Presentation on theme: "World War I Chapter 31. continued on next slide."— Presentation transcript:
World War I Chapter 31
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Stagnation in Europe The war in Europe had quickly ground into a stagnant mass slaughter on both sides. Trenches Stagnant lines. Casualties on both sides were extraordinarily high. Reasons. By early 1917 both sides were running out of steam. Germans couldnt go on much longer simply throwing new bodies into the war. Britain was highly dependent on foreign shipping for keeping its war effort going. Germany needed to end the war soon or lose.
WWI Western Front Trench Line
Unlimited Sub Warfare Peace without Victory address. Germanys response January 1917 Germans announce unlimited sub warfare Is a repeal of the Sussex Pledge. What is the German gamble? What about the state of the US military seemed to justify this gamble? Wilson breaks off diplomatic relations, but refuses to enter the war absent some overt act of aggression against US. What happens when he tries to arm merchant ships for self-defense?
Wilson Asks for War March, 1917, Zimmerman Note is publicized. What is it? Germanys overt act. Revolution overthrows Czar in Russia and Russia withdraws from war. Consequences? Now all Allies democracies Allies are in even more desperate straits. April, 1917 Wilson asks congress for a declaration of war.
Wilsonian Idealism Enthroned Isolationism ran deeply in the American psyche. Washingtons farewell address While most favored the Allies, the fever to go to war was relatively mild. Fifty US reps, including Jeanette Rankin vote against the war Wilson has to glorify the war aims
Wilsons 14 Points The Fourteen Points was a speech delivered by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress on January 8, The address was intended to assure the country that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe. Fourteen points include: Abolish secret treaties No territorial gains; return to pre-war borders freedom of the seas removal of economic barriers among nations Arms reduction adjustment of colonial claims in the interest of both natives and colonizers self-determination for minority groups such as Poles international organization to provide for collective security and dispute resolution.
Creel Manipulates Minds Committee on Public Information. Purpose? George Creel. Creel is very successful. Super-Patriotism. Dehumanizing the enemy Problem: Wilson and Creel convince the country that the war will create a new international utopia. p707
Enforcing Loyalty Anti-German hysteria and discrimination. German-American schools and newspapers by the thousands were forced to permanently close. In cities and towns across the nation, libraries burned their German-language books in public burnings. City streets in Chicago with German names were changed Liberty Cabbage, and Dachshunds became "liberty pups". New Orleans, Berlin St. was renamed for General Pershing In June 1918 a bill was introduced in the with the aim to wipe out German names from the map of the United States.  
Enforcing Loyalty Espionage Act of 1917 and Sedition Act of 1918 It prohibited any attempt to interfere with military operations, to support U.S. enemies during wartime, to promote insubordination in the military, or to interfere with military recruitment. In 1919, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled in Schenck v. United States that the act did not violate the freedom of speech of those convicted under its provisions. In United States v. Motion Picture Film (1917), a federal court upheld the government's seizure of a film called "The Spirit of '76 Eugene V. Debs, Socialist Party presidential candidate in 1904, 1908, and 1912 was arrested and sentenced to 10 years in prison for making a speech that "obstructed recruiting." He ran for president again in 1920 from prison.
The Nations Factories Go To War Country unprepared when war started. Army ranked 15th in the world in size. Up-hill battle to mobilize the economy onto a war footing Government never had a very effective central control over war production. Laissez-fare economics wins out
Labor Mostly, Feds were able to keep labor in line with a combination of strategies. Work or fight rule. National War Labor Board chaired by Former President Taft. Its purpose was to arbitrate disputes between workers and employers in order to ensure labor reliability and productivity. Samuel Gompers (AfofL) supports the war Membership in mainstream labor booms
Strikers get Squashed Smaller and more radical organizations, especially the Wobblies (IWW), organized strikes and industrial sabotage. These groups were harassed unmercifully largest strike in American history hits the Steel industry. Industry reacted mercilessly to strikers demands that union be recognized and that they be allowed collective bargaining. Strike collapses after black strike-breakers brought in.
Black Migration War was beginning of a mass migration of blacks from the south to the industrial north. Reasons Chicago Race Riot of 1919 was a major racial conflict that began in Chicago, Illinois on July 27, 1919 and ended on August 3.  During the riot, dozens died and hundreds were injured.  It is considered the worst of the approximately 25 riots during the Red Summer of 1919, so named because of the violence and fatalities across the nation.   Migration continues after the war. Beginning of the large black populations in industrial northern cities.
Women Go to Work Women also entered the workforce Helped convince Wilson to support the 19th Amendment, giving women the vote; ratified in Most women gave up their jobs after the war. Boost to womens activism
Hoover Sets the Table Food production and availability was a key issue Herbert Hoover chosen to lead Food Administration. Volunteerism vs. enforced restrictions. Wheatless Wednesdays meatless Tuesdays Victory gardens.
Hoover, Cont. Congress restricted use of crops for making alcohol Helped advance the cause of prohibition. Many brewers were of German extraction and were subject to war-prejudices. 18th Amendment prohibiting the sale of alcohol passed in 1919 and began prohibition. Hoovers voluntary approach worked. Farm production increased by a quarter and food exports to the allies tripled.
Appeal to Conserve Food
Bond Drives Hoovers methods were emulated in other agencies Great bond drives. Went overboard; those who refused to purchase bonds were branded unpatriotic Intimidation and threats.
