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1 If we know anything, it is because we stand on the backs of Giants!
Origins of today’s Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment

2 Lao-Tse (also Lao-tzu)
In the 5th-century BC, this philosopher wrote: "If you tell me, I will listen. If you show me, I will see. But if you let me experience, I will learn." And so began one of the first active learning philosophies. Other Chinese philosophers, such as Kung Fu-tse (Latinized as Confucius) and Han Fei-Tzu, followed Lao-Tse by using a method that closely resembles what we now call the case method or case study. A member of the study group would present a paradox, which would be in the form of a parable. They would then discuss it and explore possible resolutions.

3 Socrates ( BC) In 300 BC, he engaged his learners by asking questions (know as the Socratic or dialectic method). He often insisted that he really knew nothing, but his questioning skills allowed others to learn by self-generated understanding.

4 Plato ( BC), A student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, he wrote down the Dialogues, which have inspired thinkers for more than two thousand years. Plato called this process the dialectic, and considered it the pinnacle of learning.. One of the significant features of the dialogical (dialectic) method is that it emphasizes collective, as against solitary activity This is a question and answer form of arguing with an "expert" on one side and a "searcher" on the other. In the dialogues, the questioning of the expert by the searcher often exposes gaps in the reasoning. It is through this back and forth argument amongst friends (or adversaries) that understanding grows and becomes revealed to the learners. Such philosophical pursuit alongside and within a full education allows humans to transcend their desires and sense in order to attain true knowledge.

5 Plato founded what is said to be the first university - his Academy (near Athens) around 385 BC.
He also believed that all knowledge is innate at birth and is perfectible by experiential learning during growth. This was an early suggestion to the current theory of constructivism.

6 Along with many others in his time, Aristotle ( BC) placed a strong emphasis on an all-round and balanced development. Play, physical training, music, debate, and the study of science and philosophy were to all have their place in the forming of body, mind and soul. Like Plato before him, he saw such learning happening through life - although with different emphases at different ages. Aristotle was the first to observe that "association" among ideas facilitated understanding and recall. He believed that comprehension was aided by contiguity, succession, similarity, and contrast.

7 techne Although we often view the term technology as hardware items, it is actually a system of practical knowledge. Technology is derived from the ancient Greek word techne. It can be translated to refer to art, craft or skill. Plato viewed techne and systematic or scientific knowledge as being closely related. Aristotle went a step further by asserting that techne was the systematic use of knowledge for intelligent human action.

8 Education for work had its beginning in about 2000 B. C
Education for work had its beginning in about 2000 B.C. [organized apprenticeship] for scribes in Egypt. Thus, education for work was organized in such a way that basic knowledge could be developed in the a classroom setting and applied skills could be developed on-the-job."

9 Code of Hammurabi The rules for governing apprenticeships were included in the Code of Hammurabi, who placed a code of his laws in the temple of Shamash in 2100 B.C. However, apprenticeships did not really become widespread until the Middle Ages. As tools became more complex, and the knowledge and skills to use them became more specialized, parents or others could no longer teach their children everything. Children were apprenticed to craftspersons or artisans who had the specialized skills and tools for a particular trade. In exchange for work, the craftsperson would teach the child the craft at which he was an expert. Apprentices normally lived with the craftsperson, and received no pay except for maintenance, as the learning of a skill was considered highly valuable.

10 Guilds, associations of people who interests or pursuits were the same or similar, were an important part in apprenticeship as they established the quality standards for the product and practice. During the peak of the guild system, which occurred between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries, the yeomen were protected by strict regulation of hours, tools, prices, and wages.

11 Apprenticeship In the centuries that preceded the introduction of machine-made parts, craftsmanship of high order was required to manufacture accurate, durable clocks and watches Such local craft organizations as the Paris Guild of Clockmakers (1544) were organized to control the art of clockmaking and its apprenticeship. A guild known as the Clockmakers Company, founded in London in 1630, is still in existence.

12 When schools became organized around the 10th century, the writings and methods of the great teachers, such as Socrates and Lao-Tse, were forgotten, and teaching was performed by transmitting content from teacher to students. This methodology maintains that the students are "empty vessels" and that the teacher can "pour" knowledge into them. This approach to learning is called pedagogy and is derived from the Greek words "paid" meaning "child" and agogus meaning "leader of." In a pedagogy classroom, the teacher is responsible for all decisions about learning.

13 Today, the term has taken on new meaning
Today, the term has taken on new meaning. Now, with many schools using active inquiry techniques, the term "pedagogy" does not really apply to passive methods. In fact, it now closely resembles the term "andragogy," except it is used to refer to children.

14 Early Schools and Pedagogy
Education may be thought of as the transmission of the values and accumulated knowledge of a society. In this sense, it is equivalent to what social scientists term socialization or enculturation.

15 When adult learning became systematized early in this century, pedagology was the only known means to train. Two books written in the 1920s began to change the term "adult learning" - Thorndike's Adult Learning and Lindeman's The Meaning of Adult Education In the 1950s, European educators started using the term "andragogy," from the Greek word "anere" for adult, and "agogus," the art and science of helping students to learn. They wanted to be able to discuss the growing body of knowledge about adult learners in parallel with pedagogy.

16 In pedagogy, development is based upon a content plan:
What content needs to be covered? How can this content be organized into manageable units or modules? How can this content be transmitted in a logical sequence? What would be the most effective method for transmitting this content (media)?

17 In andragogy, development is based upon a process design:
Design and manage a process for facilitating the acquisition of content by the learners. Serve as a content resource and provide leads for other content resources (e.g. peers, supervisors, specialists).

18 In pedagogy, the concern is with transmitting the content, while in andragogy, the concern is with facilitating the acquisition of the content.

19 John Comenius Latin Name (Jan Komensky)
( ) Czech educational reformer and religious leader, born in Moravia (now part of the Czech Republic), and educated at the University of Heidelberg. In 1638 he was invited by Sweden to assist in educational reforms.

20 In the mid 17th century, Comenius created a new educational philosophy called Pansophism, or universal knowledge, designed to bring about worldwide understanding and peace He advised teachers to use children's' senses rather than memorization in instruction. To make learning interesting for children, he wrote The Gate of Tongues Unlocked (1631), a book for teaching Latin in the student's own language. He also wrote Orbis Sensualium Pictus (1658; The Visible World in Pictures, 1659) consisting of illustrations that labeled objects in both their Latin and vernacular names. It was one of the first illustrated books written especially for children.

21 An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690).
John Locke An English philosopher, set out the principles of empiricism. He advanced the hypothesis that people learn primarily from external forces. Locke examined how people acquire ideas in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). He asserted that at birth the human mind is a blank slate, or tabula rasa, and empty of ideas. We acquire knowledge, he argued, from the information about the objects in the world that our senses bring to us. We begin with simple ideas and then combine them into more complex ones.

22 Locke believed that individuals acquire knowledge most easily when they first consider simple ideas and then gradually combine them into more complex ones. In Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1697), Locke recommended practical learning to prepare people to manage their social, economic, and political affairs efficiently. He believed that a sound education began in early childhood and insisted that the teaching of reading, writing, and arithmetic be gradual and cumulative

23 While John Locke developed a theory of testing for the validity of knowledge and John Comenius established that children learn better from experience, who supported these educational approaches?

