2Definition Waller describes facility layout as the arrangement of machines, workstations, storage areas etc to enable an operation to function efficiently, safely and in a cost-effective manner
3Layout Strategies Many cited by material, but one presented here Heizer & Render suggest that in most cases, layout will strive to accommodate the following criteria:Higher utilization of space, equipment and peopleImproved flow of information, materials or peopleImproved staff morale and safer working conditionsImproved customer interactionFlexibility, i.e. whatever the layout is now it will need to change
4Layout & FlowThere are direct links between layout and the flow of operations with a logical flow of materials/components with value being added at each part of the transformation.
5Types of Layouts Fixed position Process-orientated Office Retail WarehouseProduct-orientated
6Fixed Position For large bulky projects such as ships and buildings The operation remains static and workers and materials come to the site, e.g. chemical plant, new building, shipbuilding, and highway.Many fixed positions are characterized by lack of space and limitations on resources for the workers and their operations.Project management is therefore essential to co-ordinate activities e.g. consider the access, use of resources by the operators.
7Process OrientedDesign places departments with large flows of material or people together or areas having similar processes located in close proximityThis operation can simultaneously handle a wide range of products or services.Good for processes which have a low volume, high variety set of customers needs.The advantage of process-orientated layouts is the flexibility.
8Emergency Room Layout Surgery Radiology E.R. beds Pharmacy Billing/exitE.R.Triage roomE.R. AdmissionsPatient B - erratic pacemakerPatient A - broken legHallway
9Office Arranged by process or product Example: Payroll dept. is by processTypically, small teams of workers will share a work cell and each may either initiate or add value to the work of the others.Examples: R & D, production, operations, sales, finance.
11RetailRetail layout is concerned with maximizing profitability per square foot of floor space.Retail outlets attempt to expose customers to as many products as possible, e.g. cashier stations are often at the rear or side of stores so we have to pass through merchandise before payment.Where products are stocked denotes their selling strategy. E.g. immediately beyond the entrance, at the end of aisles, at eye height on the shelves.
12Office Carts Grocery Store Check- outGrocery StoreMeatBreadMilkProduceFrozen Foods
13WarehouseThe key to warehousing is to find the optimum between storage and layout. Many warehouses are now highly automated and characterized by height ceilings, multiple stacking bins and automated lifts / picking equipment.The warehouse manager’s job is to utilize as much of the ‘cube’ space as possible while minimizing material handling costs and optimising the flow of goods in & out
15Product Oriented Facility organized around product These layouts are organized to maximize cost-effectiveness on similar goods manufactured on repetitive and continuous production.There are two main types of product layout –Fabrication builds components which form part of a larger operation.Assembly places the fabricated parts together to complete the operationAn important element of both fabrication and assembly is that each part of the operation must be balanced with all others otherwise gaps and bottlenecks will occur.Management’s goal is to create a smooth flow of work.