Making Plowboys Into Doughboys At the beginning, most Americans assumed that US contribution to war would be naval Allies made it clear that they were running out of men to throw into the war. The war had been extraordinarily bloody. Allies need America to supply fresh troops.
Draft Many volunteered for war, but not enough. conscription. Some in congress predicted that a draft would cause riots. Compared by some to Slave labor. Had not been a draft in US since the Civil War. Legislation starting draft was passed six weeks after war declared. Terms Workers in key industries exempted.
Doughboys Within a few months, army grows to over 4 Mill. How to get these guys ready to fight? Training timetable had to be accelerated. Nearly a year after US declared war before US troops in any force could fight in Europe.
Fighting In France The need to hurry US troops into action was magnified by events in Russia. With Russian out of war, Germany able the send battle-tested troops from the Eastern front to the Western front. Germany suddenly has a dangerous manpower advantage in that theater. America is having shipping problems and is taking a long time to get army together and trained. American soldiers began to trickle into France in 1918, but were not a separate army. Were used to reinforce the Allied armies on a unit by unit basis. America is not a separate fighting force.
America Helps Hammer The Hun Spring 1918 the Germans unleash a massive offensive that rolled the Allies back with frightening momentum. May 1918 Germans within 40 miles of Paris US troops see their first real action as an independent unit at Chateau-Thierry. Americans brought a fresh spirit of optimism July 1918 Allies begin to role back Germans. Black Jack Pershing. Muess-Argonne offensive, involving 1.2 Mill. US troops. 10% US casualties. Germany getting worn down. Reverses on the battle field, and British blockade is taking its toll.
The Fourteen Points Disarm Germany October 1918 Germans turn to Wilson seeking a peace based on his fourteen points. Wilson says that no negotiations before the Kaiser is out of power. The Germans promptly send him packing. Armistace11/11/1918. America rejoices.
US Contribution to Victory Americas primary contribution. The potential numbers US could throw into battle made it clear to the Germans that they could not win. US was forced to rely heavily on European equipment Battlefield casualties compared
Losses in World War I
Wilson Steps Down From Olympus At the end of the war Wilson was extraordinarily popular both at home and in Europe. Moral leader of the world with most powerful economy behind him. That popularity was not destined to last. Impossible to satisfy expectations Wilsons mistakes Biggest and most fatal mistake was mid-term election Republicans upset by his delegation to peace negotiations. Why?
An Idealist Battles The Imperialists People of Europe welcome Wilson with thundering acclaim Leaders of the Allied countries were wary. Why? Peace conference was dominated by the Big Four, leaders of US, France, England and Italy. Wilson in the drivers seat. The Big Four
Wilsons Goal Europe was a mess. Wilsons ultimate goal was League of Nations First priority to keep the winners from dividing up the colonies of the beaten countries. Wilson had to compromise. What did the treaty say regarding Colonies? "The Rabbit. 'My offensive equipment being practically nil, it remains for me to fascinate him with the power of my eye.'"
Republicans Carve up the Treaty Henry Cabot Lodge and other isolationist Republicans raise objections to the LON treaty and insisted on modifications. Enough Senators said would not pass without the changes to defeat the treaty.
Treaty That Bred A New War Wilson forced into a series of compromises Treaty presented to Germans in June, They cried foul. Why? Planted seeds of resentment. Wilson was forced to compromise many of his ideals Wilsons popularity is tarnished Treaty did, though, liberate a number of people.
The Domestic Parade Of Prejudice Wilson returned to political storm. Isolationists hated the LON. Rabid anti-Germans Liberals. Recent immigrants from Axis countries Irish
Wilsons Tour And Collapse Majority of Americans favored the treaty and senate Republicans had no real hope of defeating it. What is Republican strategy? Is it successful? Delay causing Americans to become increasingly apathetic and confused Wilson decided to go over the heads of congress to the people. Went on a barnstorming speaking tour. Collapses and suffers a stroke. One side paralyzed. With Wilson incapacitated, Republicans in congress have control of the debate. Wilson on his whirl- wind tour to sell the nation on a League of Nations
Wilson Rejects The Lodge Reservations Senator Lodge able to tack on 14 reservations so that LON would not bind the US to act. Wilson, who hated Lodge, flatly rejected the reservations. What does Wilson order Democrats to do? Why? What is the result?
Defeat Through Deadlock Public pressure forced another vote. 4/5 of senators favored the treaty in some form, but the necessary 2/3 majority could not agree on a version of it. In 1920 comes up again for a vote with the Lodge amendments tacked on again. What does Wilson do? What happens to the treaty?
Election of 1920 Wilsons plan: make the election of 1920 a referendum on the League Theodore Roosevelt had been the frontrunner for the Republican nomination, but his health collapsed in 1918 and he died in January 1919, leaving no obvious heir to his Progressive legacy.
Election of 1920 Both major parties turned to dark horse candidates from the electoral vote-rich state of Ohio. The Democrats nominated newspaper publisher and Governor James M. Cox, in turn the Republicans chose Senator Warren G. Harding, Republicans win overwhelmingly. Big business, laize faire Republicans back in power. Women voting for the first time. Debs gets nearly a million votes despite being in prison.
Consequences of US Rejection of LON LON left without the vital American international support America retreated behind isolationism and let Europe find its own way. France feels compelled to rearm, so Germany does, too. Without America, the LON was toothless.