models. Subjects were then tested for theamount of imitative as well as nonimitative aggression performed in a newsituation in the absence of the models. Comparison of the subjects'behavior in the generalization situation revealed that subjects exposed toaggressive models reproduced a good deal of aggression resembling thatof the models, and that their mean scores differed markedly from those ofsubjects in the nonaggressive and control groups. Subjects in theaggressive condition also exhibited significantly more partially imitative andnonimitative aggressive behavior and were generally less inhibited in theirbehavior than subjects in the nonaggressive condition.- Transmission of Aggression Through Imitation of Aggressive Models,Albert Bandura, Dorothea Ross, and Sheila A. Ross (1961): Firstpublished in Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63,
124 CuingCuing refers to actions that make stimuli more salient and thus more likelyto be noticed. Attention can be cued directly, e.g., "Watch this!", orindirectly, e.g., "I wonder what will happen when I push this button?" Ingeneral, cuing includes the directing of attention through pointing, holdingobjects up for viewing, telling learners where to look, or asking questionsthat will cause them to process information and find the appropriatestimulus.
125 Self-EfficacyBandura also researched self-efficacy. This is part of our "self system" thathelps us to evaluate our performance. Perceived self-efficacy refers toone's impression of what one is capable of doing. This comes from avariety of sources, such as personal accomplishments and failures, seeingothers who are similar to oneself, and verbal persuasion.
126 Verbal persuasionmay temporarily convince people that they should try or avoid some task,but in the final analysis it is one's direct or vicarious experience withsuccess or failure that will most strongly influence one's self-efficacy. Forexample, a coach may "fire-up" her team before a game by telling the teamhow great they are, but the enthusiasm will be short-lived if the opposingteam is clearly superior. People with high perceived self-efficacy try more,accomplish more, and persist longer at a tank than people with lowperceived self-efficacy. Bandura speculated that this is because peoplewith high perceived self-efficacy tend to have more control over theirenvironment and therefore experience less uncertainty. Also, one'sperceived self-efficacy may not correspond to one's real self-efficacy
127 Instructional DesignIn 1962, Robert Glaser synthesized the work of previous researchers and introducedthe concept of instructional design. He also advocated Individually PrescribedInstruction (IPI), an approach where the results of a learner's placement test are usedto plan learner-specific instruction.Glaser is also credited with the first use of the term criterion-referenced measures, aform of evaluation that departed from the peer-referenced measures that came before.
128 Performance Objectives In 1962, Robert Mager published his work Preparing Instructional Objectives on theconstruction of performance objectives. An objective describes in measurable terms ofwho an objective targets, the behavior they will exhibit, the conditions or limitationsunder which they must carry out this behavior, and the criteria against which theirbehavior will be gauged.
129 Performance or learning objectives are often defined as the task (behavior), condition, and standard. For example, "From memory, list the three requirements of a well-statedperformance objective without error."
130 Task - list the three requirements of a well-stated performance objective Condition - From memoryStandard - without error
131 Robert Gagne Conditions For Learning To Occur In 1962 when Robert Gagne published Military Training and Principles ofLearning he demonstrated a concern for the different levels of learning. Hisdifferentiation of psychomotor skills, verbal information, intellectual skills,cognitive strategies, and attitudes provides a companion to Bloom's TaxonomyLater, he extended his thinking to include nine instructional events ( TheConditions of Learning and the Theory of Instruction (1965)) that detail theconditions necessary for learning to occur
132 . These events are still important for the basis for the design of instruction and the selection of appropriate media: 1.gain attention2.tell learners the learning objective3.stimulate recall4.present the stimulus, content5.provide guidance, relevance, and organization6.elicit the learning by demonstrating it7.provide feedback on performance8.assess performance, give feedback and reinforcement9.enhance retention and transfer to other contexts
133 Gagne also distinguished eight different classes of situations in which human beings learn: 1.Signal Learning - The individual learns to make a general, diffuseresponse to a signal. Such was the classical conditioned response ofPavlov.2.Stimulus-Response Learning - The learner acquires a precise responseto a discriminated stimulus.3.Chaining - A chain of two or more stimulus-response connections isacquired.
