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4.2: One-to-One Marketing and Personalisation in EC

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Presentation on theme: "4.2: One-to-One Marketing and Personalisation in EC"— Presentation transcript:

1 4.2: One-to-One Marketing and Personalisation in EC
Marketing that treats each customer in an unique way, facilitated by the use of Internet technologies. Personalisation: The matching of services, products, and advertising content to individual consumers. Several different ways to obtain information from consumers Soliciting the information from the individual directly, using cookies or other methods to observe online behavior Performing market research Extrapolating from previous purchasing patterns Matching an individual’s preferences (via a software system) to available products and services.

2 4.2: One-to-One Marketing and Personalisation in EC
User profile: The requirements, preferences, behaviors, and demographic traits of a particular customer Cookie A data file that is placed on a user’s hard drive by a Web server, frequently without disclosure or the user’s consent, that collects information about the user’s activities at a site

3 4.2: The New Marketing Model

4 4.2: One-to-One Marketing and Personalisation in EC
Collaborative filtering: A personalisation method that uses customer data to predict, based on formulas derived from behavioral sciences, what other products or services a customer may enjoy; predictions can be extended to other customers with similar profiles Variations of collaborative filtering: Rule-based filtering (prediction based on behavioral patterns) Content-based filtering (recommendation based on user preferences) Activity-based filtering (by watching user’s activities on the Web) Legal and ethical issues in collaborative filtering Invasion-of-privacy issues Permission-based personalisation tools to request customer permission.

5 4.2: Loyalty and Trust in E-Commerce
Customer Loyalty Customer loyalty is the degree to which a customer will stay with a specific vendor or brand for repeat purchase Customer loyalty is expected to produce more sales and increased profits over time E-Loyalty: Customer loyalty or commitment to an online retailer


7 4.2: Loyalty and Trust in E-Commerce
Satisfaction in EC Customer satisfaction (including customer service) is one of the most important consumer reactions in the B2C online environment Recent statistics show: 80% of highly satisfied online consumers would shop again within 2 months 90% would recommend the Internet retailers to others However, 87% of dissatisfied consumers would permanently leave their Internet retailers without any complaints, thereby leading to decreased sales.

8 4.2: Loyalty and Trust in E-Commerce
The psychological status of involved parties who are willing to pursue further interaction to achieve a planned goal. Trust is very important in EC because of lack of direct interaction between buyer and seller. How to Increase Trust in EC Brand recognition EC security mechanisms can help solidify trust Disclose and update latest business status and practices to potential customers and to build transaction integrity into the system Guarantee information and protection privacy through various communication channels

9 4.3: Market Research for EC
The Goal of Market Research To find information and knowledge that describes the relationships among consumers, products, marketing methods, and marketers. To assist a firm in both marketing and product mix decision. The Aim of Market Research To discover marketing opportunities and issues, To establish marketing plans, To better understand the purchasing process, To evaluate marketing performance

10 4.3: Market Research for EC
Market segmentation: The process of dividing a consumer market into logical groups for conducting marketing research, advertising, and sales. Makes markets more easier to managed and so marketing strategies can be applied to specific subsets of the population. Segmentation is done with the aid of tools: Data modeling Data warehousing

11 4.3: Market Research for EC
Online market research methods Implementing Web-based surveys Online focus groups Hearing directly from customers Customer scenarios Tracking customer movements Analysis of clickstream data

12 Example: Internet Market Research Expedites Time-to-Market for Procter & Gamble
In the past, developing a major new product, from concept to market launch, took P&G over 5 years In September 2000, P&G introduced Whitestrips on the Internet, offering the product for sale on its Web site. Online research was facilitated by data mining conducted on P&G’s huge historical data and the new Internet data Internet created a product awareness of 35 percent before shipments were made to stores Revolutionised process of studying the product concept, segmenting the market, and expediting product development

13 4.3: Market Research for EC
Tracking Customer Movements Web Transaction log: A record of user activities at a company’s Web site Clickstream behavior: Customer movements on the Internet; and, what the customer is doing there Web Bugs: Tiny graphics files embedded on messages and in Web sites that transmit information about the user and their movements to a Web server Cookie: Frequently used with Web bugs. Spyware: Software that gathers user information, through an Internet connection, without the user’s knowledge

14 4.3: Market Research for EC
Web Analytics Enable retailers to make site adjustments on the fly, manage online marketing campaigns and EC initiatives, and track customer satisfaction If a company redesigns its Web site, it can gain almost-instant feedback on how the new site is performing Web analytics help marketers decide which products to promote and merchandisers achieve a better understanding of the nature of demand

