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Welcome to Weather-Related Decision- Making for General Aviation Pilots Flight 2 – Alliance, Nebraska to Yankton, South Dakota 1Copyright © 2012 David.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Weather-Related Decision- Making for General Aviation Pilots Flight 2 – Alliance, Nebraska to Yankton, South Dakota 1Copyright © 2012 David."— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome to Weather-Related Decision- Making for General Aviation Pilots Flight 2 – Alliance, Nebraska to Yankton, South Dakota 1Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D. STOP You MUST view this program using the SLIDE SHOW feature of PowerPoint. If you dont use the SLIDE SHOW then the slides will not appear in the correct sequence, and youll just get a big mess. Start the SLIDE SHOW now by clicking on the VIEW tab on the menu bar, and then selecting Slide Show. You must also have internet access in order for the videos to be downloaded.

2 Complete a Flight - Instructions Now lets put things together in a series of flights in which you need to be aware of changing weather conditions, and you need to consider all the factors related to an in-flight diversion. Each flight has been divided into a series of segments. At the end of each segment you will see a video clip of the weather conditions that you are currently experiencing. At the end of the video clip you will be asked whether you would like to continue the flight or divert to an alternate destination. If you decide to divert, a number of options will appear, and you will be asked to select an option and choose a new destination. Throughout the flight, you will have access to the material that is normally available during a cross-country flight under visual flight rules. You can access this material by clicking on the list. Before you begin the flight you have the opportunity to spend as much time as you like examining this material. Because of computer limitations, the Aeronautical Chart for each flight is not very detailed. If you wish to see a more detailed map, click on the Map Link and you will be taken to a web site in which you can zoom and scan in to see a very detailed view of the route. Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.2www.avhf.com

3 Flight 2 Alliance (Nebraska) via Ainsworth and ONeill-Baker to Yankton (South Dakota) Review flight details Aeronautical Chart [Map link] Aeronautical ChartMap link Airports – Alliance (KAIA) Alliance (KAIA) – Ainsworth (KANW) Ainsworth (KANW) – ONeill-Baker (KONL) ONeill-Baker (KONL) – Yankton (KYKN) Yankton (KYKN – Grant County (1V2) Grant County (1V2) – Rock County (RBE) Rock County (RBE) – Stuart Atkinson (8V2) Stuart Atkinson (8V2 Area Forecast Meteorological Reports Weather Charts – Radar Summary Radar Summary – Surface Weather Surface Weather Terminal Area Forecast Flight Plan Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.3 TAKEOFF

4 Flight 2 Alliance (NB) via Ainsworth (NB) and ONeill-Baker (NB) to Yankton (SD) Review flight details Aeronautical Chart [Map link] Aeronautical ChartMap link Airports – Alliance (KAIA) Alliance (KAIA) – Ainsworth (KANW) Ainsworth (KANW) – ONeill-Baker (KONL) ONeill-Baker (KONL) – Yankton (KYKN) Yankton (KYKN – Grant County (1V2) Grant County (1V2) – Rock County (RBE) Rock County (RBE) – Stuart Atkinson (8V2) Stuart Atkinson (8V2 Area Forecast Meteorological Reports Weather Charts – Radar Summary Radar Summary – Surface Weather Surface Weather Terminal Area Forecast Flight Plan Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.4 Make a decision Divert Continue You are currently: 20 nm NE of Alliance

5 Flight 2 Alliance (NB) via Ainsworth (NB) and ONeil-Baker (NB) to Yankton (SD) Review flight details Aeronautical Chart [Map link] Aeronautical ChartMap link Airports – Alliance (KAIA) Alliance (KAIA) – Ainsworth (KANW) Ainsworth (KANW) – ONeill-Baker (KONL) ONeill-Baker (KONL) – Yankton (KYKN) Yankton (KYKN – Grant County (1V2) Grant County (1V2) – Rock County (RBE) Rock County (RBE) – Stuart Atkinson (8V2) Stuart Atkinson (8V2 Area Forecast Meteorological Reports Weather Charts – Radar Summary Radar Summary – Surface Weather Surface Weather Terminal Area Forecast Flight Plan Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.5 Make a decision Divert Continue You are currently: 40 nm NE of Alliance

