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If we know anything, it is because we stand on the backs of Giants! Origins of todays Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment.

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Presentation on theme: "If we know anything, it is because we stand on the backs of Giants! Origins of todays Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment."— Presentation transcript:

1 If we know anything, it is because we stand on the backs of Giants! Origins of todays Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment

2 Lao-Tse (also Lao-tzu) In the 5th-century BC, this philosopher wrote: "If you tell me, I will listen. "If you tell me, I will listen. If you show me, I will see. If you show me, I will see. But if you let me experience, I will learn." But if you let me experience, I will learn."

3 Socrates ( BC) In 300 BC, he engaged his learners by asking questions (know as the Socratic or dialectic method). He often insisted that he really knew nothing, but his questioning skills allowed others to learn by self- generated understanding.

4 Plato ( BC), A student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, he wrote down the Dialogues, which have inspired thinkers for more than two thousand years. Plato called this process the dialectic, and considered it the pinnacle of learning..

5 Plato founded what is said to be the first university - his Academy (near Athens) around 385 BC.

6 Along with many others in his time, Aristotle ( BC) placed a strong emphasis on an all-round and balanced development.

7 techne Although we often view the term technology as hardware items, it is actually a system of practical knowledge. Technology is derived from the ancient Greek word techne.

8 Education for work had its beginning in about 2000 B.C. [organized apprenticeship] for scribes in Egypt.

9 Code of Hammurabi The rules for governing apprenticeships were included in the Code of Hammurabi, who placed a code of his laws in the temple of Shamash in 2100 B.C.

10 Guilds, associations of people who interests or pursuits were the same or similar, were an important part in apprenticeship as they established the quality standards for the product and practice.

11 Apprenticeship In the centuries that preceded the introduction of machine-made parts, craftsmanship of high order was required to manufacture accurate, durable clocks and watches

12 When schools became organized around the 10th century, the writings and methods of the great teachers, such as Socrates and Lao-Tse, were forgotten, and teaching was performed by transmitting content from teacher to students.

13 Today, the term has taken on new meaning. Now, with many schools using active inquiry techniques, the term "pedagogy" does not really apply to passive methods. In fact, it now closely resembles the term "andragogy," except it is used to refer to children. Today, the term has taken on new meaning. Now, with many schools using active inquiry techniques, the term "pedagogy" does not really apply to passive methods. In fact, it now closely resembles the term "andragogy," except it is used to refer to children.

14 Early Schools and Pedagogy Education may be thought of as the transmission of the values and accumulated knowledge of a society. In this sense, it is equivalent to what social scientists term socialization or enculturation. Education may be thought of as the transmission of the values and accumulated knowledge of a society. In this sense, it is equivalent to what social scientists term socialization or enculturation.

15 When adult learning became systematized early in this century, pedagology was the only known means to train. Two books written in the 1920s began to change the term "adult learning" - Thorndike's and Lindeman's Two books written in the 1920s began to change the term "adult learning" - Thorndike's Adult Learning and Lindeman's The Meaning of Adult Education

16 In pedagogy, development is based upon a content plan: What content needs to be covered? What content needs to be covered? How can this content be organized into manageable units or modules? How can this content be organized into manageable units or modules? How can this content be transmitted in a logical sequence? How can this content be transmitted in a logical sequence? What would be the most effective method for transmitting this content (media)? What would be the most effective method for transmitting this content (media)?

17 In andragogy, development is based upon a process design: Design and manage a process for facilitating the acquisition of content by the learners. Design and manage a process for facilitating the acquisition of content by the learners. Serve as a content resource and provide leads for other content resources (e.g. peers, supervisors, specialists). Serve as a content resource and provide leads for other content resources (e.g. peers, supervisors, specialists).

18 In pedagogy, the concern is with transmitting the content, while in andragogy, the concern is with facilitating the acquisition of the content. In pedagogy, the concern is with transmitting the content, while in andragogy, the concern is with facilitating the acquisition of the content.

19 Czech educational reformer and religious leader, born in Moravia (now part of the Czech Republic), and educated at the University of Heidelberg. In 1638 he was invited by Sweden to assist in educational reforms. Czech educational reformer and religious leader, born in Moravia (now part of the Czech Republic), and educated at the University of Heidelberg. In 1638 he was invited by Sweden to assist in educational reforms. John Comenius Latin Name (Jan Komensky) ( )

20 In the mid 17th century, Comenius created a new educational philosophy called Pansophism, or universal knowledge, designed to bring about worldwide understanding and peace

21 John Locke An English philosopher, set out the principles of empiricism. He advanced the hypothesis that people learn primarily from external forces. Locke examined how people acquire ideas in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690).

22 Locke believed that individuals acquire knowledge most easily when they first consider simple ideas and then gradually combine them into more complex ones.

23 While John Locke developed a theory of testing for the validity of knowledge and John Comenius established that children learn better from experience, who supported these educational approaches?

24 Jean Jacques Rousseau His Social Contract is a classic defense of the democratic form of government. Rousseau trusted the "general will" of a democratic people, as expressed by a vote of the majority, to make all important decisions. His Social Contract is a classic defense of the democratic form of government. Rousseau trusted the "general will" of a democratic people, as expressed by a vote of the majority, to make all important decisions.

25 Jean Jacques Rousseau Rousseau's unconventional views antagonized French and Swiss authorities and alienated many of his friends, and in 1762 he fled first to Prussia and then to England. Rousseau's unconventional views antagonized French and Swiss authorities and alienated many of his friends, and in 1762 he fled first to Prussia and then to England. There, he was befriended by the Scottish philosopher David Hume, but they soon quarreled and denounced each other in public letters.

26 Jean Jacques Rousseau He wrote the influential Emile (1762). Rousseau expounded a new theory of education emphasizing the importance of expression rather than repression to produce a well-balanced, freethinking child. He wrote the influential Emile (1762). Rousseau expounded a new theory of education emphasizing the importance of expression rather than repression to produce a well-balanced, freethinking child.

27 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi Pestalozzi theories laid the groundwork for modern elementary education. Pestalozzi theories laid the groundwork for modern elementary education. He stressed the of the child and the He stressed the individuality of the child and the necessity for teachers to be taught how to develop rather than to try to implant knowledge.

28 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi In the late 1700's he put Rousseau's theories into practice and thus became the first applied educational psychologist.

29 Pestalozzi developed a so-called "object lesson" that involved exercises in learning form, number, and language. Pupils determined and traced an object's form, counted objects, and named them. Students progressed from these lessons to exercises in drawing, writing, adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, and reading.

30 He employed the following principles in teaching (viewed as correct even today): (1) begin with the concrete object before introducing abstract concepts; (2) begin with the immediate environment before dealing with what is distant and remote; (3) begin with easy exercises before introducing complex ones; and (4) always proceed gradually, cumulatively, and slowly

31 Johann Friedrich Herbart ( ) German philosopher, psychologist, and German philosopher, psychologist, and educator; Johann Friedrich Herbart educator; Johann Friedrich Herbart is acknowledged as the "father of is acknowledged as the "father of scientific pedagogy". scientific pedagogy".

32 Herbart was the first scientist to distinguish instructional process from subject matter. Herbart was the first scientist to distinguish instructional process from subject matter. According to Herbart, interest develops when already strong and vivid ideas are hospitable towards new ones, thus past associations motivate apperception of current ones. According to Herbart, interest develops when already strong and vivid ideas are hospitable towards new ones, thus past associations motivate apperception of current ones.

33 He also stressed the study of the psychological processes of learning as a means of devising educational programs based on the aptitudes, abilities, and interests of students.

