2Tourists are the main characters in the tourism industry and the tourism industry exists to cater to their needs. Tourism businesses acknowledge the fact that their success depends also on how much they know and understand their tourists.
3A professional understanding of the consumer is at the core of the successful business practice in the tourism industry. (Goeldner and Ritchie, 2003) A good grasp of who their tourists are would guide businesses in their operations, marketing and research, and development tasks.
4Clearly, a study on the behavior of tourists is very vital to the tourism industry. Understanding tourists require a background on psychology and consumer behavior.
5Tourism businesses should be concerned with what motivates tourists, how they make decisions, what they think of the products they buy, how much they enjoy and learn during their holiday experiences, how they interact with the local people and environment and how they feel about their holidays.
6Knowing why tourists travel is the most fundamental question among the study of tourists’ behavior. Although it is the most basic question, knowing the wants and needs of tourists in traveling is a complicated task. The wants and needs of tourists are often regarded as travel motivators.
7MotivationSomething that stimulates interest or causes a person to act in a certain way.
8Needs and wants of tourists are seen as the driving force that causes an individual to travel. (Cook, 1999), simply explained travel motivation as the drive to travel.
10This theory by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 work, “A Theory of Human Motivation,” explains that as humans meet basic needs, they seek to satisfy successively higher needs that occupy a set of hierarchy.
12This pyramid of five levels represents human needs which Maslow further grouped into two as deficiency needs and growth needs. Deficiency needs are related to physiological needs while growth needs are related to psychological needs.
13Description of the Different Human Needs by Maslow Physiological NeedsNeed to breath, need for water, need to eat, need to dispose of bodily wastes, need for sleep, need to regulate body temperature, and need for sexual activity, body comfort, and exercise, etc.SafetyNeed for security of employment, revenues and resources, need for physical security (safety from violence, delinquency, aggression), need for moral and physiological security, need for familial security, need for security of healthLove / BelongingNeed for friendship, sexual intimacy, having a family and need to belong in a group.EsteemNeed to be respected, need for self-respect and need to respect others, need for recognition, need for activity that gives the person a sense of contribution and self-value.ActualizationNeed to make the most of one’s unique abilities and need to strive to be the best.
14The Maslow hierarchy of needs is an explanation of an individual’s behavior. In tourism, every piece of information that would help the business owners, managers, and staff understand tourists’ behavior is important.
15This hierarchy of needs is used in the tourism industry in several ways. First, tourism experts also consider these different levels to be intrinsic factors that could drive a person to travel.
16For example, an individual may join a cruise because of his/her need for friendship. One of the attractions of joining a cruise is the many opportunities it provides its of meeting new people.
17The level of needs would provide tourism businesses a guide in understanding their travel market and thus advertise their products effectively.
18A cruise liner would emphasize in their advertisement the chances of meeting people instead of traveling to new places.
19Second, tourism businesses could come up with different facilities and services with features that attempt to address certain needs of tourists.
20Tourism businesses also uses them as their competitive edge over others. The hierarchy of needs guides them in coming up with specific service that they know would be important to their clients. It may not be a main attraction but it may also enhance tourist experience.
21For example, services that address needs of belonginess or esteem such as elite programs and frequent visitors program or simple tokens that make the guests realize that the tourism business knows them specifically.
22Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Tourist Needs: PhysiologicalTour packages that offer frequent rest stopsEasily accessible food outlets in theme parksSleeping shelters strategically locatedSafetyReservation service provided at government-approved agencies or locationsCruise ship lines providing medical facilities and doctorsTour guide services provided in exotic or unfamiliar locationsBelongingGroup tours with people having similar interests and/or backgroundsGroup recognition gained by membership in frequent-user programs provided by airlineTrips to explore one’s ancestral rootsEsteemElite status in frequent-user programs such as gold, silver or bronzeIncentive travel awards for superior company performanceFlowers, champagne and other tokens provided to guests in recognition of occasions.Self-ActualizationEducational tours and cruisesTheme parks providing educational opportunities and glimpses of other culturesLearning the language and culture before traveling to another country.