6 Flight 2 Alliance (NB) via Ainsworth (NB) and ONeil-Baker (NB) to Yankton (SD) Review flight details Aeronautical Chart [Map link] Aeronautical ChartMap link Airports – Alliance (KAIA) Alliance (KAIA) – Ainsworth (KANW) Ainsworth (KANW) – ONeill-Baker (KONL) ONeill-Baker (KONL) – Yankton (KYKN) Yankton (KYKN – Grant County (1V2) Grant County (1V2) – Rock County (RBE) Rock County (RBE) – Stuart Atkinson (8V2) Stuart Atkinson (8V2 Area Forecast Meteorological Reports Weather Charts – Radar Summary Radar Summary – Surface Weather Surface Weather Terminal Area Forecast Flight Plan Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.6 Make a decision Divert Continue You are currently: 60 nm NE of Alliance

7 Flight 2 Alliance (NB) via Ainsworth (NB) and ONeil-Baker (NB) to Yankton (SD) Review flight details Aeronautical Chart [Map link] Aeronautical ChartMap link Airports – Alliance (KAIA) Alliance (KAIA) – Ainsworth (KANW) Ainsworth (KANW) – ONeill-Baker (KONL) ONeill-Baker (KONL) – Yankton (KYKN) Yankton (KYKN – Grant County (1V2) Grant County (1V2) – Rock County (RBE) Rock County (RBE) – Stuart Atkinson (8V2) Stuart Atkinson (8V2 Area Forecast Meteorological Reports Weather Charts – Radar Summary Radar Summary – Surface Weather Surface Weather Terminal Area Forecast Flight Plan Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.7 Make a decision Divert Continue You are currently: 80 nm NE of Alliance

8 Flight 2 Alliance (NB) via Ainsworth (NB) and ONeil-Baker (NB) to Yankton (SD) Review flight details Aeronautical Chart [Map link] Aeronautical ChartMap link Airports – Alliance (KAIA) Alliance (KAIA) – Ainsworth (KANW) Ainsworth (KANW) – ONeill-Baker (KONL) ONeill-Baker (KONL) – Yankton (KYKN) Yankton (KYKN – Grant County (1V2) Grant County (1V2) – Rock County (RBE) Rock County (RBE) – Stuart Atkinson (8V2) Stuart Atkinson (8V2 Area Forecast Meteorological Reports Weather Charts – Radar Summary Radar Summary – Surface Weather Surface Weather Terminal Area Forecast Flight Plan Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.8 Make a decision Divert Continue You are currently: 100 nm NE of Alliance

9 Flight 2 Alliance (NB) via Ainsworth (NB) and ONeil-Baker (NB) to Yankton (SD) Review flight details Aeronautical Chart [Map link] Aeronautical ChartMap link Airports – Alliance (KAIA) Alliance (KAIA) – Ainsworth (KANW) Ainsworth (KANW) – ONeill-Baker (KONL) ONeill-Baker (KONL) – Yankton (KYKN) Yankton (KYKN – Grant County (1V2) Grant County (1V2) – Rock County (RBE) Rock County (RBE) – Stuart Atkinson (8V2) Stuart Atkinson (8V2 Area Forecast Meteorological Reports Weather Charts – Radar Summary Radar Summary – Surface Weather Surface Weather Terminal Area Forecast Flight Plan Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.9 Make a decision Divert Continue You are currently: 120 nm NE of Alliance

10 Flight 2 Alliance (NB) via Ainsworth (NB) and ONeil-Baker (NB) to Yankton (SD) Review flight details Aeronautical Chart [Map link] Aeronautical ChartMap link Airports – Alliance (KAIA) Alliance (KAIA) – Ainsworth (KANW) Ainsworth (KANW) – ONeill-Baker (KONL) ONeill-Baker (KONL) – Yankton (KYKN) Yankton (KYKN – Grant County (1V2) Grant County (1V2) – Rock County (RBE) Rock County (RBE) – Stuart Atkinson (8V2) Stuart Atkinson (8V2 Area Forecast Meteorological Reports Weather Charts – Radar Summary Radar Summary – Surface Weather Surface Weather Terminal Area Forecast Flight Plan Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.10 Make a decision Divert Continue You are currently: 20 nm NE of Ainsworth