34 Herbart stressed the study of the psychological processes of learning as a means of devising educational programs based on the aptitudes, abilities, and interests of students.

35 Herbart's five-step teaching method: Herbart's five-step teaching method: 1. Prepare the pupils to be ready for the new lesson. 2. Present the new lesson. 3. Associate the new lesson with ideas studied earlier. 4. Use examples to illustrate the lesson's major points. 5. Test pupils to ensure they had learned the new lesson.

36 Lyceum The largest early adult education program in the U.S., the Lyceum, founded in Massachusetts in 1826 by Josiah Holbrook It was a local association of men and women with some schooling who wanted to expand their own education while working to establish a public school system.

37 In the early 1800s, factory schools were created, due to the industrial revolution, in which workers were trained in classrooms within the factory walls.

38 Vestibule Training Towards the end of the 1800s, a method that combined the benefits of the classroom with the benefits of on-the-job training, called vestibule training, became a popular form of training (near-the-job) training, so called as it offers access to called as it offers access to something new (learning). something new (learning).

39 Vestibule Training There are many advantages of vestibule training. The workers are trained as if on the job, but it did not interfere with the more vital task of production. The workers are trained as if on the job, but it did not interfere with the more vital task of production. Transfer of skills and knowledge to the workplace was not required since the classroom was a model of the working environment. Transfer of skills and knowledge to the workplace was not required since the classroom was a model of the working environment. Classes were small so that the learners received immediate feedback and could ask questions more easily. Classes were small so that the learners received immediate feedback and could ask questions more easily.

40 Case Method (Case Study) Although the case method does not actually provide real experiences, it is personal as it puts the burden of thinking on the learners and arouses their interest by making them active participants. Although the case method does not actually provide real experiences, it is personal as it puts the burden of thinking on the learners and arouses their interest by making them active participants.

41 Case Studies In the 1880s, Christopher Langdell, the dean of the Harvard Law School, revived the case method that the early Chinese Philosophers used. It slowly won acceptance in the schools of business, law, and medicine.

42 Correspondence Schools Correspondence Education is a method of Correspondence Education is a method of instruction conducted through the mail instruction conducted through the mail by a school or other qualified by a school or other qualified institution. institution.

43 In 1883, the first correspondence program in the United States gained academic respectability through recognition by the State of New York, as a valid educational program was the Chautauqua Institute, which trained Sunday school teachers.

44 Correspondence education developed in the mid-19th century in Great Britain, France, Germany, and the United States, and spread rapidly. In 1840, the English educator Sir Isaac Pitman taught shorthand by mail.

45 Many educators consider correspondence education the precursor of distance education, which is instruction that uses different communication technologies such as the internet, telephones, radio, or television.

46 World War I - Show, Tell, Do, and Check To solve an urgent need to train shipyard workers in 1917, Charles R. Allen adapted Herbart's five-step process. He called it the "Show, Tell, Do, and Check" method of job instruction.

47 Prepare the Workers - Put them at ease. Prepare the Workers - Put them at ease. Find out what they already know about the job. Find out what they already know about the job. Get them interested in learning. Get them interested in learning. Place each in a correct position. Place each in a correct position.

48 Present the Operation Present the Operation Tell, show, illustrate, and question carefully and patiently. Tell, show, illustrate, and question carefully and patiently. Stress key points. Stress key points. Instruct clearly and completely, taking up one point at a time, but no more than they can master. Instruct clearly and completely, taking up one point at a time, but no more than they can master.

49 Try Out Performance Try Out Performance Test them by having them perform the job. Test them by having them perform the job. Have them tell and show you, have them explain key points. Have them tell and show you, have them explain key points. Ask questions and correct answers. Ask questions and correct answers. Continue until you know that they know. Continue until you know that they know.

50 Follow Up - Put them on their own Follow Up - Put them on their own Designate who they go to for help. Designate who they go to for help. Check frequently. Check frequently. Encourage questions. Encourage questions. Get them to look for key points as they progress. Get them to look for key points as they progress. Taper off extra coaching and close follow- ups. Taper off extra coaching and close follow- ups.

51 John Dewey ( ) John Dewey emphasized practical ideas in both his philosophical and educational theories, always striving to show how abstract concepts could work in everyday life. He emphasized hands-on learning, and opposed authoritarian methods in teaching.

52 Considered to be the leading progressive educator of this century, John Dewey wrote on the great issues in education.

53 John Dewey's significance for informal educators lies in a number of areas. John Dewey's significance for informal educators lies in a number of areas. First, his belief that education must engage with and enlarge experience has continued to be a significant component in informal education practice

54 Second, and linked to this, Dewey's exploration of - and the associated role of educators - has continued to be an inspiration. Second, and linked to this, Dewey's exploration of thinking and reflection - and the associated role of educators - has continued to be an inspiration. He criticized educational methods that simply amused and entertained students or were overly vocational. He criticized educational methods that simply amused and entertained students or were overly vocational.

55 He also advocated education that would fulfill and enrich the current lives of students as well as prepare them for the future.

56 Role-playing Adult learners can Adult learners can keep tuned into a keep tuned into a lecture for no more lecture for no more than 15 to 20 than 15 to 20 minutes at a time minutes at a time

57 Role Playing Links Dr. J. L. Moreno designs the first known role playing techniques in Dr. J. L. Moreno designs the first known role playing techniques in Role playing is a primary technique to provide participation and involvement in the learning process. In a training environment, role playing allows the learner to receiveobjective feedback about one's performance Role playing is a primary technique to provide participation and involvement in the learning process. In a training environment, role playing allows the learner to receiveobjective feedback about one's performance

58 Role playing techniques can be used to Role playing techniques can be used to diagnose interactive skills, to provide models and practice, and to motivate individuals to pay more. attention to their interpersonal impact. One of its primary benefits is that it diagnose interactive skills, to provide models and practice, and to motivate individuals to pay more. attention to their interpersonal impact. One of its primary benefits is that it allows the learner to experience a real life situation in a protected environment allows the learner to experience a real life situation in a protected environment

59 Frederick Winslow Taylor ( ) Taylor called his method Scientific Management, which used time and motion studies to find the one best way to accomplish a task.

60 Pavlov conducted, perhaps, the most famous of all psychological experiments (1927) when conducted, perhaps, the most famous of all psychological experiments (1927) when he showed that by pairing a conditioned stimulus (a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus he showed that by pairing a conditioned stimulus (a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (food), a dog would begin to salivate (response) when the bell was rung without presenting (food), a dog would begin to salivate (response) when the bell was rung without presenting the food. the food.

61 In the early twentieth century a new movement in the field of Psychology was In the early twentieth century a new movement in the field of Psychology was being felt in educational research - behaviorism. This is a theory proposed by J.B. being felt in educational research - behaviorism. This is a theory proposed by J.B. Watson and based on the works of Pavlov and Bekhterev, two Russian psychologists who developed an animal training model known as Watson and based on the works of Pavlov and Bekhterev, two Russian psychologists who developed an animal training model known as stimulus-response (Classical Conditioning). stimulus-response (Classical Conditioning).

62 Watson argued that such conditioning is the basis of human behavior - if you stand Watson argued that such conditioning is the basis of human behavior - if you stand up every time a lady enters the room, you're acting not out of 'politeness', but up every time a lady enters the room, you're acting not out of 'politeness', but because behavior is a chain of well-set reflexes. He claimed that "recency" and because behavior is a chain of well-set reflexes. He claimed that "recency" and "frequency" were particularly important in determining what behavior an individual "frequency" were particularly important in determining what behavior an individual 'emitted' next: if you usually get up when a lady enters the room, you're likely to 'emitted' next: if you usually get up when a lady enters the room, you're likely to get up when one enters now. get up when one enters now.

