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Can We Talk? Supporting Student Communication Marcia Obukowicz CESA 9 AT Consultant 715-453-2141

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Presentation on theme: "Can We Talk? Supporting Student Communication Marcia Obukowicz CESA 9 AT Consultant 715-453-2141"— Presentation transcript:

1 Can We Talk? Supporting Student Communication Marcia Obukowicz CESA 9 AT Consultant

2 Lets Take A Moment

3 Scenarios What do you feel? What internal options do you have? Who do you turn to for help? What communication supports are needed and available? What do you want to do? If you cant communicate needs, what is your long term outcome?

4 Asking for something

5 No Words

6 Sustaining

7 Time to go in

8 Loss of Words

9 Sequencing

10 Reading the Flow

11 I dont understand Имел зуд вы couldn' скрест t? Sat тихо для путя слишком длиной? Послушано к жужжанию но смогли приурочить вашу скачку в переговор? Почувствовано разочарован но couldn' t препятствовал любому знать? О что-то из достигаемости но не имено кто-то там помочь вам получить к ей? Счесно одно без одного для того чтобы делить страшное кино или унылые новости с? Были неспособна найти правое слово? Смущено what' s идя на но кому спросить? Что если это случилось изо дня в день, весь день или все время?

12 The Need to Communicate Had an itch you couldn't scratch? Sat quietly for way too long? Listened to the buzz but not been able to time your jump into the conversation? Felt frustrated but couldn't let anyone know? Wanted something out of reach but not had someone there to help you get to it? Found yourself alone with no one to share a scary movie or sad news with? Been unable to find the right word? Been confused by what's going on but not known who to ask? What if this happened every day, all day or all the time?

13 Communication is not about going to see the SLP! Communication is everyday It gets needs met It conveys feelings It creates social bonds It conveys ideas It is more than a schedule, more than mere words, It moves us from the sidelines and into the action. It is critical to our participation in the human experience. Building skills in communication is a team effort.

14 Did you know?

15 Communication is the most critical skill to master in terms of employment.


17 Everyone Communicates Crying Eye contact Sounds Words Pointing Falling asleep Screaming Talking Communication boards Picture exchange system Voice output systems Gestures/signing Hair-pulling Body position – Silence

18 Communication needs Partners Activities Supports

19 Partners How patient are you? (The K test) How aware are you when sound or voice arent used? How responsive are you when two other kids start going at it? How well do you read the silent signals? How can you help a student sustain communication

20 Watch the partners

21 Activities Start with predictable routines Review routines Build in practice for skills on how to handle change and surprises Social stories to explain flow

22 Bubble Blowing

23 Typical Routines in Your Day

24 Supports Manpower Access To voice or to show Tools in the right place Tools that have the right words for the job Tools that we know how to work Tools with back up

25 Visual Tools and Strategies… Give students information about their activities Prepare students for what will or will not happen Reduce the anxiety that comes from the unexpected, especially during transition times Help students understand the concept of finished Provide the structure for appropriate behavior and participation Support communication and conversation Hodgdon, 2002

26 Access

27 Lets come up with an activity that you can try with your students Partners Supports Activities:

28 Scenario (partner) Supports needed: Vocab, structural support, voice output Activity:

29 Communication Circles Closing Openings Sustaining

30 How Can We Support Openings?

31 Openings Managing Flow and sequence Managing gestures and actions Social and Personal Structure and support activities that require a student to open communication Think of an activity that you do with your student that requires them to initiate the communication. What supports would you need?

32 Effective Openings

33 Using a prompt hierarchy can: Provide consistency across partners because of framework Give students processing time Be individualized Provide only as much prompting as is needed

34 Prompt Hierarchy Environmental Cue –PAUSE Open Question –PAUSE Prompt OR Request for Communication –PAUSE Full Model –PAUSE Incorporate descriptive feedback into each step

35 Descriptive Feedback Use after the student has produced a communicative response Descriptive feedback is specific to the students communication Great, you asked for more juice, here it is. You wanted paint. Heres more paint. You want to be all done. We need to do just one more, then were all done.

36 Descriptive Feedback Serves Three Functions –Acknowledges Immediately acknowledges that the partner heard the students communication attempt –Confirms Confirms that the message sent by the student is the same as the message understood by the partner. –Models Can be used to model an expanded version of the communication message.

