Scenarios What do you feel? What internal options do you have? Who do you turn to for help? What communication supports are needed and available? What do you want to do? If you cant communicate needs, what is your long term outcome?
I dont understand Имел зуд вы couldn' скрест t? Sat тихо для путя слишком длиной? Послушано к жужжанию но смогли приурочить вашу скачку в переговор? Почувствовано разочарован но couldn' t препятствовал любому знать? О что-то из достигаемости но не имено кто-то там помочь вам получить к ей? Счесно одно без одного для того чтобы делить страшное кино или унылые новости с? Были неспособна найти правое слово? Смущено what' s идя на но кому спросить? Что если это случилось изо дня в день, весь день или все время?
The Need to Communicate Had an itch you couldn't scratch? Sat quietly for way too long? Listened to the buzz but not been able to time your jump into the conversation? Felt frustrated but couldn't let anyone know? Wanted something out of reach but not had someone there to help you get to it? Found yourself alone with no one to share a scary movie or sad news with? Been unable to find the right word? Been confused by what's going on but not known who to ask? What if this happened every day, all day or all the time?
Communication is not about going to see the SLP! Communication is everyday It gets needs met It conveys feelings It creates social bonds It conveys ideas It is more than a schedule, more than mere words, It moves us from the sidelines and into the action. It is critical to our participation in the human experience. Building skills in communication is a team effort.
Everyone Communicates Crying Eye contact Sounds Words Pointing Falling asleep Screaming Talking Communication boards Picture exchange system Voice output systems Gestures/signing Hair-pulling Body position Silence
Communication needs Partners Activities Supports
Partners How patient are you? (The K test) How aware are you when sound or voice arent used? How responsive are you when two other kids start going at it? How well do you read the silent signals? How can you help a student sustain communication
Supports Manpower Access To voice or to show Tools in the right place Tools that have the right words for the job Tools that we know how to work Tools with back up
Visual Tools and Strategies… Give students information about their activities Prepare students for what will or will not happen Reduce the anxiety that comes from the unexpected, especially during transition times Help students understand the concept of finished Provide the structure for appropriate behavior and participation Support communication and conversation Hodgdon, 2002
Openings Managing Flow and sequence Managing gestures and actions Social and Personal Structure and support activities that require a student to open communication Think of an activity that you do with your student that requires them to initiate the communication. What supports would you need?
Using a prompt hierarchy can: Provide consistency across partners because of framework Give students processing time Be individualized Provide only as much prompting as is needed
Prompt Hierarchy Environmental Cue –PAUSE Open Question –PAUSE Prompt OR Request for Communication –PAUSE Full Model –PAUSE Incorporate descriptive feedback into each step
Descriptive Feedback Use after the student has produced a communicative response Descriptive feedback is specific to the students communication Great, you asked for more juice, here it is. You wanted paint. Heres more paint. You want to be all done. We need to do just one more, then were all done.
Descriptive Feedback Serves Three Functions –Acknowledges Immediately acknowledges that the partner heard the students communication attempt –Confirms Confirms that the message sent by the student is the same as the message understood by the partner. –Models Can be used to model an expanded version of the communication message.
Prompt Hierarchy Step #1 Environmental Cue Set up the environment to signal to the student that an activity is about to begin. –Ringing bell –Lining up at the door –Art materials prepared but out of reach –Desired items visible but inaccessible –Cutting the pizza, e.g. After student responds, provide... Descriptive Feedback
Prompt Hierarchy--Pausing Pause after every step Focus your attention on the student (expect communication!) A N PAUSED After student responds, provide... Descriptive Feedback
Prompt Hierarchy Step #2 Open Question If the student does not respond to the pause by making a response: –Ask a WHAT, WHY, WHO, WHEN, WHERE, OR HOW Question What do you want? Whose turn is it? Where does that go? AND then…...PAUSE After student responds, provide... Descriptive Feedback
Prompt Hierarchy Step #3 Prompt or Request Communication Provide a prompt to students –Choices, carrier phrase, initial sound, visual cue OR Request Communication –Tell me what you need. –Tell me what goes next. AND then……PAUSE After student responds, provide... Descriptive Feedback
Prompt Hierarchy Step # 4 Full Model Provide a full model for student –Use students AAC device –Use developmentally appropriate model AND then…...PAUSE After student responds, provide... Descriptive Feedback
Prompt HierarchyWHY? Gives student the necessary time to process information and to formulate a message to communicate Provides a structure for adults that encourages communication Can be customized for individual students Organized least to most
To see how hard it is to do this Remember Efficiency Vs Effectiveness Try video taping yourself
Arrange the Environment to Increase the Likelihood of Communication Common Strategies…. Use motivating materials and activities Materials should be in view but not accessible Student should need assistance with some materials Provide small or inadequate amounts of materials Sabotage Provide something the student doesnt like/want Use communication boards/devices & visual tools
Many of the samples given involve visuals…. Why What kind of visuals work
In other words… Using visual tools helps students to
Examples of Visual Supports Schedules and Calendars Tools to Give Information Tools to Make Choices and Requests Tools for Protesting and Rejecting Tools for Behavior Regulation Hodgdon, Linda
Tools to Give Information Behavior problems emerge because what the student is expecting and what is really happening are not the same. Linda Hodgdon, 2002 Shopping list w/ pictures Calming down board Rule Cards (When I get to the gym, I sit on the red line.) International NO Lightning Bolt Activity Termination Symbols Social stories w/ or without picture supports Card to hold (WAIT)
Tools to Give Information www.usevisualstrategies.com
Making Choices and Requests Hodgdon, 2002 *Student may need to LEARN what it means to make a choice *Start with highly desirable choices *Easy to structure a choice-making activity *Choices often motivate the student to communicate *Offer immediate reinforcement for their choice *Choice-making can be practiced multiple times per day *Adults can structure the choices provided
Choices/Requests Examples Food choices (dont remove their favorite item when not a choice) Highly desirable vs. neutral for unmotivated choicemakers
What to choose, what to choose… Which toy to play with Which seat to sit in Which person to walk with Which cereal to buy Which washcloth to use Which job to do Which CD to listen to Which book to read
Teaching Protest and Rejection Skills WHY DO THIS? Teach both verbal and nonverbal strategies –Shaking head NO –Holding up your hand STOP –Moving away –Handing an object back –Gently pushing away –Facial expression (grimace) Hodgdon, 2002
Protesting and Rejecting Teach several options good for multiple settings (When someone is bothering you, say Leave me alone) I need a break card Teach the difference between talking to peers vs. adults Teach the variation in rejecting (annoying vs. really angry) Use role playing Use a video camera For good example To learn from ones own behavior Hodgdon, 2002
Using support tools helps the individual to better understand and navigate flow of a rule or expectation, the sequence or activity