63 Gestalt Saxophone player or lady? Saxophone player or lady?

64 The word Gestalt is used in The word Gestalt is used in modern German to mean the way modern German to mean the way a thing has been; i.e., "placed," a thing has been; i.e., "placed," or "put together." There is no or "put together." There is no exact equivalent in English. exact equivalent in English. "Form" and "shape" are the "Form" and "shape" are the usual translations. usual translations.

65 John Stuart Mill ( ) was disturbed by earlier associationists that complex ideals are just a combination of simple ideals. He added the notion that simple ideals combine into a new totality that may bear little resemblance to its parts. was disturbed by earlier associationists that complex ideals are just a combination of simple ideals. He added the notion that simple ideals combine into a new totality that may bear little resemblance to its parts.

66 Max Wertheimer ( ), the founder of gestalt psychology, launched it in 1912 with an article on apparent motion. He had an insight while riding train that if two lights blink on and off at a certain rate, they give the impression that one light is moving back and forth. the founder of gestalt psychology, launched it in 1912 with an article on apparent motion. He had an insight while riding train that if two lights blink on and off at a certain rate, they give the impression that one light is moving back and forth.

67 Wertheimer told this story to illustrate the point: A school inspector was Wertheimer told this story to illustrate the point: A school inspector was impressed by the children that he had observed, but wanted to ask one impressed by the children that he had observed, but wanted to ask one more question before departing. "How many hairs does a horse have?" he more question before departing. "How many hairs does a horse have?" he asked. Much to the amazement of both the inspector and the teacher, a nine asked. Much to the amazement of both the inspector and the teacher, a nine year old boy answered "3,571,962." "How do you know that your answer year old boy answered "3,571,962." "How do you know that your answer is correct?" asked the inspector. "If you do not believe me," answered the is correct?" asked the inspector. "If you do not believe me," answered the boy, "count them yourself." The inspector broke into laughter and vowed to boy, "count them yourself." The inspector broke into laughter and vowed to tell the story to his colleagues when he returned to Vienna. When the tell the story to his colleagues when he returned to Vienna. When the inspector returned the following year for his annual visit, the teacher asked inspector returned the following year for his annual visit, the teacher asked him how his colleagues responded to the story. Disappointedly he replied, "I him how his colleagues responded to the story. Disappointedly he replied, "I wanted very much to tell the story but I couldn't. For the life of me, I wanted very much to tell the story but I couldn't. For the life of me, I couldn't remember how many hairs the boy had said the horse had." couldn't remember how many hairs the boy had said the horse had."

68 The Teaching Machine In 1924, Sidney L. Pressey created a crude teaching machine suitable for rote-and-drill In 1924, Sidney L. Pressey created a crude teaching machine suitable for rote-and-drill learning. In 1926, he published the first paper on the use of a teaching machine in learning. In 1926, he published the first paper on the use of a teaching machine in School and Society. He showed that automated-instruction facilitated learning by School and Society. He showed that automated-instruction facilitated learning by providing for immediate reinforcement, individual pace setting, and active responding. providing for immediate reinforcement, individual pace setting, and active responding.

69 Thorndike had a great influence on Pressey. In his machine Pressey sought to Thorndike had a great influence on Pressey. In his machine Pressey sought to incorporate Thorndike's laws. In one version of his machine, a user had to answer a incorporate Thorndike's laws. In one version of his machine, a user had to answer a question twice correctly before it was eliminated; this addressed the laws of exercise question twice correctly before it was eliminated; this addressed the laws of exercise and effect. and effect.

70 Eduard C. Lindeman Lindeman suggests that education Lindeman suggests that education evolves from situations and not subjects and that this is the essence of adult education. evolves from situations and not subjects and that this is the essence of adult education.

71 Edward L. Thorndike ( ) Edward Thorndike is one of the great learning theorists of all time. He believed that Edward Thorndike is one of the great learning theorists of all time. He believed that instruction should pursue specified, socially useful goals. In 1928 his classic study, instruction should pursue specified, socially useful goals. In 1928 his classic study, Adult Learning, posited that the ability to learn did not decline until age 35, and Adult Learning, posited that the ability to learn did not decline until age 35, and then it declined only 1 percent per year, thus going against the grain of the time that then it declined only 1 percent per year, thus going against the grain of the time that "you can't teach old dogs new trick." "you can't teach old dogs new trick."

72 One of his most famous theories is "The Identical Elements Theory of the Transfer of One of his most famous theories is "The Identical Elements Theory of the Transfer of Training" where the amount of transfer between the familiar situation and the Training" where the amount of transfer between the familiar situation and the unfamiliar one is determined by the number of elements that the two situations have unfamiliar one is determined by the number of elements that the two situations have in common. in common.

73 He was also one of the first pioneers of "active" learning in that he held low opinions He was also one of the first pioneers of "active" learning in that he held low opinions of lectures, "The lecture and demonstration methods represent an approach to a of lectures, "The lecture and demonstration methods represent an approach to a limiting extreme in which the teacher lets the student find out nothing which he could limiting extreme in which the teacher lets the student find out nothing which he could possible be told or shown...They ask of him only that he attend to, and do his best to possible be told or shown...They ask of him only that he attend to, and do his best to understand, questions which he did not himself frame and answers which he did not understand, questions which he did not himself frame and answers which he did not himself work out." himself work out."

74 Thorndike specified three conditions that maximized learning: Thorndike specified three conditions that maximized learning: The law of effect stated that the likely recurrence of a response is generally The law of effect stated that the likely recurrence of a response is generally governed by its consequence or effect generally in the form of reward or governed by its consequence or effect generally in the form of reward or punishment. punishment. The law of recency stated that the most recent response is likely to govern the The law of recency stated that the most recent response is likely to govern the recurrence. recurrence. The law of exercise stated that stimulus-response associations are The law of exercise stated that stimulus-response associations are strengthened through repetition. strengthened through repetition.

75 Hawthorne Effect The Hawthorne The Hawthorne effect - an increase effect - an increase in worker in worker productivity productivity produced by the produced by the psychological psychological stimulus of being stimulus of being singled out and singled out and made to feel made to feel important. important.

76 Individual behaviors may be altered because they know they are being studied was Individual behaviors may be altered because they know they are being studied was demonstrated in a research project ( ) of the Hawthorne Plant of the demonstrated in a research project ( ) of the Hawthorne Plant of the Western Electric Company in Cicero, Illinois. This series of research, first led by Western Electric Company in Cicero, Illinois. This series of research, first led by Harvard Business School professor Elton Mayo along with associates F.J. Harvard Business School professor Elton Mayo along with associates F.J. Roethlisberger and William J. Dickson started out by examining the physical and Roethlisberger and William J. Dickson started out by examining the physical and environmental influences of the workplace (e.g. brightness of lights, humidity) and later, environmental influences of the workplace (e.g. brightness of lights, humidity) and later, moved into the psychological aspects (e.g. breaks, group pressure, working hours, moved into the psychological aspects (e.g. breaks, group pressure, working hours, managerial leadership). The ideas that this team developed about the social dynamics of managerial leadership). The ideas that this team developed about the social dynamics of groups in the work setting had lasting influence - the collection of data, groups in the work setting had lasting influence - the collection of data, labor-management relations, and informal interaction among factory employees. labor-management relations, and informal interaction among factory employees.