15 4.3: Market Research for EC
Limitations of Online Market Research Too much data may be available To use data properly, it should be organised, edited, condensed, and summarised Solution: Automate the process by data warehousing and data mining (use of a variety of data sources to better understand customer behavior and preferences) Some of the limitations of online research methods are: Lack of representativeness in samples of online users. May not typify the population at large or the demographics. Accuracy of responses Loss of respondents because of equipment problems The ethics and legality of Web tracking

16 4.4 Internet Marketing in B2B
Organisational Buyer Behavior Number of organisational buyers (purchasing for their organisations) is much smaller than the number of individual buyers Transaction volumes are far larger Terms of negotiations and purchasing are more complex Marketing and Advertising Processes in B2B Uses a variety of marketing methods online and off-line. Online they may use directory services or try to target specific customers. Off-line they may make sales calls or attend events.

17 4.4 Internet Marketing in B2B
Methods for B2B Online Marketing Targeting customers Electronic wholesalers Other B2B marketing services. Examples: Digital Cement Provides corporate marketing portals that help companies market their products to business customers National Systems Tracks what is going on in an industry Affiliate programs Placing banners on another vendor’s Web site, for a commission Content alliance program in which content is exchanged so that all can obtain some free content Infomediaries and online data mining services

18 4.5: Web Advertising Overview of Web Advertising
Interactive marketing Web advertising, enabled by the Internet, allows advertising to groups Advertisers can interact directly with customers and consumers can interact with advertisers/vendors More complex and personalised than off-line advertising Two major business models for advertising online: Using the Web as a channel to advertise a firm’s own products and services Making a firm’s site a public portal site and using captive audiences to advertise products offered by other firms

19 4.5: Some Web Advertising Terminology
Ad views: The number of times users call up a page that has a banner on it during a specific time period; known as page views Button: A small banner links to a Web site Page: An HTML document Click (click-through or ad click): A count made each time a visitor clicks on an advertising banner to access the advertiser ’s Web site CPM (cost per thousand impressions): The fee an advertiser pays for each 1,000 times a page with a banner ad is shown Conversion rate: The percentage of visitors who actually make a purchase

20 4.5: Some Web Advertising Terminology
Click-through rate (or ratio): The percentage of visitors that are exposed to a banner ad and click on it Click-through ratio: The ratio between the number of clicks on a banner ad and the number of times it is seen by viewers; measures the success of a banner in attracting visitors to click on the ad. Hit: A request for data from a Web page or file Visit: A series of requests during one navigation of a Web site; a pause of a certain length of time ends a visit. Stickiness: Characteristic that influences the average length of time a visitor stays in a site

21 4.5: Web Advertising Why Internet Advertising? Lower cost
Television viewers are migrating to the Internet as a viable media Advertisers are limited in the amount of information they can gather about the television and print ads Other reasons why Web advertising is growing rapidly: Lower cost Increased Richness of format Ability to personalise Timeliness (fresh and up-to-the-minute) Location-basis (by the use of wireless tech and GPS) Digital branding (e.g., Amazon, British Airways)

22 4.5: Advertising Networks
Role of Ad Networks in Web Advertising Advertising networks are specialised firms that offer customised Web advertising. Examples: Brokering ads Targeting ads to select groups of consumers.

23 4.6: Web Methods Banners Banner Keyword banners Random banners
On a Web page, a graphic advertising display linked to the advertiser’s Web page Keyword banners Banner ads that appear when a predetermined word is queried from a search engine Random banners Banner ads that appear at random, not as the result of the user’s action

24 4.6: Web Methods Benefits of Banner Ads
By clicking on them, users are transferred to an advertiser’s site, and frequently directly to the shopping page of that site The ability to customise them for individual surfers or a market segment of surfers Viewing of banners is fairly high because “forced advertising” is used Banners may include attention-grabbing multimedia

25 4.6: Web Methods Limitations of Banner Ads Cost
A limited amount of information can be placed on the banner Viewers have become somewhat immune to banners and simply do not notice them as they once did

26 4.6: Web Methods Banner swapping Banner exchanges Pop-up ad
An agreement between two companies to each display the other’s banner ad on its Web site Banner exchanges Markets in which companies can trade or exchange placement of banner ads on each other’s Web sites Pop-up ad An ad that appears in a separate window before, during, or after Internet surfing or when reading Pop-under ad An ad that appears underneath the current browser window, so when the user closes the active window, he or she sees the ad Interstitial An initial Web page or a portion of it that is used to capture the user’s attention for a short time while other content is loading

27 4.6: Web Methods E-Mail Advertising
Possible for advertisers to send out large volumes of advertisement contained inside messages. Effective method of advertising to large groups Advertising Management—Four guidelines that marketers should consider to leverage customer insights: Thinking about customer experience; Making privacy protection a part of their brand promise; Ensuring their recipients know about their privacy protection; and Measuring impact.