11 Flight 2 Alliance (NB) via Ainsworth (NB) and ONeil-Baker (NB) to Yankton (SD) Review flight details Aeronautical Chart [Map link] Aeronautical ChartMap link Airports – Alliance (KAIA) Alliance (KAIA) – Ainsworth (KANW) Ainsworth (KANW) – ONeill-Baker (KONL) ONeill-Baker (KONL) – Yankton (KYKN) Yankton (KYKN – Grant County (1V2) Grant County (1V2) – Rock County (RBE) Rock County (RBE) – Stuart Atkinson (8V2) Stuart Atkinson (8V2 Area Forecast Meteorological Reports Weather Charts – Radar Summary Radar Summary – Surface Weather Surface Weather Terminal Area Forecast Flight Plan Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.11 Make a decision Divert Continue You are currently: 40 nm NE of Ainsworth

12 Flight 2 Alliance (NB) via Ainsworth (NB) and ONeil-Baker (NB) to Yankton (SD) Review flight details Aeronautical Chart [Map link] Aeronautical ChartMap link Airports – Alliance (KAIA) Alliance (KAIA) – Ainsworth (KANW) Ainsworth (KANW) – ONeill-Baker (KONL) ONeill-Baker (KONL) – Yankton (KYKN) Yankton (KYKN – Grant County (1V2) Grant County (1V2) – Rock County (RBE) Rock County (RBE) – Stuart Atkinson (8V2) Stuart Atkinson (8V2 Area Forecast Meteorological Reports Weather Charts – Radar Summary Radar Summary – Surface Weather Surface Weather Terminal Area Forecast Flight Plan Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.12 Make a decision Divert Continue You are currently: 20 nm NE of ONeill-Baker

13 Flight 2 Alliance (NB) via Ainsworth (NB) and ONeil-Baker (NB) to Yankton (SD) Review flight details Aeronautical Chart [Map link] Aeronautical ChartMap link Airports – Alliance (KAIA) Alliance (KAIA) – Ainsworth (KANW) Ainsworth (KANW) – ONeill-Baker (KONL) ONeill-Baker (KONL) – Yankton (KYKN) Yankton (KYKN – Grant County (1V2) Grant County (1V2) – Rock County (RBE) Rock County (RBE) – Stuart Atkinson (8V2) Stuart Atkinson (8V2 Area Forecast Meteorological Reports Weather Charts – Radar Summary Radar Summary – Surface Weather Surface Weather Terminal Area Forecast Flight Plan Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.13 Make a decision Divert Continue You are currently: 40 nm NE of ONeill-Baker

14 Flight 2 Aeronautical Chart Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.14 RETURN

15 Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.15 Alliance RETURN

16 Ainsworth Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.16 RETURN

17 Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.17 ONeill-Baker RETURN

18 Yankton Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.18 RETURN

19 Grant County Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.19 RETURN

20 Rock County Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.20 RETURN

21 Stuart-Atkinson Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.21 RETURN

22 Flight 2– Weather Forecast Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.22 RETURN

23 Flight 2 – Meteorological Reports Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.23 RETURN

24 Flight 2 – Weather Charts – Radar Summary Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.24 RETURN

25 Flight 2 – Weather Charts – Surface Weather Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.25 RETURN

26 Flight 2 - TAF Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.26 RETURN

27 Flight 2 – Flight Plan Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.27 RETURN

28 Alliance to Yankton: Divert 1 IndicatorDeteriorationNo ChangeImprovement Cloud-base Visibility Cloud Coloring Cloud Density Terrain Clearance Rain Showers Cloud Type Horizon Alliance Grant County Ainsworth Rock County Stuart Atkinson ONeil- Baker Distance Very Good Good Expected Weather Very Good Facilities Very GoodFair En-route Terrain Very Good Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.28 Expected weather conditions are anticipated on the basis of both the forecast and the prevailing conditions experienced during the flight. Diversion Alternatives At this stage of the flight it is useful to compare the conditions to those that were reported in the meteorological report. Since there has been no significant change in any of the indicators recorded in the meteorological report, the decision to divert is not necessarily warranted at this stage of the flight. Nevertheless, should you feel uncomfortable in the conditions, you should consider your options and perhaps divert to an alternate airport until the conditions improve. Go back to where you diverted. Continue Weather Conditions at Diversion Point (Compared to Previous Stage)