77 The major finding of the study was that almost regardless of the experimental The major finding of the study was that almost regardless of the experimental manipulation employed, the production of the workers seemed to improve. One manipulation employed, the production of the workers seemed to improve. One reasonable conclusion is that the workers were pleased to receive attention from the reasonable conclusion is that the workers were pleased to receive attention from the researchers who expressed an interest in them. The study was only expected to last one researchers who expressed an interest in them. The study was only expected to last one year, but because the researchers were set back each time they tried to relate the year, but because the researchers were set back each time they tried to relate the manipulated physical conditions to the worker's efficiency, the project extended out to manipulated physical conditions to the worker's efficiency, the project extended out to five years. five years.

78 Four general conclusions were drawn from the Hawthorne studies: Four general conclusions were drawn from the Hawthorne studies: The aptitudes of individuals are imperfect predictors of job performance. The aptitudes of individuals are imperfect predictors of job performance. Although they give some indication of the physical and mental potential of the Although they give some indication of the physical and mental potential of the individual, the amount produced is strongly influenced by social factors. individual, the amount produced is strongly influenced by social factors.

79 Informal organization affects productivity. The Hawthorne researchers Informal organization affects productivity. The Hawthorne researchers discovered a group life among the workers. The studies also showed that the discovered a group life among the workers. The studies also showed that the relations that supervisors develop with workers tend to influence the manner in relations that supervisors develop with workers tend to influence the manner in which the workers carry out directives. which the workers carry out directives.

80 Work-group norms affect productivity. The Hawthorne researchers were not Work-group norms affect productivity. The Hawthorne researchers were not the first to recognize that work groups tend to arrive at norms of what is "a fair the first to recognize that work groups tend to arrive at norms of what is "a fair day's work," however, they provided the best systematic description and day's work," however, they provided the best systematic description and interpretation of this phenomenon. interpretation of this phenomenon.

81 The workplace is a social system. The Hawthorne researchers came to view The workplace is a social system. The Hawthorne researchers came to view the workplace as a social system made up of interdependent parts. the workplace as a social system made up of interdependent parts.

82 Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist, whose development theories have been was a Swiss psychologist, whose development theories have been widely discussed in both psychology and educational fields. To learn, Piaget widely discussed in both psychology and educational fields. To learn, Piaget stressed the holistic approach. A child constructs understanding through many stressed the holistic approach. A child constructs understanding through many channels: reading, listening, exploring, and experiencing his or her environment. channels: reading, listening, exploring, and experiencing his or her environment.

83 A Piagetian-inspired curricula emphasizes a child-centered educational A Piagetian-inspired curricula emphasizes a child-centered educational philosophy. His work has been labeled an interactionist as well as a philosophy. His work has been labeled an interactionist as well as a constructivist. His interest in cognitive development came from his training in the constructivist. His interest in cognitive development came from his training in the natural sciences and his interest in epistemology. He saw cognitive growth as an natural sciences and his interest in epistemology. He saw cognitive growth as an extension of biological growth and as being governed by the same laws and extension of biological growth and as being governed by the same laws and principles. He argued that intellectual development controlled every other principles. He argued that intellectual development controlled every other aspect of development - emotional, social, and moral. aspect of development - emotional, social, and moral.

84 Piaget may be best known for his stages of cognitive development. He Piaget may be best known for his stages of cognitive development. He discovered that children think and reason differently at different periods in their discovered that children think and reason differently at different periods in their lives. He believed that everyone passed through an invariant sequence of four lives. He believed that everyone passed through an invariant sequence of four qualitatively distinct stages. Invariant means that a person cannot skip stages or qualitatively distinct stages. Invariant means that a person cannot skip stages or reorder them. Although every normal child passes through the stages in exactly reorder them. Although every normal child passes through the stages in exactly the same order, there is some variability in the ages at which children attain each the same order, there is some variability in the ages at which children attain each stage stage

85 . The four stages are Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years) - The mental structures are mainly Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years) - The mental structures are mainly concerned with the mastery of concrete objects. concerned with the mastery of concrete objects. Preoperational (2 years to 7 years) - The mastery of symbols takes Preoperational (2 years to 7 years) - The mastery of symbols takes place. place. Concrete operational (7 years to 11 years) - Children learn mastery of Concrete operational (7 years to 11 years) - Children learn mastery of classes, relations, and numbers and how to reason. classes, relations, and numbers and how to reason. Formal operational (abstract thinking) (11 years and up) - The last stage Formal operational (abstract thinking) (11 years and up) - The last stage deals with the mastery of thought. deals with the mastery of thought.

86 Constructivism Cognitive constructivism is based on the work of Jean Piaget. His Cognitive constructivism is based on the work of Jean Piaget. His theory has two major parts: an "ages and stages" component that theory has two major parts: an "ages and stages" component that predicts what children can and cannot understand at different predicts what children can and cannot understand at different ages, and a theory of development that describes how children ages, and a theory of development that describes how children develop cognitive abilities. develop cognitive abilities.

87 The main ideas underpinning constructivism learning theories are The main ideas underpinning constructivism learning theories are not new. They began with the insights of Socrates who claimed not new. They began with the insights of Socrates who claimed that there are basic conditions for learning that are in the that there are basic conditions for learning that are in the cognition of the individual (Kanuka & Anderson, 1998). But it cognition of the individual (Kanuka & Anderson, 1998). But it was Piaget's theory of intellectual growth that had the primary was Piaget's theory of intellectual growth that had the primary influence on the development of current positions. Specifically, influence on the development of current positions. Specifically, Piaget first emphasized the processes of conceptual change as Piaget first emphasized the processes of conceptual change as interactions between existing cognitive structures and new interactions between existing cognitive structures and new experience experience

88 During the 1930s and 1940s, constructivism was the leading During the 1930s and 1940s, constructivism was the leading perspective among public school educators in the United States. perspective among public school educators in the United States. In this theory, the emphasis is placed on the student rather than In this theory, the emphasis is placed on the student rather than the teacher. Teachers are seen as facilitators or coaches who the teacher. Teachers are seen as facilitators or coaches who assist students construct their own conceptualizations and assist students construct their own conceptualizations and solutions to problems. Within this theory falls two schools of solutions to problems. Within this theory falls two schools of thought, social constructivism and cognitive constructivism: thought, social constructivism and cognitive constructivism:

89 1. Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist and philosopher in the 1. Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist and philosopher in the 1930's, is most often associated with the social constructivist 1930's, is most often associated with the social constructivist theory. He emphasizes the influences of cultural and social theory. He emphasizes the influences of cultural and social contexts in learning and supports a discovery model of learning. contexts in learning and supports a discovery model of learning. This type of model places the teacher in an active role while the This type of model places the teacher in an active role while the students' mental abilities develop naturally through various paths students' mental abilities develop naturally through various paths of discovery. of discovery.

90 2. Cognitive constructivism is based on two different senses of 2. Cognitive constructivism is based on two different senses of "construction." First, on the idea that people learn by actively "construction." First, on the idea that people learn by actively constructing new knowledge, not by having information poured constructing new knowledge, not by having information poured into their heads. Moreover, constructivism asserts that people into their heads. Moreover, constructivism asserts that people learn with particular effectiveness when they are engaged in learn with particular effectiveness when they are engaged in "constructing" personally meaningful artifacts (e.g. computer "constructing" personally meaningful artifacts (e.g. computer programs, animations). programs, animations).

91 Discovery Learning Hiero II requested that Archimedes find a method for determining whether a Hiero II requested that Archimedes find a method for determining whether a crown was pure gold or alloyed with silver. When he stepped into a bath he crown was pure gold or alloyed with silver. When he stepped into a bath he realized that a given weight of gold would displace less water than an equal realized that a given weight of gold would displace less water than an equal weight of silver (which is less dense than gold); at this point he shouted, weight of silver (which is less dense than gold); at this point he shouted, "EUREKA" (I have found it!). Discovery learning is based on this "Aha!" "EUREKA" (I have found it!). Discovery learning is based on this "Aha!" method. method.

