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Unit 5 World War I and the Russian Revolution

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1 Unit 5 World War I and the Russian Revolution

2 A Fragile Peace There had been peace in Europe for nearly 30 years
However many forces were at work to destroy the peace OTTO von BISMARCK

3 Causes of World War I Nationalism Imperialism Militarism The Balkans
Alliance System Assassination of Franz Ferdinand

4 Competition between Europe’s powers for resources and materials
Nationalism Competition between Europe’s powers for resources and materials Territorial disputes Alsace-Lorraine (France/Germany) Balkans Other minor disputes around the world

5 Imperialism Overseas Imperialism created conflicts
Africa, Asia and China Sense of rivalry and mistrust

6 Militarism Glorifying military power and keeping a strong military
Kept citizens feeling safe and patriotic Ready in case of a war Increased economy of each nation Countries competed with each other

7 Serbia Bosnia Greece Others
The Balkan Peninsula Serbia Bosnia Greece Others Ottoman Empire declining in power New countries wanting to expand Control trade of Mediterranean region Great nationalism of individual nations Russia, Germany, and Austria-Hungary all wanted to maintain power in the area

8 <The Balkans

9 The Balkan Wars

10 Alliance System and Germany
Since the late 1880’s von Bismarck made fragile alliances with a number of countries All with the goal of keeping peace, yet always strengthening Germany Triple Alliance Triple Entente Germany Britain Austria-Hungary France Italy Russia

11 Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated June 28, 1914 on visit to Bosnia Gavrilo Princip (Serbian Black Hand) committed to ridding Serbia of Austrian rule Austria-Hungary would send troops to Serbia, and Germany supported them Russia supported Serbia and sent troops to Austria – bcz of ALLIANCE SYSTEM


13 A New Alliance System Central Powers Allies Germany Britain
Austria-Hungary France Italy (to start) Russia Countries very quickly mobilized for war United States???

14 The Schlieffen Plan German troops would race west to fight France then come back and fight Russia (slower to mobilize) This brought Britain into the war First Battle of the Marne defeated the Germans and saved the Allies This two front war would quickly become a stalemate everywhere

15 A New Type of War Trench Warfare Poison Gas Machine Gun Tank Airplanes

16 WWI Tech

17 Stalemate Western Front stalemate
Eastern Front Russia weakening, but its massive numbers helping War of Attrition Allies sending supplies to Russia War spreading to ROW

18 Gallipoli Allies wanted to attack Central Powers through Turkey
Dardanelles – a narrow sea-straight that led to the Turkish capital, and eventually into Austria

19 Mel Gibson! Gallipoli famous in Australia
A misguided attempt to end the war

20 A Changing War Stalemate continues through 1917
Russia withdraws and facing collapse and internal Revolution Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany March 1918 Over 5.5 million Russian dead/wounded Eastern European countries gain independence (Balkans)

21 United States Prez Wilson declared war April 2, 1917 WHY? Because of…
Unrestricted German sub activity (Lusitania) Cultural ties Economic ties War atrocities Zimmerman Note – Mexico vs US? “Total War” Lusitania May 7, 1915

22 Other Things Happening…
1918 Influenza Epidemic Spanish Flu – world-wide At least 50 million people died

23 Other Things Happening…
Balfour Declaration Asked for establishment of Palestinian state, separate from Israeli state International Zionism Britain would not allow Israel/Palestine have historic ties to same land and still fight over it today

24 Central Powers Slowly Defeated
Final German push stopped at Second Battle of the Marne Germany surrendered and declared itself Weimar Republic Armistice signed November 11, 1918 in a railroad car near Paris Remember this car!

25 Wilson’s 14 Points – Peace Plan
Wanted Self-determination Britain and France wanted harsh punishment for Germany Compromised with the Treaty of Versailles – June 28, 1919 Very hard on Germany – See Hitler, Adolf

26 German Territorial Losses
Treaty of Versailles German Territorial Losses new countries (Map) German Military Restrictions War Reparations - $$ War Guilt Clause (MOST DAMAGING) League of Nations

27 League of Nations U.S. did not join Failure: examples
Japanese into Manchuria Italy into Ethiopia and Greece Hitler - EVERYWHERE

28 Results of Treaty of Versailles
No country happy with Treaty Did not build a lasting peace Created more animosity and hate Ultimately led to WWII

29 The Cost of World War I 8.5 million soldiers died SEE CHART
21 million wounded Countless citizens + Flu Farms, towns, and cities destroyed $338 BILLION How does Europe recover?


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