24 Jean Jacques Rousseau His Social Contract is a classic defense of the democratic form of government Rousseau trusted the "general will" of a democratic people, as expressed by a vote of the majority, to make all important decisions. This trust in the majority contrasts greatly with the ideas of philosophers who championed minority and individual rights.

25 Jean Jacques Rousseau Rousseau's unconventional views antagonized French and Swiss authorities and alienated many of his friends, and in 1762 he fled first to Prussia and then to England. There, he was befriended by the Scottish philosopher David Hume, but they soon quarreled and denounced each other in public letters.

26 Jean Jacques Rousseau He wrote the influential Emile (1762). Rousseau expounded a new theory of education emphasizing the importance of expression rather than repression to produce a well-balanced, freethinking child. He explained his views on the benefits of health and physical exercise, and the belief that knowledge acquisition occurs though experience and that reason and investigation should replace arbitrary authority. He also proposed that education should follow natural inclination impulses and feelings (learning styles).

27 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
Pestalozzi theories laid the groundwork for modern elementary education. He stressed the individuality of the child and the necessity for teachers to be taught how to develop rather than to try to implant knowledge. In time, his ideas influenced the elementary school systems of the Western world, particularly in the area of teacher training.

28 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
In the late 1700's he put Rousseau's theories into practice and thus became the first applied educational psychologist. Pestalozzi believed that thought began with sensation and that teaching should use the senses. Holding that children should study the objects in their natural environment

29 Pestalozzi developed a so-called "object lesson" that involved exercises in learning form, number, and language. Pupils determined and traced an object's form, counted objects, and named them. Students progressed from these lessons to exercises in drawing, writing, adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, and reading.

30 He employed the following principles in teaching (viewed as correct even today):
(1) begin with the concrete object before introducing abstract concepts; (2) begin with the immediate environment before dealing with what is distant and remote; (3) begin with easy exercises before introducing complex ones; and (4) always proceed gradually, cumulatively, and slowly

31 Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841)
German philosopher, psychologist, and educator; Johann Friedrich Herbart is acknowledged as the "father of scientific pedagogy". Herbart's system of philosophy stems from the analysis of experience. The system includes logic, metaphysics, and aesthetics as coordinate elements. He rejected all concepts of separate mental faculties, postulating instead that all mental phenomena result from interaction of elementary ideas. Herbart believed that educational methods and systems should be based on psychology and ethics: psychology to furnish necessary knowledge of the mind and ethics to be used as a basis for determining the social ends of education.

32 Herbart was the first scientist to distinguish instructional process from subject matter.
According to Herbart, interest develops when already strong and vivid ideas are hospitable towards new ones, thus past associations motivate apperception of current ones. Herbartianism, in predicting that learning follows from building up sequences of ideas important to the individual, gave teachers a semblance of a theory of motivation.

33 He also stressed the study of the psychological processes of learning as a means of devising educational programs based on the aptitudes, abilities, and interests of students. The success of Herbart's methods led to their adoption in the teacher-training systems of numerous countries.

34 Herbart stressed the study of the psychological processes of learning as a means of devising educational programs based on the aptitudes, abilities, and interests of students. The success of Herbart's methods led to their adoption in the teacher-training systems of numerous countries

35 Herbart's five-step teaching method:
1. Prepare the pupils to be ready for the new lesson. 2. Present the new lesson. 3. Associate the new lesson with ideas studied earlier. 4. Use examples to illustrate the lesson's major points. 5. Test pupils to ensure they had learned the new lesson.

36 Lyceum The largest early adult education program in the U.S., the Lyceum, founded in Massachusetts in 1826 by Josiah Holbrook It was a local association of men and women with some schooling who wanted to expand their own education while working to establish a public school system. . What became know as the "Lyceum movement" encouraged the development of other adult education institutions such aslibraries, evening schools, and endowed lecture series. Lyceum - the name is derived from the Lyceum, the school near Athens where Aristotle lectured to his students.

37 In the early 1800s, factory schools were created, due to the industrial revolution, in which workers were trained in classrooms within the factory walls. The apprentice system was inadequate due to the number of learners that had to be trained as the machines of the Industrial Revolution increased the ability of the factory to produce goods. The factory owners needed trained workers quickly because there was a large demand for the produced goods.

38 Vestibule Training Towards the end of the 1800s, a method that combined the benefits of the classroom with the benefits of on-the-job training, called vestibule training, became a popular form of training The classroom was located as close as conditions allowed to the department for which the workers were being trained. It was furnished with the same machines as used in production. There were normally six to ten workers per trainer, who were skilled workers or supervisors from the company (near-the-job) training, so called as it offers access to something new (learning).

39 Vestibule Training There are many advantages of vestibule training.
The workers are trained as if on the job, but it did not interfere with the more vital task of production. Transfer of skills and knowledge to the workplace was not required since the classroom was a model of the working environment. Classes were small so that the learners received immediate feedback and could ask questions more easily. than in a large classroom. Its main disadvantage is that it is quite expensive as it duplicates the production line and has a small learner to trainer ratio.

40 Case Method (Case Study)
Although the case method does not actually provide real experiences, it is personal as it puts the burden of thinking on the learners and arouses their interest by making them active participants.

41 Case Studies In the 1880s, Christopher Langdell, the dean of the Harvard Law School, revived the case method that the early Chinese Philosophers used. It slowly won acceptance in the schools of business, law, and medicine. Langdell felt students could learn more about the law by studying actual court opinions than by reading legal texts. By the early 20th century, virtually every American law school had adopted Langdell's method. In the 1960s, most schools began to introduce some form of clinical education to supplement the classroom study of cases Although the classic Harvard case is quite comprehensive in nature, cases used in training need not be long and detailed to excite and encourage the creative efforts of the learners.

42 Correspondence Schools
Correspondence Education is a method of instruction conducted through the mail by a school or other qualified institution.

43 In 1883, the first correspondence program in the United States gained academic respectability through recognition by the State of New York, as a valid educational program was the Chautauqua Institute, which trained Sunday school teachers. In 1891, the International Correspondence Schools (ICS) grew from the Colliery Engineer School of Mines. ICS initially used correspondence to train miners, railroad, and iron workers.

44 Correspondence education developed in the mid-19th century in Great Britain, France, Germany, and the United States, and spread rapidly. In 1840, the English educator Sir Isaac Pitman taught shorthand by mail . . The university extension movement grew out of off-campus lectures given by the Scottish educator James Stuart of the University of Cambridge, England.

45 Many educators consider correspondence education the precursor of distance education, which is instruction that uses different communication technologies such as the internet, telephones, radio, or television. Correspondence education provides instruction in almost every branch of knowledge, for cultural improvement and for vocational and professional training.

46 World War I - Show, Tell, Do, and Check
To solve an urgent need to train shipyard workers in 1917, Charles R. Allen adapted Herbart's five-step process. He called it the "Show, Tell, Do, and Check" method of job instruction.

47 Prepare the Workers - Put them at ease.
Find out what they already know about the job. Get them interested in learning. Place each in a correct position.

48 Present the Operation Tell, show, illustrate, and question carefully and patiently. Stress key points. Instruct clearly and completely, taking up one point at a time, but no more than they can master.

49 Try Out Performance Test them by having them perform the job. Have them tell and show you, have them explain key points. Ask questions and correct answers. Continue until you know that they know.

