2Hardy-Weinberg Theorem Serves as a model for the genetic structure of a nonevolving population (equilibrium)5 conditions:1- Very large population size;2- No migration;3- No net mutations;4- Random mating;5- No natural selection
3Population geneticsPopulation: a localized group of individuals belonging to the same speciesSpecies: a group of populations whose individuals have the potential to interbreed and produce fertile offspringGene pool: all the genes in a population at any one timePopulation genetics: the study of genetic changes in populations“Individuals are selected, but populations evolve.”
4Hardy-Weinberg Equation p=frequency of one allele (A); q=frequency of the other allele (a); p+q= (p=1-q & q=1-p)P2=frequency of AA genotype; 2pq=frequency of Aa plus aA genotype; q2=frequency of aa genotype; p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1.0
5Microevolution, IA change in the gene pool of a population over a succession of generations1- Genetic drift: changes in the gene pool of a small population due to chance (usually reduces genetic variability)
6Microevolution, IIThe Bottleneck Effect: type of genetic drift resulting from a reduction in population (natural disaster) such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population
7Microevolution, IIIFounder Effect: the colonization of a new habitat by a few individuals
8Microevolution, IV2- Gene Flow: genetic exchange due to the migration of fertile individuals or gametes between populations (reduces differences between populations)
9Microevolution, V3- Mutations: a change in an organism’s DNA (gametes; many generations); original source of genetic variation (raw material for natural selection)
10Microevolution, VI4- Nonrandom mating: inbreeding and assortive mating (both shift frequencies of different genotypes)
11Microevolution, VII5- Natural Selection: differential success in reproduction; only form of microevolution that adapts a population to its environment
12Population variationPolymorphism: coexistence of 2 or more distinct forms of individuals (morphs) within the same populationGeographical variation: differences in genetic structure between populations (cline)
13Natural selectionFitness: contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation3 types:A. DirectionalB. DiversifyingC. Stabilizing
15Peppered Moths & Industrial Melanism Until the mid-nineteenth century, peppered moths had mostly light-colored wings.Later, darker individuals became predominant.Industrial smog helped turn tree trunks dark.Contrasting colors between trunk color and moth color led to differential predation by birds.Mutations and chance continued to create or permit survival of SOME lighter moths, though.As pollution controls increased, frequencies reversed again.
17Sexual selectionSexual dimorphism: secondary sex characteristic distinctionSexual selection: selection towards secondary sex characteristics that leads to sexual dimorphism
18Reproductive Isolation Events that lead to reproductive isolation of populations of the same species cause new species to appear. Barriers to reproduction that prevent mating between populations are called prezygotic (before fertilization)Examples are:isolation of habitatsa difference in breeding season or mating behavioran incompatibility of genitalia or gametes.
19Reproductive Isolation II Postzygotic (after fertilization) barriers that prevent the development of viable, fertile hybrids exist because ofgenetic incompatibility between the populationshybrid sterilityhybrid breakdown.The sterile hybrid offspring of a male donkey and a female horse, characterized by long ears and a short mane.
20Reproductive Isolation III These isolation events can occur within the geographic range of a parent population (sympatric speciation)Sympatric speciation is much more common in plants than in animals.
21Allopatric Speciation -geographic isolation of a small population from its parent population Occurs in animal evolution when geographically isolated populations adapt to different environmental conditions.In addition, the rate is faster in small populations than in large ones because of greater genetic drift.