92 Discovery Learning is an inquiry-based learning method. The concept of Discovery Learning is an inquiry-based learning method. The concept of discovery learning has appeared numerous times throughout history as a part discovery learning has appeared numerous times throughout history as a part of the educational philosophy of many great philosophers particularly of the educational philosophy of many great philosophers particularly Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Dewey. "There is an intimate and necessary relation Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Dewey. "There is an intimate and necessary relation between the processes of actual experience and education" wrote Dewey between the processes of actual experience and education" wrote Dewey

93 Discovery learning takes place most notably in problem solving situations Discovery learning takes place most notably in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his own experience and prior knowledge to where the learner draws on his own experience and prior knowledge to discover the truths that are to be learned. It is a personal, internal, discover the truths that are to be learned. It is a personal, internal, constructivist learning environment constructivist learning environment

94 Job Instruction Training (JIT) During World War II (December 7, 1941 and lasting for 5 years), the need for a During World War II (December 7, 1941 and lasting for 5 years), the need for a method of fast and efficient training arose. Training Within Industry, an advisory service method of fast and efficient training arose. Training Within Industry, an advisory service formed by the National Defense Advisory Commission, developed the systematic formed by the National Defense Advisory Commission, developed the systematic on-the-job training method called JIT (Job Instruction Training). Its goal was to train on-the-job training method called JIT (Job Instruction Training). Its goal was to train supervisors in defense plants in the skills of instructing their workers as fast as possible. supervisors in defense plants in the skills of instructing their workers as fast as possible. At first the train-the-trainer classes were three days long, but soon grew to a 45-hour At first the train-the-trainer classes were three days long, but soon grew to a 45-hour program. program.

95 Job-aid links Although used for a very long time, the modern Job-Performance-Aid Although used for a very long time, the modern Job-Performance-Aid traces its modern roots to the JIT method. It began as a printed card that traces its modern roots to the JIT method. It began as a printed card that contained step-by-step instructions for performing a specific task. The contained step-by-step instructions for performing a specific task. The worker did not have to memorize the steps. worker did not have to memorize the steps.

96 Job aids are considered instructional interventions because they also Job aids are considered instructional interventions because they also mediate knowledge and skills problems. However, job aids are not really mediate knowledge and skills problems. However, job aids are not really intended to produce learning, as they are a substitute for learning. Learning intended to produce learning, as they are a substitute for learning. Learning that does occur as a result of using the job aid (surely considerable at that does occur as a result of using the job aid (surely considerable at times) is incidental. times) is incidental.

97 Abraham Maslow American psychologist, Abraham Maslow, published A Theory of Human Motivation American psychologist, Abraham Maslow, published A Theory of Human Motivation (1943) in the Psychological Review Journal which explains his "hierarchy of needs." (1943) in the Psychological Review Journal which explains his "hierarchy of needs." His motivational model explained that a higher need, ultimately that for self- actualization, His motivational model explained that a higher need, ultimately that for self- actualization, is expressed only after lower needs are fulfilled. is expressed only after lower needs are fulfilled.

98 Edwin R. Guthrie's study (1946) breaks skills into acts. Acts are Edwin R. Guthrie's study (1946) breaks skills into acts. Acts are defined as complicated behavior patterns usually involving some defined as complicated behavior patterns usually involving some goal accomplishment. Acts are made up of many individual goal accomplishment. Acts are made up of many individual movements. Movements are specific responses to specific stimuli. movements. Movements are specific responses to specific stimuli. Acts are composed of muscular contractions that are the response Acts are composed of muscular contractions that are the response to specific stimulus and are not dependent upon practice to specific stimulus and are not dependent upon practice

99 But the But the learning of an act does depend on practice. Learning an act learning of an act does depend on practice. Learning an act requires practice so that the proper movement is associated with requires practice so that the proper movement is associated with its own cues. Once acquired, associations are permanent but they its own cues. Once acquired, associations are permanent but they may not appear in every performance due to weak associations. may not appear in every performance due to weak associations. These weak associations cannot be retrieved because of strong These weak associations cannot be retrieved because of strong interference from other associations. interference from other associations.

100 . Short practice periods. Short practice periods develop weak associations which learners are not able to magnify develop weak associations which learners are not able to magnify into stronger ones. - Guthrie, E. R. (1952). The Psychology of into stronger ones. - Guthrie, E. R. (1952). The Psychology of Learning. New York: Harper & Row. Learning. New York: Harper & Row.

101 Adams theorized that if we practice long enough we develop a Adams theorized that if we practice long enough we develop a mental image. For example, professional players are often known mental image. For example, professional players are often known to utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a to utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football, because they can instantaneously tennis ball or throw a football, because they can instantaneously tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce. Not having tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce. Not having balanced practice periods prevents learners from becoming fully balanced practice periods prevents learners from becoming fully comfortable with the feel and use of the skill they are attempting to comfortable with the feel and use of the skill they are attempting to acquire. Learners must have enough time to develop a complete acquire. Learners must have enough time to develop a complete mental image of the sequence of correct responses. Often we see mental image of the sequence of correct responses. Often we see learners who could perform in the classroom and then not be able learners who could perform in the classroom and then not be able to perform when they return to work. - Adams, J. (1977). Motor to perform when they return to work. - Adams, J. (1977). Motor Learning and Retention. In Marx, M. & Bunch, M. (Eds.), Learning and Retention. In Marx, M. & Bunch, M. (Eds.), Fundamentals and Applications of Learning. New York: Fundamentals and Applications of Learning. New York: Macmillan. Macmillan.

102 Hull discovered that when practice periods are spaced apart Hull discovered that when practice periods are spaced apart (distributed practice), performance is superior to what it is when (distributed practice), performance is superior to what it is when practice periods are close together (massed practice). Also, practice periods are close together (massed practice). Also, during practice periods, the learners' performance will gradually during practice periods, the learners' performance will gradually improve until some asymptotic (maximal) level is reached. If the improve until some asymptotic (maximal) level is reached. If the learners are allowed to rest, and then resume practice, their learners are allowed to rest, and then resume practice, their performance will tend to exceed their previous asymptotic level performance will tend to exceed their previous asymptotic level (reminiscence effect). Learners that are provided rest or some (reminiscence effect). Learners that are provided rest or some other form of diversion between practice periods will reach higher other form of diversion between practice periods will reach higher levels of performance than learners who practice straight through levels of performance than learners who practice straight through without rest or diversion. - 7 Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of without rest or diversion. - 7 Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:

103 Kurt Lewin ( ) If you want truly If you want truly to understand to understand something, try to something, try to change it. - Kurt change it. - Kurt Lewin Lewin

104 Organization Organization Behavior Behavior In 1946, social scientist Kurt Lewin launches the Research Center for Group Dynamics In 1946, social scientist Kurt Lewin launches the Research Center for Group Dynamics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His contributions in change theory, action at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His contributions in change theory, action research, and action learning earn him the title of the "father of organization research, and action learning earn him the title of the "father of organization development." development."

105 T-Groups In 1947, the National Training Laboratories Institute starts up in the Bethel ME. They In 1947, the National Training Laboratories Institute starts up in the Bethel ME. They pioneer the use of T-groups (Sensitivity or Laboratory Training) in which the learners pioneer the use of T-groups (Sensitivity or Laboratory Training) in which the learners use feedback, problem solving, and role play to gain insights into themselves, others, and use feedback, problem solving, and role play to gain insights into themselves, others, and groups. The goal is to change the standards, attitudes and behavior of individuals. groups. The goal is to change the standards, attitudes and behavior of individuals.