50 Follow Up - Put them on their own
Designate who they go to for help. Check frequently. Encourage questions. Get them to look for key points as they progress. Taper off extra coaching and close follow-ups.

51 John Dewey ( ) John Dewey emphasized practical ideas in both his philosophical and educational theories, always striving to show how abstract concepts could work in everyday life. He emphasized hands-on learning, and opposed authoritarian methods in teaching. His ideas prompted a drastic change in United States education beginning in the 20th century.

52 Considered to be the leading progressive educator of this century, John Dewey wrote on the great issues in education. In Education and Experience, written late in his career, he tries to find a synthesis of the principles of traditional education and those of progressive education. Two essential components for him are the experience of the learner and critical inquiry. Dewey wrote, "any theory and set of practices is dogmatic which is not based upon critical examination of its own underlying principles."

53 John Dewey's significance for informal educators lies in a number of areas.
First, his belief that education must engage with and enlarge experience has continued to be a significant component in informal education practice

54 Second, and linked to this, Dewey's exploration of thinking and reflection - and the associated role of educators - has continued to be an inspiration. He criticized educational methods that simply amused and entertained students or were overly vocational.

55 He also advocated education that would fulfill and enrich the current lives of students as well as prepare them for the future. Dewey's theory of education became known as functionalism in that it encouraged mental testing and stressed studies of adaptive behavior.

56 Role-playing Adult learners can keep tuned into a lecture for no more
than 15 to 20 minutes at a time

57 Role Playing Links Dr. J. L. Moreno designs the first known role playing techniques in 1910. Role playing is a primary technique to provide participation and involvement in the learning process. In a training environment, role playing allows the learner to receiveobjective feedback about one's performance Role-playing become more widely known and used after he moved from Vienna, Austria to the United States in the 1930s.

58 Role playing techniques can be used to
diagnose interactive skills, to provide models and practice, and to motivate individuals to pay more . attention to their interpersonal impact. One of its primary benefits is that it allows the learner to experience a real life situation in a protected environment

59 Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1950)
Taylor called his method Scientific Management, which used time and motion studies to find the one best way to accomplish a task. In 1911, Frederick Taylor published his book The Principles of Scientific Management that conceived of a method for shortening the amount of time a task took by studying workers doing the task and removing "non-productive time." "No one can be found who will deny that in the case of any single individual the greatest prosperity can exist only when that individual has reached his highest state of efficiency; that is, when he is turning out his largest daily output." "The truth of this fact is also perfectly clear in the case of two men working together. To illustrate: if you and your workman have become so skilful that you and he together are making two pairs of shoes in a day, while your competitor and his workman are making only one pair, it is clear that after selling your two pairs of shoes you can pay your workman much higher wages than your competitor who produces only one pair of shoes is able to pay his man, and that there will still be enough money left over for you to have a larger profit than your competitor." - Frederick Taylor

60 Pavlov conducted, perhaps, the most famous of all psychological experiments (1927) when he showed that by pairing a conditioned stimulus (a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (food), a dog would begin to salivate (response) when the bell was rung without presenting the food.

61 In the early twentieth century a new movement in the field of Psychology was
being felt in educational research - behaviorism. This is a theory proposed by J.B. Watson and based on the works of Pavlov and Bekhterev, two Russian psychologists who developed an animal training model known as stimulus-response (Classical Conditioning).

62 Watson argued that such conditioning is the basis of human behavior - if you stand
up every time a lady enters the room, you're acting not out of 'politeness', but because behavior is a chain of well-set reflexes. He claimed that "recency" and "frequency" were particularly important in determining what behavior an individual 'emitted' next: if you usually get up when a lady enters the room, you're likely to get up when one enters now.

63 Gestalt Saxophone player or lady?

64 The word Gestalt is used in
modern German to mean the way a thing has been; i.e., "placed," or "put together." There is no exact equivalent in English. "Form" and "shape" are the usual translations.

65 John Stuart Mill ( ) was disturbed by earlier associationists that complex ideals are just a combination of simple ideals. He added the notion that simple ideals combine into a new totality that may bear little resemblance to its parts. For example, if we combine red, green, and blue lights, we get white. So came one of the central themes of the gestalt movement, "The whole is more than the sum of its parts."

66 Max Wertheimer ( ), the founder of gestalt psychology, launched it in 1912 with an article on apparent motion. He had an insight while riding train that if two lights blink on and off at a certain rate, they give the impression that one light is moving back and forth. Wertheimer contrasts rote memorization with problem solving based on the Gestalt principles. In the former, the learner has learned facts without understanding them. Such learning is rigid and can be applied without truly understanding them. Learning in accordance with the Gestalt principles, however, is based on understanding the underlying principles of the problem. This type of learning comes from within the individual and is not imposed on by someone else. It is easily generalizable and is remembered for a long time. When one performs upon memorized facts without understanding them, one often makes stupid mistakes.

67 Wertheimer told this story to illustrate the point: A school inspector was
impressed by the children that he had observed, but wanted to ask one more question before departing. "How many hairs does a horse have?" he asked. Much to the amazement of both the inspector and the teacher, a nine year old boy answered "3,571,962." "How do you know that your answer is correct?" asked the inspector. "If you do not believe me," answered the boy, "count them yourself." The inspector broke into laughter and vowed to tell the story to his colleagues when he returned to Vienna. When the inspector returned the following year for his annual visit, the teacher asked him how his colleagues responded to the story. Disappointedly he replied, "I wanted very much to tell the story but I couldn't. For the life of me, I couldn't remember how many hairs the boy had said the horse had."

68 The Teaching Machine In 1924, Sidney L. Pressey created a crude teaching machine suitable for rote-and-drill learning. In 1926, he published the first paper on the use of a teaching machine in School and Society. He showed that automated-instruction facilitated learning by providing for immediate reinforcement, individual pace setting, and active responding. B.F. Skinner was also interested in a He wrote, "teaching machines are unique among instructional aids, in that the student not merely passively listen, watches, or reads but actively responds. And as he does so he finds out whether his response is correct or not. And a record may be kept which aids in improving the materials." teaching Machine. He conceptualized a teaching machine for the classroom for use by individual students.

69 Thorndike had a great influence on Pressey
Thorndike had a great influence on Pressey. In his machine Pressey sought to incorporate Thorndike's laws. In one version of his machine, a user had to answer a question twice correctly before it was eliminated; this addressed the laws of exercise and effect.

70 Eduard C. Lindeman Lindeman suggests that education
evolves from situations and not subjects and that this is the essence of adult education. Lindeman based In 1926, the first book explaining the unique characteristics of adult learners was published, The Meaning of Adult Education. Lindeman wrote, "...the teacher finds a new function. He is no longer the oracle who speaks from the platform of authority, but rather the guide, the pointer-outer who also participates in learning in proportion to the vitality and relevancy of his facts and experiences." his work on both being an adult learner and being a teacher of adults.