134 4.Verbal Association - The learning of chains that are verbal. 5.Discrimination Learning - The individual learns to make differentidentifying responses to many different stimuli which may resemble eachother in physical appearance.6.Concept Learning - The learner acquires a capability of making acommon response to a class of stimuli.
135 7.Rule Learning - A rule is a chain of two or more concepts. 8.Problem Solving - A kind of learning that requires the internal eventsusually called thinking.
136 The Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid Management GridIn 1964 Robert Blake and Jane Mouton develop a model that conceptualizesmanagement styles and relations.Their Grid uses two axis. "Concern for people" is plotted using the vertical axis and"Concern for task" is along the horizontal axis. They both have a range of 1 to 9. Thenotion that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behavior has the attraction ofsimplicity.
137 Alan ToughTough's first work: (1968), Why Adults Learn: A Study of the Major Reasonsfor Beginning and Continuing a Learning Project. Toronto: Ontario Institutefor Studies in Education, explained why adult learners expect the learningexperience to mirror their feelings of autonomy and self-worth, and toacknowledge their life experience.In 1979 he wrote The Adult's Learning Projects. Research in Education SeriesNo. 1. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. In this book, heexplained how most adult learning takes place outside of institutional frameworks.According to the research of Alan Tough, the overwhelming majority (about 70%)of adult learning takes place outside institutional frameworks. Note that about 20%of the learning are supported by others who are not professionals helpers, such assupervisors, colleagues, parents, friends, etc. Professional helpers, such asteachers, trainers, and counselors direct only about 5% of our learning. This couldbe attributed to the following:The learner has a desire to control the learning process.Non-institutional learning allows for a flexible time commitment.Non-institutional learning is attainable at a low cost.Tough demonstrated that many adults are active, self-directed learners and theywant to learn! No one has to force them. He showed that adults have a largefoundation of knowledge and skill upon which they base further growth anddevelopment. They are motivated by life situations to immediately apply newknowledge and skills. Tough's recommendation is that educators should spend lesstime teaching specific content and more time helping adults learn.
138 Fred Keller - The Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) Research on PSIAlso know as the Keller plan. First described by Fred Keller in Good ByeTeacher - Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (1968). It is composedof small self-paced modularized units of instructions where study guidesdirect learners through the modules. Unit tests are given on each modulewhere the learners must show mastery by scoring at least a 90%. Studentproctors are used to help with individual problems and lectures are givenfor motivational problems only. PSI combines "mastery learning" withprinciples of reinforcement learning theory. Mastery learning requires thatthe desired student performance be stated precisely using performance orlearning objectives.The modules can consists of reading assignments, films, audio tapes, field trips, programmed instruction, conducting an experiment, conducting aninterview, etc. The performance evaluations can be essays, multiple choice,oral exams, written report, etc. Although not required, bonus points areencouraged to be given to learners who complete the tests in a timelymanner since procrastination in a self-paced course is the biggest problem.
139 Keller divided the process for creating PSI into four steps: Determine the material to be covered in the course.Divide the material into self contained modules (segments).Create methods of evaluating the degree to which the learner has conquered the material in a given module.Allow learners to move from module to module at their own pace.
140 "(1) The go-at-your-own pace feature, which permits a student to move through the course at a speed commensurate with his ability and otherdemands of his time. (2) The unit-perfection requirement for advance, which lets the student go ahead to new material only after demonstratingmastery of that which preceded. (3) The use of lectures anddemonstrations as vehicles of motivation, rather than sources of critical
141 permits repeated testing, immediate scoring, almost unavoidable tutoring, and a marked enhancement of the personal-social aspect of theeducational process". - Fred Keller - "Good-Bye Teacher..." (1968)Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.