106 Organizational Development A group of researchers from London's Tavistock Institute of Human A group of researchers from London's Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, led by Eric Trist, studied a South Yorkshire coal mine in Relations, led by Eric Trist, studied a South Yorkshire coal mine in Their research leads in the development of the Sociotechnical Their research leads in the development of the Sociotechnical Systems Theory which considers both the social and the technical Systems Theory which considers both the social and the technical aspects when designing jobs. It marks a 180-degree departure from aspects when designing jobs. It marks a 180-degree departure from Frederick Taylor's scientific management. Frederick Taylor's scientific management.

107 There are four basic components to sociotechnical theory: There are four basic components to sociotechnical theory: environment subsystem, social subsystem, technical subsystem, and environment subsystem, social subsystem, technical subsystem, and organizational design. organizational design.

108 Cognitive Science Cognitive Science "I think, therefore "I think, therefore I am" - Descartes I am" - Descartes Descartes argued Descartes argued that the ultimate that the ultimate truth can be truth can be deduced only from deduced only from the real existence the real existence of a "thinking of a "thinking self." He assumed self." He assumed that the "thinking that the "thinking self" is self" is independent of independent of body or matter, as body or matter, as it does have an it does have an extension we can extension we can see and touch but see and touch but does not think, a does not think, a mind has no mind has no extension but extension but thinks. thinks.

109 By the mid 1950s, cognitive views of learning and development gained dominance over By the mid 1950s, cognitive views of learning and development gained dominance over the stimulus-response approach. With this renewed interest, research went into deeper the stimulus-response approach. With this renewed interest, research went into deeper levels into how individuals acquire, retain, recall and transform information. Cognitive levels into how individuals acquire, retain, recall and transform information. Cognitive Psychology is an approach to the study of the human mind that relies on an information Psychology is an approach to the study of the human mind that relies on an information processing metaphor and tests predictions of theories using human subjects engaged in processing metaphor and tests predictions of theories using human subjects engaged in cognitive tasks. cognitive tasks.

110 The early views of mind had the Greek philosophers identifying three aspects of the The early views of mind had the Greek philosophers identifying three aspects of the mind: Cognition (acts of intellect), conation (acts of will), and affect (acts of emotions) mind: Cognition (acts of intellect), conation (acts of will), and affect (acts of emotions) These are related to what we today identify as the distinction between structure These are related to what we today identify as the distinction between structure (organization) and process (action). (organization) and process (action).

111 Instructional Systems Design (ISD) or System Approach to Training (SAT) ISD Model ISD Model Instructional systems design arose out of the 50-60's as educational technology Instructional systems design arose out of the 50-60's as educational technology development paralleled and modeled the systems approach emerging within the military development paralleled and modeled the systems approach emerging within the military and industrial worlds. The traditional approach to education was viewed as piecemeal. and industrial worlds. The traditional approach to education was viewed as piecemeal. ISD attempted to integrate all the components of the instructional process into a system ISD attempted to integrate all the components of the instructional process into a system. This was accomplished by developing instructional systems with flow charts or lists of. This was accomplished by developing instructional systems with flow charts or lists of steps to be followed. The term task analysis was used by the Air Force in the early steps to be followed. The term task analysis was used by the Air Force in the early 1950s to refer to procedures for anticipating the job requirements of new equipment 1950s to refer to procedures for anticipating the job requirements of new equipment under development. under development.

112 Don Kirkpatrick and Evaluating Training Evaluation Evaluation Don Kirkpatrick introduces his four-level model of evaluating training in 1959 Don Kirkpatrick introduces his four-level model of evaluating training in Reaction - measures how those who participate in the program react to it. 1.Reaction - measures how those who participate in the program react to it. 2.Learning - the extent to which participants change attitudes, improve knowledge, 2.Learning - the extent to which participants change attitudes, improve knowledge, and increase skill as a result of attending the program. and increase skill as a result of attending the program. 3.Behavior - the extent to which a change in behavior has occurred because the 3.Behavior - the extent to which a change in behavior has occurred because the participants attended the training program. participants attended the training program. 4.Results - the final results that occurred because the participants attended the 4.Results - the final results that occurred because the participants attended the program. program.

113 Herzberg's Hygiene and Motivational Factors In 1959, Frederick Herzberg developed a list of factors which are closely based on In 1959, Frederick Herzberg developed a list of factors which are closely based on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, except it more closely related to work. Hygiene factors Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, except it more closely related to work. Hygiene factors must be present in the job before motivators can be used to stimulate the workers: must be present in the job before motivators can be used to stimulate the workers:

114 Hygiene or Dissatisfiers: Hygiene or Dissatisfiers: Working conditions Working conditions Policies and administrative practices Policies and administrative practices Salary and Benefits Salary and Benefits Supervision Supervision Status Status Job security Job security Fellow workers Fellow workers Personal life Personal life

115 Motivators or Satisfiers: Motivators or Satisfiers: Recognition Recognition Achievement Achievement Advancement Advancement Growth Growth Responsibility Responsibility Job challenge Job challenge

116 B. F. Skinner ( ) Skinner designed an apparatus, called a Skinner designed an apparatus, called a Skinner box, that allowed him to formulate Skinner box, that allowed him to formulate important principles of animal learning. An important principles of animal learning. An animal placed inside the box is rewarded animal placed inside the box is rewarded with a small bit of food each time it makes with a small bit of food each time it makes the desired response, such as pressing a the desired response, such as pressing a lever or pecking a key. A device outside the lever or pecking a key. A device outside the box records the animal's responses. box records the animal's responses.

117 Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGreagor developed a philosophical view of humankind with his Theory X Douglas McGreagor developed a philosophical view of humankind with his Theory X and Theory Y in These are two opposing perceptions about how people view and Theory Y in These are two opposing perceptions about how people view human behavior at work and organizational life. human behavior at work and organizational life.

118 Theory X - With Theory X assumptions, management's role is to coerce and control Theory X - With Theory X assumptions, management's role is to coerce and control employees. employees.

119 Theory Y - With Theory Y assumptions, management's role is to develop the potential Theory Y - With Theory Y assumptions, management's role is to develop the potential in employees and help them to release that potential towards common goals. in employees and help them to release that potential towards common goals.

120 Carl Rogers ( ) Rogers and Feedback Rogers and Feedback Best known for his contribution to client-centered therapy, Best known for his contribution to client-centered therapy, Rogers was one of the founders of humanistic psychology, Rogers was one of the founders of humanistic psychology, which promotes a more person- to-person approach to the which promotes a more person- to-person approach to the traditional therapist-patient relationship, and emphasizes the traditional therapist-patient relationship, and emphasizes the responsibility and intention in human behavior. Rogers also had responsibility and intention in human behavior. Rogers also had much to say about education much to say about education

121 Albert Bandura Learning by Observing Learning by Observing Observational Learning Links Observational Learning Links Self-Efficacy Links Self-Efficacy Links In the early 1960s, Albert Bandura began a series of writings that In the early 1960s, Albert Bandura began a series of writings that challenged the older explanations of imitative learning and expand the topic challenged the older explanations of imitative learning and expand the topic into what is now referred to as Observational Learning. According to into what is now referred to as Observational Learning. According to Bandura, observation learning may or may not involve imitation Bandura, observation learning may or may not involve imitation

122 Acquisition - New responses are learned by observing the model. Acquisition - New responses are learned by observing the model. Inhibition - A response that otherwise may be made is changed Inhibition - A response that otherwise may be made is changed when the observer sees a model being punished. when the observer sees a model being punished. Disinhibition - A reduction in fear by observing a model's behavior Disinhibition - A reduction in fear by observing a model's behavior go unpunished in a feared activity. go unpunished in a feared activity.

