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Macromolecules. California Science Standards Standard 1. b. Students know enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions without altering the.

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Presentation on theme: "Macromolecules. California Science Standards Standard 1. b. Students know enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions without altering the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Macromolecules

2 California Science Standards Standard 1. b. Students know enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions without altering the reaction equilibrium and the activities of enzymes depend on the temperature, ionic conditions, and the pH of the surroundings. 1. h. Students know most macromolecules (polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins, lipids) in cells and organisms are synthesized from a small collection of simple precursors.

3 Macromolecules (Carbon Compounds) Living Tissues are 70% Water All living tissues are made up of the same 4 large molecules

4 Macromolecule #1:Carbohydrates, I Carbohydrates are sugars and sugar polymers (polysaccharide) Monosaccharide –raw material for amino acids and fatty acids

5 Carbohydrates, II Disaccharides –Two saccharides (sugars) Polysaccharides – three or more sugars linked together

6 Carbohydrates, III Polysaccharide Used as Storage: Starch~ glucose monomers Plants: plastids Animals: glycogen Polysaccharides Structural: Cellulose~ most abundant organic compound; Chitin~exoskeletons; cell walls of fungi; surgical thread

7 Macromolecule #2: Lipids Hydrophobic – Dont mix with water Hydrocarbons No polymers; glycerol and fatty acid Fats, phospholipids, steroids

8 Fats and Oils store Energy Fats and oil = triglycerides (simple lipids) –Fats are solid at room temperature –Oils are liquids at room temperature –Saturated vs. unsaturated fats; single vs. double bonds

9 Phospholipids 2 fatty acids instead of 3 (phosphate group) Tails hydrophobic; heads hydrophilic Bilayer (double layer); cell membranes

10 Steroids Lipids with 4 fused carbon rings Example: cholesterol: cell membranes; precursor for other steroids (sex hormones); atherosclerosis

11 Macromolecule #3: Proteins Protein molecules vary from about 50 to 3,000 amino acids in length. Important for nearly everything organisms do Monomer: amino acids (there are 22) ~

12 Proteins Structural Support Protection Transport Catalysis Defense Regulation Movement

13 Proteins A single amino acid substitution in a protein causes sickle-cell disease Normal cells contain millions of molecules of the protein hemoglobin, which transports oxygen

14 Primary Structure Order or sequence of amino acids Each type of protein has a unique primary structure of amino acids

15 Secondary Structure Conformation: coils & folds (hydrogen bonds) Alpha Helix: coiling; keratin Pleated Sheet: parallel; silk

16 Tertiary Structure Conformation: irregular contortions from R group bonding Hydrophobic disulfide bridges hydrogen bonds ionic bonds

17 Quaternary Structure Conformation: 2 or more polypeptide chains aggregated into 1 macromolecule Example include: collagen,connective,tissue, and hemoglobin

18 Macromolecule #4: Nucleic Acids: Informational Macromolecules Nucleic Acids are polymers of nucleotides (polynucleotide) A nucleotide has 3 parts: nitrogenous base pentose sugar phosphate group

19 Nucleic Acids, II 1.Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 2.Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

20 Structure of Nuclei Acids

21 DNA vs RNA DNA double stranded Adenine (2) Guanine (3) Cytosine (3) Thymine (2) Deoxyribose RNA single stranded Adenine Guanine Cyhtosine Uracil Ribose

22 Write the letter of the description that best matches the term or phrase 1.saturated fatty acid 2. nucleic acid 3. Polysaccharides 4. amino acids 5. RNA a. building blocks of proteins b. solid at room temperature c. a molecular chain of nucleotides d. starch, cellulose, and glycogen e. many play key roles in the manufacture of proteins


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