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The Evolution of Populations. Hardy-Weinberg Theorem Serves as a model for the genetic structure of a nonevolving population (equilibrium) Serves as a.

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Presentation on theme: "The Evolution of Populations. Hardy-Weinberg Theorem Serves as a model for the genetic structure of a nonevolving population (equilibrium) Serves as a."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Evolution of Populations

2 Hardy-Weinberg Theorem Serves as a model for the genetic structure of a nonevolving population (equilibrium) Serves as a model for the genetic structure of a nonevolving population (equilibrium) 5 conditions: 5 conditions: 1- Very large population size; 1- Very large population size; 2- No migration; 2- No migration; 3- No net mutations; 3- No net mutations; 4- Random mating; 4- Random mating; 5- No natural selection 5- No natural selection

3 Population genetics Population: a localized group of individuals belonging to the same species Population: a localized group of individuals belonging to the same species Species: a group of populations whose individuals have the potential to interbreed and produce fertile offspring Species: a group of populations whose individuals have the potential to interbreed and produce fertile offspring Gene pool: all the genes in a population at any one time Gene pool: all the genes in a population at any one time Population genetics: the study of genetic changes in populations Population genetics: the study of genetic changes in populations Individuals are selected, but populations evolve. Individuals are selected, but populations evolve.

4 Hardy-Weinberg Equation p=frequency of one allele (A); q=frequency of the other allele (a); p+q=1.0 (p=1-q & q=1-p) p=frequency of one allele (A); q=frequency of the other allele (a); p+q=1.0 (p=1-q & q=1-p) P2=frequency of AA genotype; 2pq=frequency of Aa plus aA genotype; q2=frequency of aa genotype; p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1.0 P2=frequency of AA genotype; 2pq=frequency of Aa plus aA genotype; q2=frequency of aa genotype; p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1.0

5 Microevolution, I A change in the gene pool of a population over a succession of generations A change in the gene pool of a population over a succession of generations 1- Genetic drift: changes in the gene pool of a small population due to chance (usually reduces genetic variability) 1- Genetic drift: changes in the gene pool of a small population due to chance (usually reduces genetic variability)

6 Microevolution, II The Bottleneck Effect: type of genetic drift resulting from a reduction in population (natural disaster) such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population The Bottleneck Effect: type of genetic drift resulting from a reduction in population (natural disaster) such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population

7 Microevolution, III Founder Effect: the colonization of a new habitat by a few individuals Founder Effect: the colonization of a new habitat by a few individuals

8 Microevolution, IV 2- Gene Flow: genetic exchange due to the migration of fertile individuals or gametes between populations (reduces differences between populations) 2- Gene Flow: genetic exchange due to the migration of fertile individuals or gametes between populations (reduces differences between populations)

9 Microevolution, V 3- Mutations: a change in an organisms DNA (gametes; many generations); original source of genetic variation (raw material for natural selection) 3- Mutations: a change in an organisms DNA (gametes; many generations); original source of genetic variation (raw material for natural selection)

10 Microevolution, VI 4- Nonrandom mating: inbreeding and assortive mating (both shift frequencies of different genotypes) 4- Nonrandom mating: inbreeding and assortive mating (both shift frequencies of different genotypes)

11 Microevolution, VII 5- Natural Selection: differential success in reproduction; only form of microevolution that adapts a population to its environment 5- Natural Selection: differential success in reproduction; only form of microevolution that adapts a population to its environment

12 Population variation Polymorphism: coexistence of 2 or more distinct forms of individuals (morphs) within the same population Polymorphism: coexistence of 2 or more distinct forms of individuals (morphs) within the same population Geographical variation: differences in genetic structure between populations (cline) Geographical variation: differences in genetic structure between populations (cline)

13 Natural selection Fitness: contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation Fitness: contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation 3 types: 3 types: A. Directional A. Directional B. Diversifying B. Diversifying C. Stabilizing C. Stabilizing

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15 Peppered Moths & Industrial Melanism Until the mid-nineteenth century, peppered moths had mostly light-colored wings. Until the mid-nineteenth century, peppered moths had mostly light-colored wings. Later, darker individuals became predominant. Later, darker individuals became predominant. Industrial smog helped turn tree trunks dark. Industrial smog helped turn tree trunks dark. Contrasting colors between trunk color and moth color led to differential predation by birds. Contrasting colors between trunk color and moth color led to differential predation by birds. Mutations and chance continued to create or permit survival of SOME lighter moths, though. Mutations and chance continued to create or permit survival of SOME lighter moths, though. As pollution controls increased, frequencies reversed again. As pollution controls increased, frequencies reversed again.

16 Peppered Moths

17 Sexual selection Sexual dimorphism: secondary sex characteristic distinction Sexual dimorphism: secondary sex characteristic distinction Sexual selection: selection towards secondary sex characteristics that leads to sexual dimorphism Sexual selection: selection towards secondary sex characteristics that leads to sexual dimorphism

18 Reproductive Isolation Events that lead to reproductive isolation of populations of the same species cause new species to appear. Barriers to reproduction that prevent mating between populations are called prezygotic (before fertilization) Events that lead to reproductive isolation of populations of the same species cause new species to appear. Barriers to reproduction that prevent mating between populations are called prezygotic (before fertilization) Examples are: Examples are: –isolation of habitats –a difference in breeding season or mating behavior –an incompatibility of genitalia or gametes.

19 Reproductive Isolation II Postzygotic (after fertilization) barriers that prevent the development of viable, fertile hybrids exist because of Postzygotic (after fertilization) barriers that prevent the development of viable, fertile hybrids exist because of –genetic incompatibility between the populations –hybrid sterility –hybrid breakdown. The sterile hybrid offspring of a male donkey and a female horse, characterized by long ears and a short mane.

20 Reproductive Isolation III These isolation events can occur within the geographic range of a parent population (sympatric speciation) These isolation events can occur within the geographic range of a parent population (sympatric speciation) Sympatric speciation is much more common in plants than in animals. Sympatric speciation is much more common in plants than in animals.

21 Allopatric Speciation -geographic isolation of a small population from its parent population Allopatric Speciation -geographic isolation of a small population from its parent population Occurs in animal evolution when geographically isolated populations adapt to different environmental conditions. Occurs in animal evolution when geographically isolated populations adapt to different environmental conditions. In addition, the rate is faster in small populations than in large ones because of greater genetic drift. In addition, the rate is faster in small populations than in large ones because of greater genetic drift.


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