71 Edward L. Thorndike ( ) Edward Thorndike is one of the great learning theorists of all time. He believed that instruction should pursue specified, socially useful goals. In 1928 his classic study, Adult Learning, posited that the ability to learn did not decline until age 35, and then it declined only 1 percent per year, thus going against the grain of the time that "you can't teach old dogs new trick." "The intellect, character and skill possessed by any man learning, not the power to learn declined with age. Thorndike also formulated the law of effect, which states that behaviors that are followed by pleasant consequences will be more likely to be repeated in the future. are the product of certain original tendencies and the training which they have received." - Edward Thorndike

72 One of his most famous theories is "The Identical Elements Theory of the Transfer of
Training" where the amount of transfer between the familiar situation and the unfamiliar one is determined by the number of elements that the two situations have in common. This opposed the long held view of "Formal Discipline" (mostly discredited now): The human mind is made up of several powers such as reasoning, attention, judgement, and memory which strengthened with practice. For example, the study of Latin and mathematics strengthened the reasoning and memory faculties. This is also known as the "Mental Muscle Approach" since it was claimed that the mind was made stronger with practice just as one would strengthen their biceps.

73 He was also one of the first pioneers of "active" learning in that he held low opinions
of lectures, "The lecture and demonstration methods represent an approach to a limiting extreme in which the teacher lets the student find out nothing which he could possible be told or shown...They ask of him only that he attend to, and do his best to understand, questions which he did not himself frame and answers which he did not himself work out." Thorndike supported Dewey's functionalism and added a stimulus-response component and renamed it connectionist. His theory became an educational requirement for the next fifty years.

74 Thorndike specified three conditions that maximized learning:
The law of effect stated that the likely recurrence of a response is generally governed by its consequence or effect generally in the form of reward or punishment. The law of recency stated that the most recent response is likely to govern the recurrence. The law of exercise stated that stimulus-response associations are strengthened through repetition.

75 Hawthorne Effect The Hawthorne effect - an increase in worker
productivity produced by the psychological stimulus of being singled out and made to feel important. Along with Frederick Taylor's work, this study gave rise to the field known as "Industrial Psychology." Social group influences and interpersonal factors must also be considered when performing efficiency research such as time and motion studies.

76 Individual behaviors may be altered because they know they are being studied was
demonstrated in a research project ( ) of the Hawthorne Plant of the Western Electric Company in Cicero, Illinois. This series of research, first led by Harvard Business School professor Elton Mayo along with associates F.J. Roethlisberger and William J. Dickson started out by examining the physical and environmental influences of the workplace (e.g. brightness of lights, humidity) and later, moved into the psychological aspects (e.g. breaks, group pressure, working hours, managerial leadership). The ideas that this team developed about the social dynamics of groups in the work setting had lasting influence - the collection of data, labor-management relations, and informal interaction among factory employees.

77 The major finding of the study was that almost regardless of the experimental
manipulation employed, the production of the workers seemed to improve. One reasonable conclusion is that the workers were pleased to receive attention from the researchers who expressed an interest in them. The study was only expected to last one year, but because the researchers were set back each time they tried to relate the manipulated physical conditions to the worker's efficiency, the project extended out to five years.

78 Four general conclusions were drawn from the Hawthorne studies:
The aptitudes of individuals are imperfect predictors of job performance. Although they give some indication of the physical and mental potential of the individual, the amount produced is strongly influenced by social factors.

79 Informal organization affects productivity. The Hawthorne researchers
discovered a group life among the workers. The studies also showed that the relations that supervisors develop with workers tend to influence the manner in which the workers carry out directives.

80 Work-group norms affect productivity
Work-group norms affect productivity. The Hawthorne researchers were not the first to recognize that work groups tend to arrive at norms of what is "a fair day's work," however, they provided the best systematic description and interpretation of this phenomenon.

81 the workplace as a social system made up of interdependent parts.
The workplace is a social system. The Hawthorne researchers came to view the workplace as a social system made up of interdependent parts. For decades, the Hawthorne studies provided the rationale for human relations within the organization. Then two researchers used a new procedure called "time-series analyses." Using the original variables and including in the Great Depression and the instance of a managerial discipline in which two insubordinate and mediocre workers were replaced by two different productive workers (one who took the role of straw boss - see below). They discovered that production was most affected by the replacement of the two workers due to their greater productivity and the affect of the disciplinary action on the other workers. The occurrence of the Depression also encouraged job productivity, perhaps through the increased importance of jobs and the fear of losing them. Rest periods and a group incentive plan also had a somewhat positive smaller effect on productivity. These variables accounted for almost all the variation in productivity during the experimental period. Social science may have been to readily to embrace the original Hawthorne interpretations since it was looking for theories or work motivation that were more humane and democratic. – Franke, R.H. & Kaul, J.D. "The Hawthorne experiments: First statistical interpretation." American Sociological Review, 1978, 43,

82 Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist, whose development theories have been widely discussed in both psychology and educational fields. To learn, Piaget stressed the holistic approach. A child constructs understanding through many channels: reading, listening, exploring, and experiencing his or her environment.

83 A Piagetian-inspired curricula emphasizes a child-centered educational
philosophy. His work has been labeled an interactionist as well as a constructivist. His interest in cognitive development came from his training in the natural sciences and his interest in epistemology. He saw cognitive growth as an extension of biological growth and as being governed by the same laws and principles. He argued that intellectual development controlled every other aspect of development - emotional, social, and moral.

84 Piaget may be best known for his stages of cognitive development. He
discovered that children think and reason differently at different periods in their lives. He believed that everyone passed through an invariant sequence of four qualitatively distinct stages. Invariant means that a person cannot skip stages or reorder them. Although every normal child passes through the stages in exactly the same order, there is some variability in the ages at which children attain each stage

85 . The four stages are Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years) - The mental structures are mainly concerned with the mastery of concrete objects. Preoperational (2 years to 7 years) - The mastery of symbols takes place. Concrete operational (7 years to 11 years) - Children learn mastery of classes, relations, and numbers and how to reason. Formal operational (abstract thinking) (11 years and up) - The last stage deals with the mastery of thought.

86 Constructivism Cognitive constructivism is based on the work of Jean Piaget. His theory has two major parts: an "ages and stages" component that predicts what children can and cannot understand at different ages, and a theory of development that describes how children develop cognitive abilities. Piaget's theory of cognitive development proposes that humans cannot be "given" information, which they immediately understand and use. Instead, humans must "construct" their own knowledge. They build their knowledge through experience. Experiences enable them to create schemas - mental models in their heads. These schemas are changed, enlarged, and made more sophisticated through two complimentary processes: assimilation and accommodation

87 The main ideas underpinning constructivism learning theories are
not new. They began with the insights of Socrates who claimed that there are basic conditions for learning that are in the cognition of the individual (Kanuka & Anderson, 1998). But it was Piaget's theory of intellectual growth that had the primary influence on the development of current positions. Specifically, Piaget first emphasized the processes of conceptual change as interactions between existing cognitive structures and new experience

88 During the 1930s and 1940s, constructivism was the leading
perspective among public school educators in the United States. In this theory, the emphasis is placed on the student rather than the teacher. Teachers are seen as facilitators or coaches who assist students construct their own conceptualizations and solutions to problems. Within this theory falls two schools of thought, social constructivism and cognitive constructivism:

89 1. Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist and philosopher in the
1930's, is most often associated with the social constructivist theory. He emphasizes the influences of cultural and social contexts in learning and supports a discovery model of learning. This type of model places the teacher in an active role while the students' mental abilities develop naturally through various paths of discovery.

90 2. Cognitive constructivism is based on two different senses of
"construction." First, on the idea that people learn by actively constructing new knowledge, not by having information poured into their heads. Moreover, constructivism asserts that people learn with particular effectiveness when they are engaged in "constructing" personally meaningful artifacts (e.g. computer programs, animations).

