2German troops in position The War BeginsSeptember 1, 1939Germany attacked PolandWorld War II beginsBlitzkrieg or “lightning war”Devastating effectsPolish air force destroyedSoldiers fought; no match for German forcesNo natural barriers in the waySupport for PolandBritain and France declared war on GermanyAllies gave no real helpPoland fell into German handsGerman troops in positionOn Germany’s western borderHitler eager for assault on FrancePlans for invasion made
31940–1941 Attack on France Battle for Britain Denmark and Norway captured; the Netherlands and Belgium followedTank attack through Ardennes; overwhelmed light resistance thereHeroic Dunkirk rescue; France surrendered in June 1940Battle for BritainGreat Britain stood alone against German war machine; Churchill now leaderRadar technology secret weapon for air defenseBritish stood firm during Battle of Britain; Hitler called off invasion plans
5Invasion of the Soviet Union June 1941, Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union had initial successesMajor goals of Leningrad and Moscow not reached before harsh Soviet winterSoviet armies had time to rebuild and would fight back
6With what events did the war begin? SequenceWith what events did the war begin?Answer(s): invasion of Poland, followed by the massing of German troops on its western border
7Europe Goes to WarChapter 24, Section 2How did the German invasion of Poland lead to war with Britain and France?What wartime victories and setbacks did Germany experience in western Europe?Why was the Battle of Britain an important victory for Britain?
8Invasion of PolandChapter 24, Section 2After Hitler invaded other parts of Czechoslovakia, Britain and France ended their policy of appeasement. They warned Hitler that an invasion of Poland would mean war.Hitler, however, had stopped believing Britain and France. On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later.Germany quickly overran Poland using a new military tactic called blitzkrieg, or “lightening war.” Blitzkrieg tactics involved a fast, concentrated attack that took the enemy by surprise.To avoid war on two fronts, Germany signed a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union. In a secret addition to this pact, the two nations agreed to divide between them the independent states of Eastern Europe.
9War in the West Early Stages of War in the West Chapter 24, Section 2Early Stages of War in the West“Phony War” and the Maginot Line: After Poland fell, the war entered a quiet period. The American press called this lack of combat a “phony war.” France prepared a massive string of fortifications, known as the Maginot Line, along its border with Germany.Germany Attacks: In April and May 1940, Germany attacked and quickly conquered Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg.Dunkirk: When Germany advanced on France, British and French forces retreated to the French coastal city of Dunkirk. From there, hundreds of thousands of soldiers were ferried to Great Britain in one of the greatest rescues in the history of warfare.
10The Fall of FranceChapter 24, Section 2On June 22, 1940, France officially surrendered to Germany.In accordance with the surrender terms, Germany occupied most of France, while the French government controlled an area known as Vichy France in the south. Vichy France adopted a policy of collaboration, or close cooperation, with Germany.A French Resistance movement, supported by the Free French government in exile in Britain, sought to undermine German occupation.By the summer of 1940, Hitler had conquered most of Western Europe and seemed on the verge of conquering the Allies, the group of countries that opposed the Axis Powers. Britain alone stood against the Axis.
11German AggressionChapter 24, Section 2Between 1939 and 1941, Germany invaded and conquered much of Europe.
12German AggressionChapter 24, Section 2Between 1939 and 1941, Germany invaded and conquered much of Europe.
13The Battle of Britain Relentless Attack Chapter 24, Section 2Relentless AttackBefore attempting to invade Great Britain, Germany wanted to establish superiority in the air.In August 1940, Germany launched an air assault on Britain, called the Battle of Britain, which continued well into September.At first, Germany only attacked British military sites. However, it later began bombing London and other cities to decrease British morale.Courageous DefenseAlthough greatly outnumbered, Britain’s Royal Air Force (RAF) worked to shoot down German bombers.Despite massive losses, the British people kept their will to fight.By February 1940, British scientists cracked the German secret communication code. This enabled Britain to get a general idea of Hitler’s battle plans.
14Europe Goes to War—Assessment Chapter 24, Section 2How did Britain and France react to Hitler’s invasion of Poland?(A) They declared war on Germany.(B) They continued their policy of appeasement.(C) They signed a nonagression pact with the Soviet Union.(D) They surrendered to Germany.Why was the Battle of Britain considered a victory for Great Britain?(A) It gave Britain control of Denmark and Norway.(B) It resulted in very little damage to London.(C) It failed to decrease British morale.(D) It helped the French Resistance reconquer France.Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!