24This model is developed by Philip Pearce. It attempts to explain individual behaviors on the basis of stages in a tourist life cycle which is said to be similar to an individual’s experience of work.
25It is assumed that as the tourists become more experienced, they also become more proficient and effective.It is somehow similar to Maslow hierarchy of needs because the model also explains that tourists ascend only to higher needs once lower needs for a tourist experience are fulfilled.
26Relaxation and Bodily Needs Need for basic services (food, space, toilet) for restoration and personal maintenance and repairStimulationNeed for excitement and safety (fun and thrill of rides, experience of unusual, out-of the-ordinary settings and different foods and people)RelationshipNeed to build and extend personal relationships (tenderness, affection, joint fun, joint activities, altruism and being directly involved)Self-Esteem and DevelopmentNeed to develop skills, knowledge and abilities (how others see a person and one’s desire to be competent, in control, respected and productive)FulfillmentNeed to feel peaceful, profoundly happy (magical as if transported to another world, spiritual and totally involved in the setting)
28This model emphasizes that the choice of destination of a tourist is driven by two forces: push and pull.The first force, push, pushes a tourist away (from home) and the second one, pull, is a region-specific lure that pulls a tourist towards a destination.
29The push refers to a general desire to go and be somewhere else, without specifying where that may be.These are the intangible, intrinsic desires of a tourist to go on vacation.Pull, on the other hand, refers to the tangible characteristics or attributes of a destination that are primarily related to its perceived attractiveness.
30This push-and-pull model was exemplified by Lundberg, in an advertisement directed towards potential tourists showing sunny beaches with sunbathers.The advertisement promotes a specific location and generates a push force that attempts to pry potential tourists out of their homes.
32Another way of understanding tourists is knowing how they decide on tourism product/services and destinations.Their decision-making process would provide tourism businesses insights to effective marketing and advertising, techniques to effectively reach their target markets.
33Schmoll ModelThis emphasize four successive fields which he believed exert influences on the decision of tourists.Travel StimuliPersonal and social determinantsExternal variablesCharacteristics and features of the service(refer to figure 7. page 24)
34Travel StimuliThese comprises external stimuli that can awaken an individual’s desire or need to travel in the form of promotional stimulation, personal and trade recommendationExamples: advertising and promotion, travel literature, suggestions, reports from other travelers, travel trade suggestions and recommendations.
35Personal and Social Determinants These determine customer goals in the form of travel desires and expectations and the objective and subjective risks thought to be connected with travel.Examples: socio-economic status, personality features, social influences and aspirations, attitudes and values, motivations, desires, needs and expectations.
36External VariablesThese involve the prospective traveler’s confidence in the service provider, destination image, past experience and cost and time constraints.Examples: confidence in travel trade intermediary, destination service, previous travel experience, assessment of objectives, subjective risks, constraints in time, cost, etc.
37Characteristics and Features of the Service These also have a bearing on the decision and its outcome.Examples: cost/value relations, attractions/amenities offered, range of travel opportunities, quality/quantity of travel information, type of arrangement offered.
39Similar to the Schmoll model, Matheison and Wall model also identifies four interrellated factors: Tourist profileAge, education, income, attitude, previous experience and motivations.Travel awarenessImage of destinations’ facilities and services which is based upon the credibility of the source.Destination resources and characteristicsAttractions and features of the destinationTrip featuresDistance, trip duration, and perceived risk of the area visited
40Five-Stage Model of Decision-Making by Matheison and Wall Felt need/Travel DesireInformationCollection andEvaluation by imageTravel decision(choice betweenalternatives)Travel preparationsAnd travel experienceTravel satisfactionOutcome and evaluation
41Stages of the Buying Behavior of Tourists Felt need orTravel desireA desire to travel is felt and reasons for and against that desire are weightedInformation andEvaluationPotential tourists utilize travel intermediaries, brochures and advertisements as well as friends, relatives and experienced travelers. This information is evaluated against both economic and time constraints and factors such as accessibility and alternativesTravel decisionStage advancement occurs with destinations, mode of travel, accommodations and activities being selectedTravel preparationsAnd travel equipmentTravel takes place once bookings are made and confirmed, budgets organized, and clothing and equipment are arranged.Travel satisfactionDuring and after travel the overall experience is evaluated and the results influence subsequent travel decisions.