91 Discovery Learning Hiero II requested that Archimedes find a method for determining whether a crown was pure gold or alloyed with silver. When he stepped into a bath he realized that a given weight of gold would displace less water than an equal weight of silver (which is less dense than gold); at this point he shouted, "EUREKA" (I have found it!). Discovery learning is based on this "Aha!" method.

92 Discovery Learning is an inquiry-based learning method. The concept of
discovery learning has appeared numerous times throughout history as a part of the educational philosophy of many great philosophers particularly Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Dewey. "There is an intimate and necessary relation between the processes of actual experience and education" wrote Dewey It also enjoys the support of learning theorists and psychologists Piaget, Bruner, and Papert. It has enjoyed a few positive swings of the educational-trend pendulum in American education, but it has never received overwhelming acceptance.

93 where the learner draws on his own experience and prior knowledge to
Discovery learning takes place most notably in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his own experience and prior knowledge to discover the truths that are to be learned. It is a personal, internal, constructivist learning environment Bruner wrote "Emphasis on discovery in learning has precisely the effect on the learner of leading him to be a constructionist, to organize what he is encountering in a manner not only designed to discover regularity and relatedness, but also to avoid the kind of information drift that fails to keep account of the uses to which information might have to be put."

94 Job Instruction Training (JIT)
During World War II (December 7, 1941 and lasting for 5 years), the need for a method of fast and efficient training arose. Training Within Industry, an advisory service formed by the National Defense Advisory Commission, developed the systematic on-the-job training method called JIT (Job Instruction Training). Its goal was to train supervisors in defense plants in the skills of instructing their workers as fast as possible. At first the train-the-trainer classes were three days long, but soon grew to a 45-hour program. Other J programs soon followed: - JRT: Job Relations Training - JMT: Jobs Methods Training - JST: Job Safety

95 Job-aid links Although used for a very long time, the modern Job-Performance-Aid traces its modern roots to the JIT method. It began as a printed card that contained step-by-step instructions for performing a specific task. The worker did not have to memorize the steps. Job aids include anything that when added to the work situation improves job performance by guiding, facilitating, or reminding the performers in their accomplishment of job tasks. This method of providing an alternative to improving job performance opened the door to other interventions to changing job performance.

96 Job aids are considered instructional interventions because they also
mediate knowledge and skills problems. However, job aids are not really intended to produce learning, as they are a substitute for learning. Learning that does occur as a result of using the job aid (surely considerable at times) is incidental.

97 Abraham Maslow American psychologist, Abraham Maslow, published A Theory of Human Motivation (1943) in the Psychological Review Journal which explains his "hierarchy of needs." His motivational model explained that a higher need, ultimately that for self-actualization, is expressed only after lower needs are fulfilled. This was one of the first psychology research projects that looked at mentally healthy human beings, instead of the mentally ill. Dr. Maslow is one of the founders of humanistic psychology. He advocates a humanistic science rather than a classical mechanistic science. "Many things in life cannot be transmitted well by words, concepts, or books. Colors that we see cannot be described to a man born blind. Only a swimmer knows how swimming feels; the nonswimmer can get only the faintest idea of it with all the words and books in the world. The psychopath will never know happiness or love. The youngster must wait until he is a parent in order to know parenthood fully and to say "I didn't realize." My toothache feels different than your toothache. And so it goes. Perhaps it is better to say that all of life must be first be known experientially. There is no substitute for experience, none at all. - Abraham H. Maslow - The Psychology of Science (1966).

98 Edwin R. Guthrie's study (1946) breaks skills into acts. Acts are
defined as complicated behavior patterns usually involving some goal accomplishment. Acts are made up of many individual movements. Movements are specific responses to specific stimuli. Acts are composed of muscular contractions that are the response to specific stimulus and are not dependent upon practice

99 But the learning of an act does depend on practice. Learning an act requires practice so that the proper movement is associated with its own cues. Once acquired, associations are permanent but they may not appear in every performance due to weak associations. These weak associations cannot be retrieved because of strong interference from other associations.

100 . Short practice periods
develop weak associations which learners are not able to magnify into stronger ones. - Guthrie, E. R. (1952). The Psychology of Learning. New York: Harper & Row. "Common speech defines acts in terms of their results, not in terms of the movements by which those results are accomplished. We eat a dinner, sail a boat, ride a horse, play a selection on the piano. For each of these acts there may be a thousand different patterns of muscular contraction in the details of the achievement, and the act may still be known by the same name. Skillful and awkward performances of the same act may use very different motions." - Edwin R. Guthrie - "Association and the law of effect" -Psychological Review (1940).

101 Adams theorized that if we practice long enough we develop a
mental image. For example, professional players are often known to utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football, because they can instantaneously tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce. Not having balanced practice periods prevents learners from becoming fully comfortable with the feel and use of the skill they are attempting to acquire. Learners must have enough time to develop a complete mental image of the sequence of correct responses. Often we see learners who could perform in the classroom and then not be able to perform when they return to work. - Adams, J. (1977). Motor Learning and Retention. In Marx, M. & Bunch, M. (Eds.), Fundamentals and Applications of Learning. New York: Macmillan.

102 Hull discovered that when practice periods are spaced apart
(distributed practice), performance is superior to what it is when practice periods are close together (massed practice). Also, during practice periods, the learners' performance will gradually improve until some asymptotic (maximal) level is reached. If the learners are allowed to rest, and then resume practice, their performance will tend to exceed their previous asymptotic level (reminiscence effect). Learners that are provided rest or some other form of diversion between practice periods will reach higher levels of performance than learners who practice straight through without rest or diversion. - 7 Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:

103 Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) If you want truly to understand
something, try to change it. - Kurt Lewin

104 Organization Behavior
In 1946, social scientist Kurt Lewin launches the Research Center for Group Dynamics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His contributions in change theory, action research, and action learning earn him the title of the "father of organization development." Lewin is renown for his field theory. The field theory is the "proposition that human behavior is the function of both the person and the environment: expressed in symbolic terms, B = f (P, E)." This means that one's behavior is related to both one's personal characteristics and to the social situation in which one finds oneself. Lewin is best known for his work in the field of organization behavior and the study of group dynamics. His research discovered that learning is best facilitated when there is a conflict between immediate concrete experience and detached analysis within the individual. His cycle of action, reflection, generalization, and testing is characteristic of experiential learning:

105 T-Groups In 1947, the National Training Laboratories Institute starts up in the Bethel ME. They pioneer the use of T-groups (Sensitivity or Laboratory Training) in which the learners use feedback, problem solving, and role play to gain insights into themselves, others, and groups. The goal is to change the standards, attitudes and behavior of individuals. This type of training is controversial as the behaviors it encourages are often self-disclosure and openness, which many people believe an organization ultimately punishes. Also, a lot of the sensitivity training taking place uses excessive activities. The feedback used in this type of training can be highly personal, hence it must be given by highly trained observers (trainers).

106 Organizational Development
A group of researchers from London's Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, led by Eric Trist, studied a South Yorkshire coal mine in 1949. Their research leads in the development of the Sociotechnical Systems Theory which considers both the social and the technical aspects when designing jobs. It marks a 180-degree departure from Frederick Taylor's scientific management.

107 There are four basic components to sociotechnical theory:
environment subsystem, social subsystem, technical subsystem, and organizational design.

