2A Fragile Peace There had been peace in Europe for nearly 30 years However many forces were at work to destroy the peaceOTTO von BISMARCK
3Causes of World War I Nationalism Imperialism Militarism The Balkans Alliance SystemAssassination of Franz Ferdinand
4Competition between Europe’s powers for resources and materials NationalismCompetition between Europe’s powers for resources and materialsTerritorial disputesAlsace-Lorraine (France/Germany)BalkansOther minor disputes around the world
5Imperialism Overseas Imperialism created conflicts Africa, Asia and ChinaSense of rivalry and mistrust
6Militarism Glorifying military power and keeping a strong military Kept citizens feeling safe and patrioticReady in case of a warIncreased economy of each nationCountries competed with each other
7Serbia Bosnia Greece Others The Balkan PeninsulaSerbia Bosnia Greece OthersOttoman Empire declining in powerNew countries wanting to expandControl trade of Mediterranean regionGreat nationalism of individual nationsRussia, Germany, and Austria-Hungary all wanted to maintain power in the area
10Alliance System and Germany Since the late 1880’s von Bismarck made fragile alliances with a number of countriesAll with the goal of keeping peace, yet always strengthening GermanyTriple Alliance Triple EntenteGermany BritainAustria-Hungary FranceItaly Russia
11Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated June 28, 1914 on visit to BosniaGavrilo Princip (Serbian Black Hand) committed to ridding Serbia of Austrian ruleAustria-Hungary would send troops to Serbia, and Germany supported themRussia supported Serbia and sent troops to Austria – bcz of ALLIANCE SYSTEM
13A New Alliance System Central Powers Allies Germany Britain Austria-Hungary FranceItaly (to start) RussiaCountries very quickly mobilized for warUnited States???
14The Schlieffen PlanGerman troops would race west to fight France then come back and fight Russia (slower to mobilize)This brought Britain into the warFirst Battle of the Marne defeated the Germans and saved the AlliesThis two front war would quickly become a stalemate everywhere
15A New Type of War Trench Warfare Poison Gas Machine Gun Tank Airplanes Submarines
17Stalemate Western Front stalemate Eastern Front Russia weakening, but its massive numbers helpingWar of AttritionAllies sending supplies to RussiaWar spreading to ROW
18Gallipoli Allies wanted to attack Central Powers through Turkey Dardanelles – a narrow sea-straight that led to the Turkish capital, and eventually into Austria
19Mel Gibson! Gallipoli famous in Australia A misguided attempt to end the war
20A Changing War Stalemate continues through 1917 Russia withdraws and facing collapse and internal RevolutionTreaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany March 1918Over 5.5 million Russian dead/woundedEastern European countries gain independence (Balkans)
21United States Prez Wilson declared war April 2, 1917 WHY? Because of… Unrestricted German sub activity (Lusitania)Cultural tiesEconomic tiesWar atrocitiesZimmerman Note – Mexico vs US?“Total War”Lusitania May 7, 1915
22Other Things Happening… 1918 Influenza EpidemicSpanish Flu – world-wideAt least 50 million people died
23Other Things Happening… Balfour DeclarationAsked for establishment of Palestinian state, separate from Israeli stateInternational ZionismBritain would not allowIsrael/Palestine have historic ties to same land and still fight over it today
24Central Powers Slowly Defeated Final German push stopped at Second Battle of the MarneGermany surrendered and declared itself Weimar RepublicArmistice signed November 11, 1918 in a railroad car near ParisRemember this car!
25Wilson’s 14 Points – Peace Plan Wanted Self-determinationBritain and France wanted harsh punishment for GermanyCompromised with the Treaty of Versailles – June 28, 1919Very hard on Germany – See Hitler, Adolf
26German Territorial Losses Treaty of VersaillesGerman Territorial Lossesnew countries (Map)German Military RestrictionsWar Reparations - $$War Guilt Clause (MOST DAMAGING)League of Nations
27League of Nations U.S. did not join Failure: examples Japanese into ManchuriaItaly into Ethiopia and GreeceHitler - EVERYWHERE
28Results of Treaty of Versailles No country happy with TreatyDid not build a lasting peaceCreated more animosity and hateUltimately led to WWII
29The Cost of World War I 8.5 million soldiers died SEE CHART 21 million woundedCountless citizens + FluFarms, towns, and cities destroyed$338 BILLIONHow does Europe recover?