28 4.6: Web Methods Search Engine Advertisement Advertising in chat rooms
(The major advantage of using URLs as an advertising tool is that it is free and remembered “home”. Improving a company’s search-engine ranking (optimisation) Paid search-engine inclusion Advertising in chat rooms Beneficial if merchant is sponsoring a room. Advertising in newsletters

29 4.6: Uunsolicited Commercial E-mail (UCE)
Spamming: Using to send unwanted ads (sometimes floods of ads) What drives UCE? 80 percent of spammers are just trying to get people’s financial information - credit card or bank account numbers - to defraud them

30 4.6: Uunsolicited Commercial E-mail (UCE)
Why is it difficult to control Spamming? Spammers send millions of s, shifting internet accounts to avoid detection Use cloaking, they strip away clues (name and address) about where spam originates Server substitutes fake addresses Many spam messages are sent undetected through unregulated asian routes Spamming is done from outside the U. S.

31 4.6: Uunsolicited Commercial E-mail (UCE)
Solutions to Spamming Antispam legislation is underway in many countries ISPs and providers (yahoo, MSN, AOL) Junk-mail filters Automatic junk-mail deleters Blockers of certain URLs and addresses Spam-filtering site for a country

32 4.7: Advertising Strategies and Promotions Online
Associated ad strategy An advertising strategy that displays a banner ad related to a term entered into a search engine Affiliate marketing Marketing arrangement by which an organisation refers consumers to the selling company’s Website for a commission Most effective in generating a user base for a new site. Viral marketing Word-of-mouth marketing by which customers promote a product or service by telling others about it Ads-as-a-commodity trategy Customers are paid to read ads by advertisers Webcasting Free Internet news service that broadcasts personalised news and information, in categories selected by the user

33 4.7: Advertising Strategies and Promotions Online
Customising Ads Advertisements are customised by comparing users’ preferences to available products or services. Products or services that fit a user’s preference are then used as the ad is displayed/sent. Online Events, Promotions, and Attractions Major consideration when implementing an online ad campaign Target audience of online surfers clearly understood A powerful enough server used to handle the expected traffic volume Assessment of results is needed to evaluate the budget and promotion strategy (such give-aways and discounts) Consider co-branding Admediation Third-party vendors that conduct (usually large-scale) promotion.

34 4.7: Framework for Admediation

35 4.8: Special Advertising Topics
Permission Marketing Advertising (marketing) strategy in which customers agree to accept advertising and marketing materials Ad Management Methodology and software that enable organisations to perform a variety of activities involved in Web advertising (e.g., tracking viewers, rotating ads) Localisation The process of converting media products developed in one environment (e.g., country) to a form culturally and linguistically acceptable in countries outside the original target market. The major issue with localisation is the ability to perform it correctly.

36 4.8: Special Advertising Topics
Internet radio A Web site that provides music, talk, and other entertainment, both live and stored, from a variety of radio stations. Wireless advertising Wireless advertising uses m-commerce and l-commerce technologies to advertise to people using mobile devices. Ad Content The content of ads is extremely important, and companies use ad agencies to help in content creation for the Web just as they do for other advertising media Content is especially important to increase stickiness

37 4.9: S/W Agents in Marketing & Advertising Applications
Major Issues of EC Agents: Agents that Support: Need identification (what to buy) Product brokering (from whom to buy) Merchant brokering and comparisons Buyer-seller negotiation Purchase and delivery After-sale service and evaluation Software agents can be used to help customers recognise their need for a product by providing product stimuli and information. For example, agents can be used to identify different merchants that can supply specific products.

38 4.9: S/W Agents in Marketing & Advertising Applications
Character-Based Animated Interactive Agents: Avatars Animated computer characters that exhibit human-like movements and behaviors Social Computing An approach aimed at making the human-computer interface more natural. Chatterbots Animation characters that can talk (chat). These agents are used to provide a friendly interface and communication method with the merchant.

39 Managerial Issues 1. Do we understand our customers?
2. Should we use intelligent agents? 3. Who will conduct the market research? 4. Are customers satisfied with our Web site? 5. Can we use B2C marketing methods and research in B2B? 6. How do we decide where to advertise? 7. What is our commitment to Web advertising, and how will we coordinate Web and traditional advertising? 8. Should we integrate our Internet and non-Internet marketing campaigns? 9. What ethical issues should we consider? 10. Are any metrics available to guide advertisers?

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