108 Cognitive Science "I think, therefore I am" - Descartes Descartes argued that the ultimate truth can be deduced only from the real existence of a "thinking self." He assumed that the "thinking self" is independent of body or matter, as it does have an extension we can see and touch but does not think, a mind has no extension but thinks.

109 By the mid 1950s, cognitive views of learning and development gained dominance over
the stimulus-response approach. With this renewed interest, research went into deeper levels into how individuals acquire, retain, recall and transform information. Cognitive Psychology is an approach to the study of the human mind that relies on an information processing metaphor and tests predictions of theories using human subjects engaged in cognitive tasks.

110 The early views of mind had the Greek philosophers identifying three aspects of the
mind: Cognition (acts of intellect), conation (acts of will), and affect (acts of emotions) These are related to what we today identify as the distinction between structure (organization) and process (action).

111 Instructional Systems Design (ISD) or System Approach to Training (SAT)
ISD Model Instructional systems design arose out of the 50-60's as educational technology development paralleled and modeled the systems approach emerging within the military and industrial worlds. The traditional approach to education was viewed as piecemeal. ISD attempted to integrate all the components of the instructional process into a system . This was accomplished by developing instructional systems with flow charts or lists of steps to be followed. The term task analysis was used by the Air Force in the early 1950s to refer to procedures for anticipating the job requirements of new equipment under development.

112 Don Kirkpatrick and Evaluating Training
Evaluation Don Kirkpatrick introduces his four-level model of evaluating training in 1959 1.Reaction - measures how those who participate in the program react to it. 2.Learning - the extent to which participants change attitudes, improve knowledge, and increase skill as a result of attending the program. 3.Behavior - the extent to which a change in behavior has occurred because the participants attended the training program. 4.Results - the final results that occurred because the participants attended the program.

113 Herzberg's Hygiene and Motivational Factors
In 1959, Frederick Herzberg developed a list of factors which are closely based on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, except it more closely related to work. Hygiene factors must be present in the job before motivators can be used to stimulate the workers:

114 Hygiene or Dissatisfiers:
Working conditions Policies and administrative practices Salary and Benefits Supervision Status Job security Fellow workers Personal life

115 Motivators or Satisfiers:
Recognition Achievement Advancement Growth Responsibility Job challenge

116 B. F. Skinner (1904 -1990) Skinner designed an apparatus, called a
Skinner box, that allowed him to formulate important principles of animal learning. An animal placed inside the box is rewarded with a small bit of food each time it makes the desired response, such as pressing a lever or pecking a key. A device outside the box records the animal's responses. B. F. Skinner's (Burrhus Frederick Skinner) elaboration of the theory of reinforcement and his advocacy of its application to learning helped to establish the Behaviorism and Programmed Instruction movement. Programmed instruction is characterized by clearly stated behavioral objectives, small frames of instruction, self-pacing, active learner response to inserted questions, and immediate feedback regarding the correctness of a response. Individualized instruction in essence replaces the teacher with systematic or programmed materials. Individualized instruction can be print-based, computer-based, or can use other media as long as the instruction is based on the concepts listed above. It is linear, in that the author of the materials decided what step to present next, and that step is presented, no matter what the learner wants. Although logical subject matter is easier to individualize into programmed materials, researchers have not found any subject matter that could not be programmed. During his 60-year career, Skinner discovered important principles of operant conditioning, a type of learning that involves rewards and punishments. A strict behaviorist, Skinner believed that operant conditioning could explain even the most complex of human behaviors. In 1958, Skinner built a rote-and-drill teaching machine. Individualized instruction was originally presented in book form, and sometimes still is. In order to prevent students from looking at the answers in the book ahead of time, Program Instruction became automated by inserting it into a teaching machine. Teaching machines are devices that house, display, and present printed programmed instruction. Feedback is given when the program is advanced through actuation of a lever and the correct answer comes to view. Programmed instruction is linear, in that the author of the materials decided what step to present next, and that step is presented, no matter what the learner wants. Later, in 1958, Norman Crowder developed what is called "intrinsic" or "branching" programming, in which the learner's possible responses are multiple choice, and the program branches according to the response chosen. In this way students could skip steps they already knew, or study remedial material on information already presented

117 Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGreagor developed a philosophical view of humankind with his Theory X and Theory Y in These are two opposing perceptions about how people view human behavior at work and organizational life.

118 Theory X - With Theory X assumptions, management's role is to coerce and control
employees. People have an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it whenever possible. People must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment in order to get them to achieve the organizational objectives. People prefer to be directed, do not want responsibility, and have little or no ambition. People seek security above all else.

119 Theory Y - With Theory Y assumptions, management's role is to develop the potential
in employees and help them to release that potential towards common goals. Work is as natural as play and rest. People will exercise self-direction if they are committed to the objectives (they are NOT lazy). Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement. People learn to accept and seek responsibility. Creativity, ingenuity, and imagination are widely distributed among the population. People are capable of using these abilities to solve an organizational problem. People have potential.

120 Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Rogers and Feedback
Best known for his contribution to client-centered therapy, Rogers was one of the founders of humanistic psychology, which promotes a more person-to-person approach to the traditional therapist-patient relationship, and emphasizes the responsibility and intention in human behavior. Rogers also had much to say about education questions with regard to their way of being with participants, and the processes they might employ. Informal education is not so much person-centered as dialogical. . His ability to link elements together - helps to put into context his later achievements. The concern with opening up to, and theorizing from experience, the concept of the human organism as a whole and the belief in the possibilities of human action have their parallels in the work of John Dewey. Carl Rogers was able to join these with therapeutic insights and the belief, borne out of his practice experience that the client usually knows better to how to proceed than the therapist. He was also a committed practitioner who looked to his own experiences (and was, thus, difficult to dismiss as 'academic). In short, he offered a new way, a break with earlier traditions. Freedom to Learn (1969; 1983; 1993) is a classic statement of educational possibility. Carl Rogers, himself, was a gifted teacher. His approach grew from his orientation in one-to-one professional encounters. He saw himself as a facilitator - one who created the environment for engagement. Carl Rogers has provided educators with some fascinating and important questions with regard to their way of being with participants, and the processes they might employ. Informal education is not so much person-centered as dialogical.

121 Albert Bandura Learning by Observing Observational Learning Links
Self-Efficacy Links In the early 1960s, Albert Bandura began a series of writings that challenged the older explanations of imitative learning and expand the topic into what is now referred to as Observational Learning. According to Bandura, observation learning may or may not involve imitation . For example if you see someone driving in front of you hit a pothole, and then you swerve to miss it - you learned from observational learning, not imitation. What you learned was information in which you processed cognitively and then acted upon. Observational learning is much more complex than simple imitation. Bandura's theory is often referred to as "social learning theory" as it emphasizes the role of vicarious experience (observation) of people impacting people (models). Modeling has several affects on learners:

122 Acquisition - New responses are learned by observing the model.
Inhibition - A response that otherwise may be made is changed when the observer sees a model being punished. Disinhibition - A reduction in fear by observing a model's behavior go unpunished in a feared activity.