15Important Battles Invasion of Poland The Fall of France North Africa BattlesStalingradBattle of the BulgeD-Day
16The Invasion of Poland 1939Hitler demanded the Baltic Sea port which was in Polish controlAlleged allies such as Britain & France were going to back Poland’s refusal for the sea port DanzigGermany turned to the USSR for support in invasion of PolandGermany attacked from the west and the USSR from the eastThe warfare became known as blitzkrieg – “lightening war” using tanks & aircraftPoland Fell to German forces on October 5th 1939
18The Fall of FranceThe Maginot line were bunkers built in protection against GermanyHitler simply went around the Maginot line and invaded through the Netherlands,Belgium & LuxembourgFrance was caught by surprise leaving the French & British forces trapped in BelgiumA miracle occurred at a port called Dunkirk when German forces halted giving time for evacuation & saved the country from complete defeat by HitlerFrance surrendered in June 1940
20Battling in North Africa US president Roosevelt invaded Morocco & Algeria for the experience and to aid Britain in the fight against Germany in Egypt.During El Alamein General Erwin Rommel who lead the German forces planned to trap US and British forces in between Tunisia and LibyaUS forces did not fare well up against German force causing 7,000 casualties and losing 200 tanksLuckily Both American and British Forces forced Germany to surrender in North Africa
21Stalingrad 1942With confidence and persistency Hitler wanted to cut off supplies to Stalingrad which would keep the Soviets in the warJoseph Stalin ordered all troops to hold forcing German forces to the front linesSoviets surrounded 250,000 German troops91,000 surrendered & only 5,000 survived
22Battle of the Bulge 1944One last desperate attempt by Hitler involved blocking supplies coming through BelgiumGermany caught Americans surrounding themGeneral Patton and troops saved the Americans by attacking German forcesGermany lost the battle with 100,000 casualties
23D-Day 1944President Roosevelt and Churchill planned the invasion of France which was lead by General EisenhowerThe US forces were going to surprise Germany using rubber tanks,and dummy landing craft. This completely fooled Germany while they attacked through Normandy100,000 soldiers by boat23,000 paratroopers
24Victory in Europe V-E Day 1945 Soviet troops began a massive attack on German Troops sending German forces back to PolandThe Soviets had Germany by the Eastern border and America had attacked German forces by the Western borderThis crushed the German forces causing the suicide of HitlerThe Surrender of Germany was on May 8th 1945
25Lightning WarThe alliance of Britain, France and Poland had more soldiers and more infantry division than Germany.Each German division had superior firepower- more machine guns, artillery and other weapons.
26German practiced a new form of attack that they unveiled in the invasion of Poland. Called blitzkrieg, this new military tactic included a fast, concentrated air and land attack that took the enemy’s army by surprise.Using the blitzkrieg tactic, German troops overran Poland in less than a month.They imposed German laws, and imprisoned and murdered Jewish citizens.Soviet forces joined the German attack. Stalin seized eastern Poland for the Soviet Union.
27War in the WestAfter Poland fell, the war entered a quiet period. The British and French held back their troops, fearing tremendous losses.The key defense for the French was the Maginot Line, a massive string of fortifications along France’s border with Germany.
28Maginot LineMaginot Line provided housing for troops, recreational areas, and even air conditioning.The two major problems with this line was that it only protected part of France and all of its heavy guns pointed east, towards Germany.
29Germany AttacksOn April 9, 1940, Hitler began a successful attack on Denmark and Norway.The German army overran Luxembourg in a day.German motorized and made their way all the way into northern France.
30DunkirkThe German drive west divided British and French troops into two pockets, one in the north and one in the south.In the face of Germany’s advance, French and British forces in the north retreated to the coastal city of Dunkirk.Braving merciless attacks by the Luftwaffe, about 900 vessels carried some 340,000 soldiers across the English to Great Britain (most heroic escape in history)
31The Fall of France On June 10, the French government abandoned Paris. Italy declared war on France and Great Britain on the Same day.On June 14, German troops entered Paris and on June 22, France surrendered.
32According to the surrender terms, Germany occupied the northern 3/5 of France and the entire Atlantic Coast southward to Spain.Free France, a government in exile in London, continued the struggle against the German invaders from bases in Britain and colonies in Africa.
33Battle of Britain“We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender” Churchill
34Britain’s large and well equipped navy stood between Hitler and England. German had to control the air to neutralize the standoff.Hitler turned to the Luftwaffe to destroy the British’s air defense.In Late August, a group of German bombers strayed off course and dropped their bombs on London. Two nights later British plans bombed Berlin.
35Courageous DefenseBritain’s Royal Air Force stoutly defended its homeland even though they were greatly outnumbered.In December 1940, German bombing of London started some 1500 fires, setting the center of the historic city ablaze.By the end of 1941, when the German air raids ended, some 20,000 Londoners had been killed and more than injured.
37Hitler’s Lightning War HOME1Hitler’s Lightning WarMAPSection1Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Identify the effects of each of the early events of World War II that are listed below.CauseEffectFirst blitzkriegAllies stranded at DunkirkBritish radar detects German aircraftLend-Lease ActThe fall of Poland338,000 soldiers savedBritish forces leave Western Europe.British able to hold off German occupationU.S. supplied Allies with war goods.U.S. decision to favor the Alliescontinued . . .
38Hitler’s Lightning War HOME1Hitler’s Lightning WarMAPSection1Assessment2. Great Britain and the Soviet city of Leningrad each fought off a German invasion. Other countries gave in to the Germans without much resistance. What factors do you think a country’s leaders consider when deciding whether to surrender or to fight?THINK ABOUT• the country’s ability to fight• the costs of resisting• the costs of surrenderingANSWERcontinued . . .
39Hitler’s Lightning War HOME1Hitler’s Lightning WarMAPSection1AssessmentPossible Responses:Ability to Fight: army large enough to fight the enemy, sufficient weaponsCosts of Resisting: major civilian and military deaths, destruction of property, economic chaosCosts of Surrendering: enemy control of the government, repression of the populationEnd of Section 1
40Hitler’s Lightning War HOME1Hitler’s Lightning WarMAPSection1AssessmentPossible Responses:Ability to Fight: army large enough to fight the enemy, sufficient weaponsCosts of Resisting: major civilian and military deaths, destruction of property, economic chaosCosts of Surrendering: enemy control of the government, repression of the populationEnd of Section 1