29 Alliance to Yankton : Divert 2 IndicatorDeteriorationNo ChangeImprovement Cloud-base Visibility Cloud Coloring Cloud Density Terrain Clearance Rain Showers Cloud Type Horizon Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.29 Expected weather conditions are anticipated on the basis of both the forecast and the prevailing conditions experienced during the flight. Diversion Alternatives While there has been an increase in the cloud density atthis stage of the flight, none of the other indicators have deteriorated. Therefore, there is no requirement, at this stage, to conduct a diversion. Nevertheless, should you feel uncomfortable in the conditions, you should consider your options and perhaps divert to an alternate airport until you feel more comfortable with the conditions. Alliance Grant County Ainsworth Rock County Stuart Atkinson ONeil- Baker Distance Very Good Good Expected Weather Very Good Facilities Very GoodFair En-route Terrain Very Good Go back to where you diverted. Continue Weather Conditions at Diversion Point (Compared to Previous Stage)

30 Alliance to Yankton : Divert 3 IndicatorDeteriorationNo ChangeImprovement Cloud-base Visibility Cloud Coloring Cloud Density Terrain Clearance Rain Showers Cloud Type Horizon Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.30 Expected weather conditions are anticipated on the basis of both the forecast and the prevailing conditions experienced during the flight. Diversion Alternatives Clearly, there has been a deterioration in the cloud density, and the cloud has developed, suggesting that a change has occurred in the prevailing conditions. Since three of the indicators have deteriorated, it is important to consider the possibility of a diversion until the conditions improve. While you might consider a diversion unnecessary at this stage, the options should be considered given that there has been a change in the conditions. This is particularly the case if you are relatively less experienced. Go back to where you diverted. Continue Alliance Grant County Ainsworth Rock County Stuart Atkinson ONeil- Baker DistanceGood Very Good Expected Weather Very Good Facilities Very GoodFair En-route Terrain Very Good Weather Conditions at Diversion Point (Compared to Previous Stage)

31 Alliance to Yankton : Divert 4 IndicatorDeteriorationNo ChangeImprovement Cloud-base Visibility Cloud Coloring Cloud Density Terrain Clearance Rain Showers Cloud Type Horizon Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.31 Expected weather conditions are anticipated on the basis of both the forecast and the prevailing conditions experienced during the flight. Diversion Alternatives Although there has been a deterioration in the cloud density and a change in the cloud type at this stage of the flight, there has been no change in the remaining indicators. This suggest that a diversion may not be necessary at this stage of the flight. Nevertheless, should you feel uncomfortable in the conditions, you should consider your options and perhaps divert to an alternate airport until you feel more comfortable with the conditions. Go back to where you diverted. Continue Alliance Grant County Ainsworth Rock County Stuart Atkinson ONeil- Baker DistanceFairGood Expected Weather Very Good Facilities Very GoodFair En-route Terrain Very Good Weather Conditions at Diversion Point (Compared to Previous Stage)

32 Alliance to Yankton : Divert 5 IndicatorDeteriorationNo ChangeImprovement Cloud-base Visibility Cloud Coloring Cloud Density Terrain Clearance Rain Showers Cloud Type Horizon Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.32 Expected weather conditions are anticipated on the basis of both the forecast and the prevailing conditions experienced during the flight. Diversion Alternatives During this stage of the flight, the cloud density appears to have improved and there is no change in the remaining indicators. Consequently, a diversion is not necessarily warranted at this stage. Nevertheless, should you feel uncomfortable in the conditions, you should consider your options and perhaps divert to an alternate airport until you feel more comfortable with the conditions. Go back to where you diverted. Continue Alliance Grant County Ainsworth Rock County Stuart Atkinson ONeil- Baker DistanceVery PoorFair Expected Weather Very Good Facilities Very GoodFair En-route Terrain Very Good Weather Conditions at Diversion Point (Compared to Previous Stage)

33 Alliance to Yankton : Divert 6 IndicatorDeteriorationNo ChangeImprovement Cloud-base Visibility Cloud Coloring Cloud Density Terrain Clearance Rain Showers Cloud Type Horizon Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.33 Expected weather conditions are anticipated on the basis of both the forecast and the prevailing conditions experienced during the flight. Diversion Alternatives One of the most significant indicators associated with this stage is the fact that terrain clearance has reduced. However, the clouds have also darkened, there is a greater density of cloud, and the cloud-base has deteriorated. Since more than three indicators have deteriorated, a diversion is warranted at this stage of the flight. Go back to where you diverted. Continue Alliance Grant County Ainsworth Rock County Stuart Atkinson ONeil- Baker DistanceVery PoorPoor Expected Weather Very Good Facilities Very GoodFair En-route Terrain Very Good Weather Conditions at Diversion Point (Compared to Previous Stage)