142 Malcom KnowlesIn 1970, Malcom Knowles began to popularize andragogy by advocating the adultlearning theory - a set of assumptions that characterize adult learners. Knowles identifiesfour characteristics of adults as learners:
143 a self-concept tending towards self-direction a growing reservoir of experiencea developmental readiness to learna problem-centered and present reality orientation to learning.
144 He also taught us that students enter with learner self-concepts shaped by the realities of a classroom experience that taught them to be dependent and passive, two potentiallyfatal learner attributes in a distance learning environment. As Malcolm put it sosuccinctly, "most of us only know how to be taught, we haven't learned how to learn.""We are nearing the end of the era of our edifice complex and its basic belief thatrespectable learning takes place only in buildings and on campuses. Adults are beginningto demand that their learning take place at a time, place, and pace convenient to them.In fact, I feel confident that most educational services by the end of this century (if notdecade) will be delivered electronically Our great challenge now is to find ways to maintain the human touch as we learn to use the media in new ways." - Malcolm S.Knowles in 1984 From Andragogy in Action.
146 Performance Through Excellence In 1978, Tom Gilbert published Human Competence: Engineering WorthyPerformance. It describes the behavioral-engineering model which become the bibleof performance technology.Gilbert wrote that accomplishment specification is the only logical way to defineperformance requirements. Accomplishments are the best starting points for developingperformance standards. In addition, accomplishments are the best tools for thedevelopment of performance-based job descriptions as they allow management todescribe the measurement that is important to the organization, specific to the position,and observable. Exemplary performers represent an organization's ideal workforce, yet they normallymake up less than 15% of employees. This performance gap provides an opportunityfor organizations to significantly improve workforce performance. Quantifying the gapbetween exemplary and average employees demonstrates the tremendous potential fororganizations to increase the performance of their workforces. Gilbert taught us thathelping employees become exemplary performers is still the most effective way fororganizations to get the greatest possible return on their training and performanceimprovement investments.
147 Lifelong LearningPatricia Cross' 1981 book, Adults as learners described three features oflifelong learning: A more holistic concept of growth or education than that which has beenused in traditional formal education.A wider view of providers of and settings for education than merelyschools (what she terms the learning society).The active agency or self-directedness of the learner throughout the lifespan.Distance education has created a major shift in how educators and students thinkabout teaching and learning. By allowing students to learn in locations and timesthat are more convenient, distance education opens educational opportunity topreviously unreachable populations. It also enables more people to extend theperiod of their education from a limited number of schooling years to a lifelonglearning process.
148 Howard Gardner and Multiple Intelligences Gardner suggests that our intelligences are organized 'vertically', as a number of almostdifferent faculties, rather than 'horizontally', as a set of general abilities. This viewpointwas in direct contrast to many of the language and logic theorists who believe that therewas only one kind of intelligence, that we either had a lot of it or not that much, and thatthere was virtually very little that we could be do about that.Howard Gardner is a Professor of Cognition and Education at Harvard University andCo-Director of Harvard’s Project Zero. He is widely known for his Theory of MultipleIntelligences, introduced in his book Frames of Mind (1983). In his book, Gardnerproposed a novel notion: the psychological construct 'intelligence' should be formallymeasured in more ways than simply through the widely accepted logical/linguistic IQ-typeformalized tests used in most school systems. Frames was very well received by those inthe educational arena.