123 Facilitation - A model elicits from an observer a response that has
already been learned. Creativity - Observing several models performing and then adapting a combination of characteristics or styles. In one experiment, twenty-four preschool children were assigned to each of three conditions. One group observed aggressive adult models; a second observed inhibited non-aggressive models; while the control group had no prior exposure to the models. Subjects were then tested for the amount of imitative as well as nonimitative aggression performed in a new situation in the absence of the models. Comparison of the subjects' behavior in the generalization situation revealed that subjects exposed to aggressive models reproduced a good deal of aggression resembling that of the models, and that their mean scores differed markedly from those of subjects in the nonaggressive and control groups. Subjects in the aggressive condition also exhibited significantly more partially imitative and nonimitative aggressive behavior and were generally less inhibited in their behavior than subjects in the nonaggressive condition. - Transmission of Aggression Through Imitation of Aggressive Models, Albert Bandura, Dorothea Ross, and Sheila A. Ross (1961): First published in Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63,

124 Cuing Cuing refers to actions that make stimuli more salient and thus more likely to be noticed. Attention can be cued directly, e.g., "Watch this!", or indirectly, e.g., "I wonder what will happen when I push this button?" In general, cuing includes the directing of attention through pointing, holding objects up for viewing, telling learners where to look, or asking questions that will cause them to process information and find the appropriate stimulus.

125 Self-Efficacy Bandura also researched self-efficacy. This is part of our "self system" that helps us to evaluate our performance. Perceived self-efficacy refers to one's impression of what one is capable of doing. This comes from a variety of sources, such as personal accomplishments and failures, seeing others who are similar to oneself, and verbal persuasion.

126 Verbal persuasion may temporarily convince people that they should try or avoid some task, but in the final analysis it is one's direct or vicarious experience with success or failure that will most strongly influence one's self-efficacy. For example, a coach may "fire-up" her team before a game by telling the team how great they are, but the enthusiasm will be short-lived if the opposing team is clearly superior. People with high perceived self-efficacy try more, accomplish more, and persist longer at a tank than people with low perceived self-efficacy. Bandura speculated that this is because people with high perceived self-efficacy tend to have more control over their environment and therefore experience less uncertainty. Also, one's perceived self-efficacy may not correspond to one's real self-efficacy

127 Instructional Design In 1962, Robert Glaser synthesized the work of previous researchers and introduced the concept of instructional design. He also advocated Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI), an approach where the results of a learner's placement test are used to plan learner-specific instruction. Glaser is also credited with the first use of the term criterion-referenced measures, a form of evaluation that departed from the peer-referenced measures that came before.

128 Performance Objectives
In 1962, Robert Mager published his work Preparing Instructional Objectives on the construction of performance objectives. An objective describes in measurable terms of who an objective targets, the behavior they will exhibit, the conditions or limitations under which they must carry out this behavior, and the criteria against which their behavior will be gauged.

129 Performance or learning objectives are often defined as the task (behavior), condition,
and standard. For example, "From memory, list the three requirements of a well-stated performance objective without error."

130 Task - list the three requirements of a well-stated performance objective
Condition - From memory Standard - without error

131 Robert Gagne Conditions For Learning To Occur
In 1962 when Robert Gagne published Military Training and Principles of Learning he demonstrated a concern for the different levels of learning. His differentiation of psychomotor skills, verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, and attitudes provides a companion to Bloom's Taxonomy Later, he extended his thinking to include nine instructional events ( The Conditions of Learning and the Theory of Instruction (1965)) that detail the conditions necessary for learning to occur

132 . These events are still important for
the basis for the design of instruction and the selection of appropriate media: 1.gain attention 2.tell learners the learning objective 3.stimulate recall 4.present the stimulus, content 5.provide guidance, relevance, and organization 6.elicit the learning by demonstrating it 7.provide feedback on performance 8.assess performance, give feedback and reinforcement 9.enhance retention and transfer to other contexts

133 Gagne also distinguished eight different classes of situations in which human
beings learn: 1.Signal Learning - The individual learns to make a general, diffuse response to a signal. Such was the classical conditioned response of Pavlov. 2.Stimulus-Response Learning - The learner acquires a precise response to a discriminated stimulus. 3.Chaining - A chain of two or more stimulus-response connections is acquired.

134 4.Verbal Association - The learning of chains that are verbal.
5.Discrimination Learning - The individual learns to make different identifying responses to many different stimuli which may resemble each other in physical appearance. 6.Concept Learning - The learner acquires a capability of making a common response to a class of stimuli.

135 7.Rule Learning - A rule is a chain of two or more concepts.
8.Problem Solving - A kind of learning that requires the internal events usually called thinking.

136 The Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid
Management Grid In 1964 Robert Blake and Jane Mouton develop a model that conceptualizes management styles and relations. Their Grid uses two axis. "Concern for people" is plotted using the vertical axis and "Concern for task" is along the horizontal axis. They both have a range of 1 to 9. The notion that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behavior has the attraction of simplicity.

137 Alan Tough Tough's first work: (1968), Why Adults Learn: A Study of the Major Reasons for Beginning and Continuing a Learning Project. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, explained why adult learners expect the learning experience to mirror their feelings of autonomy and self-worth, and to acknowledge their life experience. In 1979 he wrote The Adult's Learning Projects. Research in Education Series No. 1. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. In this book, he explained how most adult learning takes place outside of institutional frameworks. According to the research of Alan Tough, the overwhelming majority (about 70%) of adult learning takes place outside institutional frameworks. Note that about 20% of the learning are supported by others who are not professionals helpers, such as supervisors, colleagues, parents, friends, etc. Professional helpers, such as teachers, trainers, and counselors direct only about 5% of our learning. This could be attributed to the following: The learner has a desire to control the learning process. Non-institutional learning allows for a flexible time commitment. Non-institutional learning is attainable at a low cost. Tough demonstrated that many adults are active, self-directed learners and they want to learn! No one has to force them. He showed that adults have a large foundation of knowledge and skill upon which they base further growth and development. They are motivated by life situations to immediately apply new knowledge and skills. Tough's recommendation is that educators should spend less time teaching specific content and more time helping adults learn.

138 Fred Keller - The Personalized System of Instruction (PSI)
Research on PSI Also know as the Keller plan. First described by Fred Keller in Good Bye Teacher - Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (1968). It is composed of small self-paced modularized units of instructions where study guides direct learners through the modules. Unit tests are given on each module where the learners must show mastery by scoring at least a 90%. Student proctors are used to help with individual problems and lectures are given for motivational problems only. PSI combines "mastery learning" with principles of reinforcement learning theory. Mastery learning requires that the desired student performance be stated precisely using performance or learning objectives. The modules can consists of reading assignments, films, audio tapes, field trips, programmed instruction, conducting an experiment, conducting an interview, etc. The performance evaluations can be essays, multiple choice, oral exams, written report, etc. Although not required, bonus points are encouraged to be given to learners who complete the tests in a timely manner since procrastination in a self-paced course is the biggest problem.

139 Keller divided the process for creating PSI into four steps:
Determine the material to be covered in the course. Divide the material into self contained modules (segments). Create methods of evaluating the degree to which the learner has conquered the material in a given module. Allow learners to move from module to module at their own pace.

140 "(1) The go-at-your-own pace feature, which permits a student to move
through the course at a speed commensurate with his ability and other demands of his time. (2) The unit-perfection requirement for advance, which lets the student go ahead to new material only after demonstrating mastery of that which preceded. (3) The use of lectures and demonstrations as vehicles of motivation, rather than sources of critical

141 permits repeated testing, immediate scoring, almost unavoidable tutoring,
and a marked enhancement of the personal-social aspect of theeducational process". - Fred Keller - "Good-Bye Teacher..." (1968) Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

142 Malcom Knowles In 1970, Malcom Knowles began to popularize andragogy by advocating the adult learning theory - a set of assumptions that characterize adult learners. Knowles identifies four characteristics of adults as learners:

143 a self-concept tending towards self-direction
a growing reservoir of experience a developmental readiness to learn a problem-centered and present reality orientation to learning.

