2The Collapse of Empires Both the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire collapsed and were carved up to create new nations.These new nations were created based upon President Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points, specifically the point directed at the idea of self-determination.
3Goodbye Austria-Hungary! During the war it was very clear that the Austro-Hungarian’s were just as unprepared for war as the Russian Empire Leadership-WeaponsFollowing the successful completion of the war by the Allied Powers, the idea of self-determination were pressed and many groups inside the Austro-Hungarian Empire began to call for more rights.Austria-Hungary wasn’t just a nation made up of Austrians and Hungarians, there were also Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Ukrainians, Romanians, Serbs, Bosnians, Croats, Slovenes, Montenegrins, Italians, and other groups…
4Goodbye Austria-Hungary! The Austro-Hungarian government of fell apart and he was forced to step down.The new government, created in 1918, dissolved the empire and in its place several new countries were created: Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.Also, parts of the empirebecame parts of Italy,Poland and Romania.
5Goodbye Ottoman Empire! By the time World War I had taken place, most people looked at the Ottoman Empire as a very weak country because of its poor leadership.“the sick man of Europe.”
6Goodbye Ottoman Empire! One of the things that weakened the Ottomans was the violence that occurred inside of the country.Nationalistic feelings caused waves of violence to break out against a small ethnic minority group inside of the Ottoman Empire.This group of people were the Armenians. The Muslim Turks, that ruled the Ottoman Empire did not like or trust the Christian Armenians.Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s the Ottomans attempted to wipeout the Armenian people. Attempting to kill an entire ethnic group is called genocide.
7Goodbye Ottoman Empire! Like its ally in the Central Powers, the Ottoman Empire also collapsed in 1918.Most of the Arab lands of the Ottoman Empire were placed under the control of Britain and France.The plan was to allow these areas to mature until they could become independent nations, but the British and French just treated them like new colonies.The remainder of the old Ottoman Empire would become the nation of Turkey following the successful rise of a new nationalist leader.
9Hello Turkey!During the war, one of the Ottoman Empire’s best generals was a man named Mustafa Kemal. He was a war hero many times over and rose in popularity across the weakening nation.After the war, Mustafa Kemal became the leader of a Turkish nationalist group, which successfully overthrew the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, then declared Turkey a republic.After these successful events, Mustafa Kemal changes his name, to Kemal Ataturk. In Turkish, Ataturk means “father of the Turks.”
10Hello Turkey!Kemal Ataturk believed that Turkey needed to change if it wanted to survive as a nation, so he planned to both modernize and westernize the country.To do this he brought major changes to the nation:Islamic law was replaced with a new law code, based on secular European law.The Muslim calendar was replaced with the western (Christian) one.People were required to wear western clothing.Schools were established that taught western languages in place of Arab script.Women no longer had to wear Burqa (Burka) in public and were allowed to vote and work outside of their homes.Turkey industrialized, while also building roads, railways, and power plants.
11Arab NationalismDuring the war, many Arabs had fought alongside the Allied Powers against the Ottoman Empire.Many of these Arabs had developed close relationships with the Allied friends, especially people like the British soldier T.E. Lawrence, better known as Lawrence of Arabia.During the war the Arabs were promised independence from Ottoman rule.But after the war the Allied Powers instead divided up Arab lands amongst themselves. The new mandates (territories) were ruled like colonies, like we previously said.This angered the Arab people and during the 1920s and 30s various groups emerged that had the goal of freeing the Middle East from western domination.
12League of NationsAn international organization set up as part of the Treaty of Versailles that created a council to solve problems before they got to war.The League's goals includedDisarmamentpreventing war through collective securitysettling disputes between countries through negotiationdiplomacy and improving global quality of life
13US oppositionThe US objected to the League of Nations because it limited the US ability to act on its ownBelieved that the US alone was the best hope for solving the world’s conflictsUS Senate rejected the Treaty of VersaillesThe absence of the US made the enforcement of the treaty weak, and it was unable to deal with any crisis that came along
15Women’s SuffrageStarting back in the mid-1800s in many western style democracies, women had began to demand greater rights.These rights included the right to own property as well as suffrage.Suffrage is the right to vote.Those involved in the suffrage movement, usually known as Suffragists, wanted women to gain equal standing with men in modern society.Another way of describing this movement would be to call it one of the first waves of feminism that swept over the world.
16Women’s SuffrageThe first country to grant women the right to vote was New Zealand, in the year 1893.However, this was an exception to the rule and the majority of countries around the world did not grant women the right to vote yet.In place like Great Britain, France, the United States and other democratic countries, women still worked hard to gain the right to vote as the 20th Century began.
17Women’s SuffrageThe women’s suffrage movement in Great Britain is primarily headed by a women named Emmeline Pankhurst.After decades of proposing giving women the right to vote in the British Parliament, Pankhurst and several associates finally realized that it was not a priority for the government in 1903.Therefore, these women established the Women's Social and Political Union. This was an organization that believed that action and not talk would win women the right to vote.
19Women’s SuffrageThis group publicly demonstrated in favor of women’s rights, their actions actually carrying them over into illegal activity.
20Women’s SuffrageTheir illegal actions caused many members of the suffrage movement to be arrested.In prison, these suffragettes utilized a new tool to gain public sympathy.The women chose to refuse to eat while imprisoned, which is known as a hunger strike.To make sure the women did not died under their care, the British government authorized forced-feeding of the women, which was a brutal action itself.
22Women’s SuffrageAfter years of struggling, Great Britain granted women over the age of 30 the right to vote in 1918.However, by 1928, Britain had granted suffrage to all women over the age of 21.In the United States, President Woodrow Wilson proposed the 19th Amendment to the Constitution in This gave all citizens of the United States over 21 the right to vote.Women in Canada, Finland, Germany, and Sweden also gained the right to vote in the early 1900s.Despite these changes, women still cannot vote in many places around the world.
23The Post-War WomanObviously the right to vote was an incredibly new thing to women of this time, but their lives also opened up as they gained respect from men for the important part they played in the war effort.A new type of woman began to emerged around the globe.These new women were presented with opportunities for education and employment unimaginable even 100 years earlier.
24The Flappers These new women were known as flappers in the 1920s. This term referred to the new kind of young women who wore short skirts, shorter hair, listened to the jazz music, and was confident in her disrespect for what was considered acceptable behavior.