37 Prompt Hierarchy Step #1 Environmental Cue Set up the environment to signal to the student that an activity is about to begin. –Ringing bell –Lining up at the door –Art materials prepared but out of reach –Desired items visible but inaccessible –Cutting the pizza, e.g. After student responds, provide... Descriptive Feedback

38 Prompt Hierarchy--Pausing Pause after every step Focus your attention on the student (expect communication!) A N PAUSED After student responds, provide... Descriptive Feedback

39 Prompt Hierarchy Step #2 Open Question If the student does not respond to the pause by making a response: –Ask a WHAT, WHY, WHO, WHEN, WHERE, OR HOW Question What do you want? Whose turn is it? Where does that go? AND then…...PAUSE After student responds, provide... Descriptive Feedback

40 Prompt Hierarchy Step #3 Prompt or Request Communication Provide a prompt to students –Choices, carrier phrase, initial sound, visual cue OR Request Communication –Tell me what you need. –Tell me what goes next. AND then……PAUSE After student responds, provide... Descriptive Feedback

41 Prompt Hierarchy Step # 4 Full Model Provide a full model for student –Use students AAC device –Use developmentally appropriate model AND then…...PAUSE After student responds, provide... Descriptive Feedback

42 PAUSE Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause ! In other words…PAUSE!

43 Prompt HierarchyWHY? Gives student the necessary time to process information and to formulate a message to communicate Provides a structure for adults that encourages communication Can be customized for individual students Organized least to most

44 To see how hard it is to do this Remember Efficiency Vs Effectiveness Try video taping yourself

45 Arrange the Environment to Increase the Likelihood of Communication Common Strategies…. Use motivating materials and activities Materials should be in view but not accessible Student should need assistance with some materials Provide small or inadequate amounts of materials Sabotage Provide something the student doesnt like/want Use communication boards/devices & visual tools

46 How Can We Support Sustained Conversation?

47 Sustained communication requires partners who stay

48 How well does this board support sustained communication?

49 Managing Challenges Routine review Supported activities Social stories Surprises

50 Working in flow


52 First/Then sequence or choice

53 Sustained opportunities Turn taking games Extending play or activity Its my birthday Comment Boards Waiting in line Meals

54 Comment Boards

55 Using the environment How can I sustain the conversation?

56 What symbols or words are needed as supports to sustain the conversation at a fast food joint?

57 Choice or song boards

58 Sustain the conversation as or after we read a story

59 Flow

60 How Can We Support Closings

61 Games For Flow Table Tent Stories

62 Closings Recognizing the flow: Social Stories He who goes on and on He who leaves the conversation hanging Managing gestures and actions Social and Personal Having an out Supporting an out

63 Some Symbols are No Brainers!

64 All Done

65 Scripting an out: Assemblies

66 Many of the samples given involve visuals…. Why What kind of visuals work

67 In other words… Using visual tools helps students to

68 Examples of Visual Supports ™ Schedules and Calendars ™ Tools to Give Information ™ Tools to Make Choices and Requests ™ Tools for Protesting and Rejecting ™ Tools for Behavior Regulation Hodgdon, Linda

69 Tools to Give Information Behavior problems emerge because what the student is expecting and what is really happening are not the same. Linda Hodgdon, 2002 Shopping list w/ pictures Calming down board Rule Cards (When I get to the gym, I sit on the red line.) International NO Lightning Bolt Activity Termination Symbols Social stories w/ or without picture supports Card to hold (WAIT)

70 Tools to Give Information

71 Choices for Snack

72 Supports Beyond Visuals

73 Voice Output

74 Tools that give voice


76 Blending our options for success

77 Making Choices and Requests Hodgdon, 2002 *Student may need to LEARN what it means to make a choice *Start with highly desirable choices *Easy to structure a choice-making activity *Choices often motivate the student to communicate *Offer immediate reinforcement for their choice *Choice-making can be practiced multiple times per day *Adults can structure the choices provided

78 Choices/Requests Examples Food choices (dont remove their favorite item when not a choice) Highly desirable vs. neutral for unmotivated choicemakers

79 What to choose, what to choose… Which toy to play with Which seat to sit in Which person to walk with Which cereal to buy Which washcloth to use Which job to do Which CD to listen to Which book to read

80 Teaching NO

81 Teaching Protest and Rejection Skills WHY DO THIS? Teach both verbal and nonverbal strategies –Shaking head NO –Holding up your hand STOP –Moving away –Handing an object back –Gently pushing away –Facial expression (grimace) Hodgdon, 2002

82 Protesting and Rejecting Teach several options good for multiple settings (When someone is bothering you, say Leave me alone) I need a break card Teach the difference between talking to peers vs. adults Teach the variation in rejecting (annoying vs. really angry) Use role playing Use a video camera For good example To learn from ones own behavior Hodgdon, 2002

83 Using support tools helps the individual to better understand and navigate flow of a rule or expectation, the sequence or activity

84 Closing thoughts

85 Visuals can be very powerful or very confusing Picture Symbols are EASY! (right?)

86 What common words/phrases to these symbols represent?

87 Answers to Picture Symbols are Easy Quiz 1.Like 2.Again 3.Show me 4.Whole 5.Past 6.Fast 7.Correct 8.Short 9.Tomorrow 10.Word 11.Communication 12.Thats crazy!

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