144 He also taught us that students enter with learner self-concepts shaped by the realities of
a classroom experience that taught them to be dependent and passive, two potentially fatal learner attributes in a distance learning environment. As Malcolm put it so succinctly, "most of us only know how to be taught, we haven't learned how to learn." "We are nearing the end of the era of our edifice complex and its basic belief that respectable learning takes place only in buildings and on campuses. Adults are beginning to demand that their learning take place at a time, place, and pace convenient to them. In fact, I feel confident that most educational services by the end of this century (if not decade) will be delivered electronically Our great challenge now is to find ways to maintain the human touch as we learn to use the media in new ways." - Malcolm S. Knowles in 1984 From Andragogy in Action.

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146 Performance Through Excellence
In 1978, Tom Gilbert published Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance. It describes the behavioral-engineering model which become the bible of performance technology. Gilbert wrote that accomplishment specification is the only logical way to define performance requirements. Accomplishments are the best starting points for developing performance standards. In addition, accomplishments are the best tools for the development of performance-based job descriptions as they allow management to describe the measurement that is important to the organization, specific to the position, and observable. Exemplary performers represent an organization's ideal workforce, yet they normally make up less than 15% of employees. This performance gap provides an opportunity for organizations to significantly improve workforce performance. Quantifying the gap between exemplary and average employees demonstrates the tremendous potential for organizations to increase the performance of their workforces. Gilbert taught us that helping employees become exemplary performers is still the most effective way for organizations to get the greatest possible return on their training and performance improvement investments.

147 Lifelong Learning Patricia Cross' 1981 book, Adults as learners described three features of lifelong learning: A more holistic concept of growth or education than that which has been used in traditional formal education. A wider view of providers of and settings for education than merely schools (what she terms the learning society). The active agency or self-directedness of the learner throughout the life span. Distance education has created a major shift in how educators and students think about teaching and learning. By allowing students to learn in locations and times that are more convenient, distance education opens educational opportunity topreviously unreachable populations. It also enables more people to extend the period of their education from a limited number of schooling years to a lifelong learning process.

148 Howard Gardner and Multiple Intelligences
Gardner suggests that our intelligences are organized 'vertically', as a number of almost different faculties, rather than 'horizontally', as a set of general abilities. This viewpoint was in direct contrast to many of the language and logic theorists who believe that there was only one kind of intelligence, that we either had a lot of it or not that much, and that there was virtually very little that we could be do about that. Howard Gardner is a Professor of Cognition and Education at Harvard University and Co-Director of Harvard’s Project Zero. He is widely known for his Theory of Multiple Intelligences, introduced in his book Frames of Mind (1983). In his book, Gardner proposed a novel notion: the psychological construct 'intelligence' should be formally measured in more ways than simply through the widely accepted logical/linguistic IQ-type formalized tests used in most school systems. Frames was very well received by those in the educational arena.

149 In Frames, Gardner theorized eight basic intelligences to represent these other modes:
linguistic-verbal (most widely accepted) logical-mathematical (most widely accepted) visual-spatial bodily-kinesthetic musical-rhythmic interpersonal (most criticized) intrapersonal (most criticized) naturalist (recently added)

150 Kolb's Learning Styles Kolb's Experiential Learning: Experience as the source of learning and development (1984) theorized that people develop preferences for different learning styles in the same way that they develop any other sort of style, i.e. - management, leadership, negotiating etc. To understand the value of the learning inventory, learners must first have a basic understanding of the experiential learning model and know what their preferred learning style is. This model provides a framework for identifying students' learning style preferences. David Kolb (1984) found that the four combinations of perceiving and processing determine the four learning styles. According to Kolb, the learning cycle involves fourprocesses that must be present for learning to occur: Activist - Active Experimentation (simulations, case study, homework). What's new? I'm game for anything. Training approach - Problem solving, small group discussions, peer feedback, and homework all helpful; trainer should be a model of a professional, leaving the learner to determine her own criteria for relevance of materials. Reflector - Reflective Observation (logs, journals, brainstorming). I'd like time to think about this. Training approach - Lectures are helpful; trainer should provide expert interpretation (taskmaster/guide); judge performance by external criteria. Theorist - Abstract Conceptualization (lecture, papers, analogies). How does this relate to that? Training approach - Case studies, theory readings and thinking alone helps; almost everything else, including talking with experts, isPragmatist - Concrete Experience (laboratories, field work, observations). How can I apply this in practice? Training approach - Peer feedback is helpful; activities should apply skills; trainer is coach/helper for a self-directed autonomous learner. not helpful.

151 Adult Education Stephen Brookfield's Understanding and Facilitating Adult Learning (1986) summarized six leading principles of adult education: voluntary participation in learning mutual respect among participants collaborative facilitation a praxis approach to teaching/learning the necessity of critical reflection upon the breadth of life, and a proactive and self-directed empowerment of participants. Adult Education includes all forms of schooling and learning programs in which adults participate. Unlike other types of education, adult education is defined by the student population rather than by the content or complexity of a learning program. It includes literacy training, community development, university credit programs, on-the-job training, and continuing professional education. Programs vary in organization from casual, incidental learning to formal college credit courses.

152 Computer Based Training (CBT)
Although PLATO, the first dedicated computer based training system, was built in 1959, CBT did not really come around until the late 80s or early 1990s. The early CBT programs were little more than programmed instruction teaching machines. It was not until the 1990s that their multimedia capabilities were put to full use. It is based on individualized instruction that allows a learner to work through the material at her own pace. It is a natural progression from printed individualized instruction and teaching machines to the computer with its speed, branching capability and visual display. The definition of CBT is close to the definition of individualized training - an interactive learning experience between a learner and a computer in which the computer provides the majority of the stimulus, the learner must respond, and the computer analyzes the response and provides feedback to the learner. Its multimedia function has added the capability of displaying information in audio, graphic, and motion video form, which makes the teaching of skills and processes more effective than if only text were used. Individualized instruction delivered over the World Wide Web is a further development of computer-based training. Web-based instruction can be used with any type of computer that can access the internet and that has web browser software.

153 Learning Organization
In 1990, Peter Senge popularized the "Learning Organization" in The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization . He describes the organization as an organism with the capacity to enhance its capabilities and shape its own future. A learning organization is any organization (e.g. school, business, government agency) that understands itself as a complex, organic system that has a vision and purpose. It uses feedback systems and alignment mechanisms to achieve its goals. It values teams and leadership throughout the ranks. He followed that book with 1999's The Dance of Change: The Challenge to Sustaining Momentum in Learning Organizations which shows the difficulty of achieving the learning organization.

154 The five disciplines are:
1.System Thinking - It allows one to look at the events in an organization and see a pattern of complex relationships. 2.Personal Mastery - Seeing what is and what could be and then changing to meet the vision. 3.Mental Models - Assumptions about how we see the world. 4.Shared Vision - A team competency in which everyone has a common goal or shared picture. 5.Team Learning - The team suspend their assumptions and take up dialogue that embraces the collective good.

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