123 Facilitation - A model elicits from an observer a response that has Facilitation - A model elicits from an observer a response that has already been learned. already been learned. Creativity - Observing several models performing and then adapting Creativity - Observing several models performing and then adapting a combination of characteristics or styles. a combination of characteristics or styles.

124 Cuing Cuing refers to actions that make stimuli more salient and thus more likely Cuing refers to actions that make stimuli more salient and thus more likely to be noticed. Attention can be cued directly, e.g., "Watch this!", or to be noticed. Attention can be cued directly, e.g., "Watch this!", or indirectly, e.g., "I wonder what will happen when I push this button?" In indirectly, e.g., "I wonder what will happen when I push this button?" In general, cuing includes the directing of attention through pointing, holding general, cuing includes the directing of attention through pointing, holding objects up for viewing, telling learners where to look, or asking questions objects up for viewing, telling learners where to look, or asking questions that will cause them to process information and find the appropriate that will cause them to process information and find the appropriate stimulus. stimulus.

125 Self-Efficacy Self-Efficacy Bandura also researched self-efficacy. This is part of our "self system" that Bandura also researched self-efficacy. This is part of our "self system" that helps us to evaluate our performance. Perceived self-efficacy refers to helps us to evaluate our performance. Perceived self-efficacy refers to one's impression of what one is capable of doing. This comes from a one's impression of what one is capable of doing. This comes from a variety of sources, such as personal accomplishments and failures, seeing variety of sources, such as personal accomplishments and failures, seeing others who are similar to oneself, and verbal persuasion. others who are similar to oneself, and verbal persuasion.

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127 Instructional Design In 1962, Robert Glaser synthesized the work of previous researchers and introduced In 1962, Robert Glaser synthesized the work of previous researchers and introduced the concept of instructional design. He also advocated Individually Prescribed the concept of instructional design. He also advocated Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI), an approach where the results of a learner's placement test are used Instruction (IPI), an approach where the results of a learner's placement test are used to plan learner-specific instruction. to plan learner-specific instruction.

128 Performance Objectives In 1962, Robert Mager published his work Preparing Instructional Objectives on the In 1962, Robert Mager published his work Preparing Instructional Objectives on the construction of performance objectives. An objective describes in measurable terms of construction of performance objectives. An objective describes in measurable terms of who an objective targets, the behavior they will exhibit, the conditions or limitations who an objective targets, the behavior they will exhibit, the conditions or limitations under which they must carry out this behavior, and the criteria against which their under which they must carry out this behavior, and the criteria against which their behavior will be gauged. behavior will be gauged.

129 Performance or learning objectives are often defined as the task (behavior), condition, Performance or learning objectives are often defined as the task (behavior), condition, and standard. For example, "From memory, list the three requirements of a well-stated and standard. For example, "From memory, list the three requirements of a well-stated performance objective without error." performance objective without error."

130 Task - list the three requirements of a well- stated performance objective Task - list the three requirements of a well- stated performance objective Condition - From memory Condition - From memory Standard - without error Standard - without error

131 Robert Gagne Conditions For Learning To Occur Conditions For Learning To Occur In 1962 when Robert Gagne published Military Training and Principles of In 1962 when Robert Gagne published Military Training and Principles of Learning he demonstrated a concern for the different levels of learning. His Learning he demonstrated a concern for the different levels of learning. His differentiation of psychomotor skills, verbal information, intellectual skills, differentiation of psychomotor skills, verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, and attitudes provides a companion to Bloom's Taxonomy cognitive strategies, and attitudes provides a companion to Bloom's Taxonomy

132 . These events are still important for. These events are still important for the basis for the design of instruction and the selection of appropriate media: 1.gain attention the basis for the design of instruction and the selection of appropriate media: 1.gain attention 2.tell learners the learning objective 2.tell learners the learning objective 3.stimulate recall 3.stimulate recall 4.present the stimulus, content 4.present the stimulus, content 5.provide guidance, relevance, and organization 5.provide guidance, relevance, and organization 6.elicit the learning by demonstrating it 6.elicit the learning by demonstrating it 7.provide feedback on performance 7.provide feedback on performance 8.assess performance, give feedback and reinforcement 8.assess performance, give feedback and reinforcement 9.enhance retention and transfer to other contexts 9.enhance retention and transfer to other contexts

133 Gagne also distinguished eight different classes of situations in which human Gagne also distinguished eight different classes of situations in which human beings learn: 1.Signal Learning - The individual learns to make a general, diffuse beings learn: 1.Signal Learning - The individual learns to make a general, diffuse response to a signal. Such was the classical conditioned response of response to a signal. Such was the classical conditioned response of Pavlov. Pavlov. 2.Stimulus-Response Learning - The learner acquires a precise response 2.Stimulus-Response Learning - The learner acquires a precise response to a discriminated stimulus. to a discriminated stimulus. 3.Chaining - A chain of two or more stimulus-response connections is 3.Chaining - A chain of two or more stimulus-response connections is acquired. acquired.

134 4.Verbal Association - The learning of chains that are verbal. 4.Verbal Association - The learning of chains that are verbal. 5.Discrimination Learning - The individual learns to make different 5.Discrimination Learning - The individual learns to make different identifying responses to many different stimuli which may resemble each identifying responses to many different stimuli which may resemble each other in physical appearance. other in physical appearance. 6.Concept Learning - The learner acquires a capability of making a 6.Concept Learning - The learner acquires a capability of making a common response to a class of stimuli. common response to a class of stimuli.

135 7.Rule Learning - A rule is a chain of two or more concepts. 7.Rule Learning - A rule is a chain of two or more concepts. 8.Problem Solving - A kind of learning that requires the internal events 8.Problem Solving - A kind of learning that requires the internal events usually called thinking. usually called thinking.

136 The Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid Management Grid Management Grid In 1964 Robert Blake and Jane Mouton develop a model that conceptualizes In 1964 Robert Blake and Jane Mouton develop a model that conceptualizes management styles and relations. management styles and relations. Their Grid uses two axis. "Concern for people" is plotted using the vertical axis and Their Grid uses two axis. "Concern for people" is plotted using the vertical axis and "Concern for task" is along the horizontal axis. They both have a range of 1 to 9. The "Concern for task" is along the horizontal axis. They both have a range of 1 to 9. The notion that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behavior has the attraction of notion that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behavior has the attraction of simplicity. simplicity.

137 Alan Tough Tough's first work: (1968), Why Adults Learn: A Study of the Major Reasons Tough's first work: (1968), Why Adults Learn: A Study of the Major Reasons for Beginning and Continuing a Learning Project. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Beginning and Continuing a Learning Project. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, explained why adult learners expect the learning for Studies in Education, explained why adult learners expect the learning experience to mirror their feelings of autonomy and self-worth, and to experience to mirror their feelings of autonomy and self-worth, and to acknowledge their life experience. acknowledge their life experience.