43Hansal and Eislt (2004) provided a simple explanation of the decision-making process of tourists. This process is divided into two phases which are described as:
44Planning phase – where travelers decide on the basic parameters concerning their trip. Decisions in this phase are made at home, usually over a significant amount of time prior to the trip. Sometimes initial decisions are subjected to modification or completely revamped.
45Modification phase – during which details are decided Modification phase – during which details are decided. This phase covers modifications made during the trip. Examples are choices of specific sites that were advertised in brochures that travelers obtained from tourist information centers or decision to stay at a hotel whose services are announced on a billboard.
46Models describing tourist decision-making process would make a long-list. They have basically the same purpose and that is to guide the tourism industry in understanding how tourists get motivated in traveling, what things influence or discourage them to travel, and where they information, and purchase their selected product. In short, these models have two fundamental roles: to identify factors that influence the decision-making of the tourists and to enumerate the stages of their decision-making
48Tourist TypologiesRefer to classifications of tourists based on their behavior.Over the years, the number of tourist typologies has grown. It is an indicator of how marketers have relied on understanding their consumers through their behavior.These typologies serve as guide to tourism business owners as to what products, services and facilities should be sold to certain tourists having the same behavior.
49Marketers and planners as well as managers of tourism businesses consider these typologies to guide their marketing, planning, and development and management functions.
50Several tourist typology models were developed by tourism experts and scholars. Some of the more popular models include the following:Plog’s Psychocentric-Allocentric ModelCohen’s Tourist TypologyGlobal Travel SurveyPearce’s Travelers Category
51Plog’s Psychocentri-Allocentric Model Stanley Plog classifed tourists along a continuum with allocentrics on one end and psychocentrics on the other end.Generally, allocentrics seeks adventure while psychocentrics seek the comfort of familiar surroundings in their tourism experiences.
52Cohen’s Tourist Typology Eric Cohen categorized tourist into four organized mass tourist, individual mass tourist, the explorer and the drifter. This is similar to Plog’s model wherein psychocentrics are further divided into organized and individualized and the allocentrics into explorers and drifters.
53Cohen’s Tourist Categories The organized mass touristpackage tour fixed itineraries, planned stops, guided organizers making the decisionsFamiliarity at a maximum and novelty at a minimumThe individual mass touristTour not entirely planned by othersTourist having some control over his/her itinerary and time allocationsMajor arrangements made through travel intermediaryTourist remaining largely within the environmental bubble of home country ways and mixing little with localsDominant familiarityThe explorerTourist usually planning his/her own trips and trying to avoid developed tourist attractionsDesire to mix with locals but still protected within the environmental bubble.Dominant novelty, tourist not fully integrating with localsThe drifterTourist plan their trip aloneTourists avoid tourist attractions and live with the localsAlmost entirely immersed in the host culture, sharing its shelter, food and habitsNovelty is dominant and familiarity disappears.
54Global Travel SurveyThis survey done in the United Kingdom in 2005 has a more general approach to classifying tourists into adventurers, worriers, dreamers, economizers and indulgers.These are based on how tourists perceived traveling.
55Adventurers Are motivated to seek new experiences Value diversity Seek new activities, cultures and peopleAre independent and in controlTravel plays a central role in their livesDon’t need to be pampered“I feel confident that I could find my way around a city that I have never visited before.” “I really hate traveling with a group of people, even if they’re people I know.”