149 In Frames, Gardner theorized eight basic intelligences to represent these other modes: linguistic-verbal (most widely accepted)logical-mathematical (most widely accepted)visual-spatialbodily-kinestheticmusical-rhythmicinterpersonal (most criticized)intrapersonal (most criticized)naturalist (recently added)
150 Kolb's Learning StylesKolb's Experiential Learning: Experience as the source of learning and development(1984) theorized that people develop preferences for different learning styles in the sameway that they develop any other sort of style, i.e. - management, leadership, negotiatingetc.To understand the value of the learning inventory, learners must first have a basicunderstanding of the experiential learning model and know what their preferred learningstyle is. This model provides a framework for identifying students' learning stylepreferences.David Kolb (1984) found that the four combinations of perceiving and processingdetermine the four learning styles. According to Kolb, the learning cycle involves fourprocesses that must be present for learning to occur:Activist - Active Experimentation (simulations, case study, homework). What'snew? I'm game for anything. Training approach - Problem solving, small groupdiscussions, peer feedback, and homework all helpful; trainer should be a model ofa professional, leaving the learner to determine her own criteria for relevance ofmaterials. Reflector - Reflective Observation (logs, journals, brainstorming). I'd like time tothink about this. Training approach - Lectures are helpful; trainer should provideexpert interpretation (taskmaster/guide); judge performance by external criteria.Theorist - Abstract Conceptualization (lecture, papers, analogies). How does thisrelate to that? Training approach - Case studies, theory readings and thinking alonehelps; almost everything else, including talking with experts, isPragmatist - Concrete Experience (laboratories, field work, observations). How canI apply this in practice? Training approach - Peer feedback is helpful; activitiesshould apply skills; trainer is coach/helper for a self-directed autonomous learner. not helpful.
151 Adult EducationStephen Brookfield's Understanding and Facilitating Adult Learning (1986)summarized six leading principles of adult education:voluntary participation in learningmutual respect among participantscollaborative facilitationa praxis approach to teaching/learningthe necessity of critical reflection upon the breadth of life, anda proactive and self-directed empowerment of participants.Adult Education includes all forms of schooling and learning programs in which adultsparticipate. Unlike other types of education, adult education is defined by the studentpopulation rather than by the content or complexity of a learning program. It includesliteracy training, community development, university credit programs, on-the-jobtraining, and continuing professional education. Programs vary in organization fromcasual, incidental learning to formal college credit courses.
152 Computer Based Training (CBT) Although PLATO, the first dedicated computer based training system,was built in 1959, CBT did not really come around until the late 80s orearly 1990s. The early CBT programs were little more than programmedinstruction teaching machines. It was not until the 1990s that theirmultimedia capabilities were put to full use. It is based on individualizedinstruction that allows a learner to work through the material at her ownpace. It is a natural progression from printed individualized instruction andteaching machines to the computer with its speed, branching capabilityand visual display.The definition of CBT is close to the definition of individualized training -an interactive learning experience between a learner and a computer inwhich the computer provides the majority of the stimulus, the learner mustrespond, and the computer analyzes the response and provides feedbackto the learner. Its multimedia function has added the capability ofdisplaying information in audio, graphic, and motion video form, whichmakes the teaching of skills and processes more effective than if only textwere used. Individualized instruction delivered over the World WideWeb is a further development of computer-based training. Web-basedinstruction can be used with any type of computer that can access theinternet and that has web browser software.
153 Learning Organization In 1990, Peter Senge popularized the "Learning Organization" in The Fifth Discipline:The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization .He describes the organizationas an organism with the capacity to enhance its capabilities and shape its own future. Alearning organization is any organization (e.g. school, business, government agency) thatunderstands itself as a complex, organic system that has a vision and purpose. It usesfeedback systems and alignment mechanisms to achieve its goals. It values teams andleadership throughout the ranks.He followed that book with 1999's The Dance of Change: The Challenge toSustaining Momentum in Learning Organizations which shows the difficulty ofachieving the learning organization.
154 The five disciplines are: 1.System Thinking - It allows one to look at the events in an organization and see apattern of complex relationships.2.Personal Mastery - Seeing what is and what could be and then changing to meetthe vision.3.Mental Models - Assumptions about how we see the world.4.Shared Vision - A team competency in which everyone has a common goal orshared picture.5.Team Learning - The team suspend their assumptions and take up dialogue thatembraces the collective good.