138 Fred Keller - The Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) Research on PSI Research on PSI Also know as the Keller plan. First described by Fred Keller in Good Bye Also know as the Keller plan. First described by Fred Keller in Good Bye Teacher - Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (1968). It is composed Teacher - Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (1968). It is composed of small self-paced modularized units of instructions where study guides of small self-paced modularized units of instructions where study guides direct learners through the modules. Unit tests are given on each module direct learners through the modules. Unit tests are given on each module where the learners must show mastery by scoring at least a 90%. Student where the learners must show mastery by scoring at least a 90%. Student

139 Keller divided the process for creating PSI into four steps: Keller divided the process for creating PSI into four steps: Determine the material to be covered in the course. Determine the material to be covered in the course. Divide the material into self contained modules (segments). Divide the material into self contained modules (segments). Create methods of evaluating the degree to which the learner has conquered the material in a given module. Create methods of evaluating the degree to which the learner has conquered the material in a given module. Allow learners to move from module to module at their own pace. Allow learners to move from module to module at their own pace.

140 "(1) The go-at-your-own pace feature, which permits a student to move "(1) The go-at-your-own pace feature, which permits a student to move through the course at a speed commensurate with his ability and other through the course at a speed commensurate with his ability and other demands of his time. (2) The unit-perfection requirement for advance, which lets the student go ahead to new material only after demonstrating demands of his time. (2) The unit-perfection requirement for advance, which lets the student go ahead to new material only after demonstrating mastery of that which preceded. (3) The use of lectures and mastery of that which preceded. (3) The use of lectures and demonstrations as vehicles of motivation, rather than sources of critical demonstrations as vehicles of motivation, rather than sources of critical

141 permits repeated testing, immediate scoring, almost unavoidable tutoring, permits repeated testing, immediate scoring, almost unavoidable tutoring, and a marked enhancement of the personal-social aspect of theeducational process". - Fred Keller - "Good-Bye Teacher..." (1968) and a marked enhancement of the personal-social aspect of theeducational process". - Fred Keller - "Good-Bye Teacher..." (1968) Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

142 Malcom Knowles In 1970, Malcom Knowles began to popularize andragogy by advocating the adult In 1970, Malcom Knowles began to popularize andragogy by advocating the adult learning theory - a set of assumptions that characterize adult learners. Knowles identifies learning theory - a set of assumptions that characterize adult learners. Knowles identifies four characteristics of adults as learners: four characteristics of adults as learners:

143 a self-concept tending towards self- direction a self-concept tending towards self- direction a growing reservoir of experience a growing reservoir of experience a developmental readiness to learn a developmental readiness to learn a problem-centered and present reality orientation to learning. a problem-centered and present reality orientation to learning.

144 He also taught us that students enter with learner self-concepts shaped by the realities of He also taught us that students enter with learner self-concepts shaped by the realities of a classroom experience that taught them to be dependent and passive, two potentially a classroom experience that taught them to be dependent and passive, two potentially fatal learner attributes in a distance learning environment. As Malcolm put it so fatal learner attributes in a distance learning environment. As Malcolm put it so succinctly, "most of us only know how to be taught, we haven't learned how to learn." succinctly, "most of us only know how to be taught, we haven't learned how to learn."

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146 Performance Through Excellence In 1978, Tom Gilbert published Human Competence: Engineering Worthy In 1978, Tom Gilbert published Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance. It describes the behavioral-engineering model which become the bible Performance. It describes the behavioral-engineering model which become the bible of performance technology. of performance technology.

147 Lifelong Learning Patricia Cross' 1981 book, Adults as learners described three features of Patricia Cross' 1981 book, Adults as learners described three features of lifelong learning: A more holistic concept of growth or education than that which has been lifelong learning: A more holistic concept of growth or education than that which has been used in traditional formal education. used in traditional formal education. A wider view of providers of and settings for education than merely A wider view of providers of and settings for education than merely schools (what she terms the learning society). schools (what she terms the learning society).

148 Howard Gardner and Multiple Intelligences Gardner suggests that our intelligences are organized 'vertically', as a number of almost Gardner suggests that our intelligences are organized 'vertically', as a number of almost different faculties, rather than 'horizontally', as a set of general abilities. This viewpoint different faculties, rather than 'horizontally', as a set of general abilities. This viewpoint was in direct contrast to many of the language and logic theorists who believe that there was in direct contrast to many of the language and logic theorists who believe that there was only one kind of intelligence, that we either had a lot of it or not that much, and that was only one kind of intelligence, that we either had a lot of it or not that much, and that there was virtually very little that we could be do about that. there was virtually very little that we could be do about that.

149 In Frames, Gardner theorized eight basic intelligences to represent these other modes: In Frames, Gardner theorized eight basic intelligences to represent these other modes: linguistic-verbal (most widely accepted) linguistic-verbal (most widely accepted) logical-mathematical (most widely accepted) logical-mathematical (most widely accepted) visual-spatial visual-spatial bodily-kinesthetic bodily-kinesthetic musical-rhythmic musical-rhythmic interpersonal (most criticized) interpersonal (most criticized) intrapersonal (most criticized) intrapersonal (most criticized) naturalist (recently added) naturalist (recently added)

150 Kolb's Learning Styles Kolb's Experiential Learning: Experience as the source of learning and development Kolb's Experiential Learning: Experience as the source of learning and development (1984) theorized that people develop preferences for different learning styles in the same (1984) theorized that people develop preferences for different learning styles in the same way that they develop any other sort of style, i.e. - management, leadership, negotiating way that they develop any other sort of style, i.e. - management, leadership, negotiating etc. etc.

151 Adult Education Stephen Brookfield's Understanding and Facilitating Adult Learning (1986) Stephen Brookfield's Understanding and Facilitating Adult Learning (1986) summarized six leading principles of adult education: summarized six leading principles of adult education: voluntary participation in learning voluntary participation in learning mutual respect among participants mutual respect among participants collaborative facilitation collaborative facilitation a praxis approach to teaching/learning a praxis approach to teaching/learning the necessity of critical reflection upon the breadth of life, and the necessity of critical reflection upon the breadth of life, and a proactive and self-directed empowerment of participants. a proactive and self-directed empowerment of participants.

152 Computer Based Training (CBT) Although PLATO, the first dedicated computer based training system, Although PLATO, the first dedicated computer based training system, was built in 1959, CBT did not really come around until the late 80s or was built in 1959, CBT did not really come around until the late 80s or early 1990s. The early CBT programs were little more than programmed early 1990s. The early CBT programs were little more than programmed instruction teaching machines. It was not until the 1990s that their instruction teaching machines. It was not until the 1990s that their multimedia capabilities were put to full use. It is based on individualized multimedia capabilities were put to full use. It is based on individualized instruction that allows a learner to work through the material at her own instruction that allows a learner to work through the material at her own pace. It is a natural progression from printed individualized instruction and pace. It is a natural progression from printed individualized instruction and teaching machines to the computer with its speed, branching capability teaching machines to the computer with its speed, branching capability and visual display. and visual display.

153 Learning Organization In 1990, Peter Senge popularized the "Learning Organization" in The Fifth Discipline: In 1990, Peter Senge popularized the "Learning Organization" in The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization.

154 The five disciplines are: The five disciplines are: 1.System Thinking - It allows one to look at the events in an organization and see a 1.System Thinking - It allows one to look at the events in an organization and see a pattern of complex relationships. pattern of complex relationships. 2.Personal Mastery - Seeing what is and what could be and then changing to meet 2.Personal Mastery - Seeing what is and what could be and then changing to meet the vision. the vision. 3.Mental Models - Assumptions about how we see the world. 3.Mental Models - Assumptions about how we see the world. 4.Shared Vision - A team competency in which everyone has a common goal or 4.Shared Vision - A team competency in which everyone has a common goal or shared picture. shared picture. 5.Team Learning - The team suspend their assumptions and take up dialogue that 5.Team Learning - The team suspend their assumptions and take up dialogue that embraces the collective good. embraces the collective good.

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