56Worriers Suffer considerable anxiety about traveling Travel is relatively unimportant to themAre not particularly adventurous“Most traveling is too stressful for me.” “I worry a lot about home when I’m away.” “I have a fear of flying”.
57Dreamers Are fascinated by travel Their own travel tends to be more mundane than might be expected give their travel ideas.Their trips are oriented more toward relaxation than adventure.Lack confidence in their ability to master the details of travelingAnxious about the stresses of travel.“I like I have to travel to enjoy life fully.” I like to be able to impress people by telling them about the interesting places I’ve visited.” “I really rely on maps and guidebooks when I travel to a new place.”
58EconomizersThey travel primarily because they need a break, travel is not a central activity for them.Seek value in travelTheir experience of travel does not add meaning to their livesTheir sense of adventure is low“Traveling first-class is a waste of money, even if you can afford it.”
59Indulgers Like to be pampered Their travel is not a central or important experienceAre generally willing to pay for a higher level of service when they travelDo not find travel intimidating or stressful“I don’t worry about how much things cost when I travel.” “It’s worth paying extra to get the special attention I want when I travel.”
60Pearce’s Travel Category Pearce developed 15 traveler categories based on major role-related behaviors.Tourist - ExplorerTraveler - MissionaryHolidaymaker - Overseas studentJetsetter - AnthropologistBusinessperson -HippieMigrant - International athleteConversationist - Overseas journalist- Religious pilgrim
61TouristTakes photos, buys souvenirs, goes to famous places, stays briefly in one place, does not understand the local people.
62TravelerStays briefly in one place, experiments with local food, goes to famous places, takes photos, explores privately.
63HolidaymakerTakes photos, goes to famous places, is alienated from society, buys souvenirs, contributes to the visited economy.
64JetsetterLives a life of luxury, is concerned with social status, seeks sensual pleasures, prefers interacting with people of his/her own kind.
65BusinesspersonConcerned with social status, contributes to the economy, does not take photos, prefers interacting with people of his/her own kind, goes to famous places.
66MigrantHas language problems, prefers interacting with people of his/her own kind, does not understand the local people, does not live a life of luxury, does not exploit people.
67ConversationistInterested in the environment, does not buy souvenirs, does not exploit the local people, explores places privately, takes photos.
68ExplorerExplores places privately, is interested in the environment, takes physical risks, does not buy souvenirs, keenly observes the visited society.
69MissionaryDoes not buy souvenirs, searches for the meaning of life, does not live a life of luxury, does not seek sensual pleasures, keenly observes the visited society.
70Overseas studentExperiments with local food, does not exploit the local people, takes photos, keenly observes the visited society, takes physical risks.
71AnthropologistKeenly observes the visited society, explores places privately, is interested in the environment, does not buy souvenirs, takes photos.
72HippieDoes not buy souvenirs, does not live a life of luxury, is not concerned with social status, does not take photos, does not contribute to the economy.
73International athlete Not alienated from own society, does not exploit the local people, does not understand the local people, explores places privately, searches for the meaning of life.
74Overseas journalistTakes photos, keenly observes the visited society, goes to famous places, takes physical risks, explores places privately
75Religious pilgrimSearches for the meaning of life, does not live a life of luxury, is not concerned with social status, does not exploit the local people, does not buy souvenirs.
77Market SegmentationMarket segmentation is similar to tourist typology.It is another way of classifying tourists and understanding them.
78Segmentation is a sort of grouping people with the same characteristics such as geographic, demographic, psychographic, and product-related characteristics.
79Tourist Market Segmentation GeographicsegmentationGrouping of potential tourists is based on their locationDemographicGrouping is based on the tourist’s gender, age, ethnicity, occupation, income, household size and family situation.PsychographicGrouping is based on how tourists live and on their priorities and interests.Product-relatedGrouping of tourists is based directly on what they want and need in a particular good or service.