34 Alliance to Yankton : Divert 7 IndicatorDeteriorationNo ChangeImprovement Cloud-base Visibility Cloud Coloring Cloud Density Terrain Clearance Rain Showers Cloud Type Horizon Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.34 Expected weather conditions are anticipated on the basis of both the forecast and the prevailing conditions experienced during the flight. Diversion Alternatives The conditions have deteriorated markedly during this stage of the flight, with visibility reduced and the onset of rain showers. Given the nature of the conditions, continued flight in visual meteorological conditions is not possible, and a diversion should have been conducted at an earlier stage of the flight. Go back to where you diverted. Continue Alliance Grant County Ainsworth Rock County Stuart Atkinson ONeil- Baker Distance Very Poor Very Good Expected Weather Very Good GoodFairPoor FacilitiesFairVery GoodFair En-route Terrain Very Good GoodFairGood Weather Conditions at Diversion Point (Compared to Previous Stage)

35 Alliance to Yankton : Divert 8 IndicatorDeteriorationNo ChangeImprovement Cloud-base Visibility Cloud Coloring Cloud Density Terrain Clearance Rain Showers Cloud Type Horizon Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.35 Expected weather conditions are anticipated on the basis of both the forecast and the prevailing conditions experienced during the flight. Diversion Alternatives Although there has been some improvement in both the visibility and the horizon, there has been a further deterioration in the other indicators. At this stage, the flight is being conducted in conditions that are below that required for visual meteorological conditions, and a diversion should have been initiated at the stage at which at least three of the weather-related indicators had deteriorated. Go back to where you diverted. Continue Alliance Grant County Ainsworth Rock County Stuart Atkinson ONeil- Baker DistanceGoodVery Good Expected Weather Fair Poor FacilitiesVery GoodFair En-route Terrain GoodFairGood Weather Conditions at Diversion Point (Compared to Previous Stage)

36 Alliance to Yankton : Divert 9 IndicatorDeteriorationNo ChangeImprovement Cloud-base Visibility Cloud Coloring Cloud Density Terrain Clearance Rain Showers Cloud Type Horizon Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.36 Diversion Alternatives - None You are now flying your aircraft in Instrument Meteorological conditions. If you a visually-rated pilot, this is a violation of your privileges. More importantly, as a visually-rated pilot it is quite possible that you will lose control of the aircraft within 10 minutes of entering IMC. In the interests of developing the skills necessary to avoid unintended flight into IMC, you may want to take this flight again, taking care to note the weather-related indicators that occur throughout the flight. Go back to where you diverted. Continue Weather Conditions at Diversion Point (Compared to Previous Stage)

37 Alliance to Yankton : Divert 10 IndicatorDeteriorationNo ChangeImprovement Cloud-base Visibility Cloud Coloring Cloud Density Terrain Clearance Rain Showers Cloud Type Horizon Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.37 Diversion Alternatives - None Go back to where you diverted. Continue You are now flying your aircraft in Instrument Meteorological conditions. If you a visually-rated pilot, this is a violation of your privileges. More importantly, as a visually-rated pilot it is quite possible that you will lose control of the aircraft within 10 minutes of entering IMC. In the interests of developing the skills necessary to avoid unintended flight into IMC, you may want to take this flight again, taking care to note the weather-related indicators that occur throughout the flight. Weather Conditions at Diversion Point (Compared to Previous Stage)

38 In-Flight Diversions - Summary This section of the program was designed to give you an opportunity to practice in-flight weather- related decisions. You should now be able to recognize the onset of deteriorating conditions using the weather indicators, and you should be aware of the way that you make decisions. Finally, you always need to avoid being pressured into continuing a flight. Good airmanship requires that you always give yourself alternatives. Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.38www.avhf.com

39 Program Summary You should now be aware of the value of looking for indications that the weather is deteriorating and that you may need to divert, based on good weather-related decision making. We hope that you enjoyed this program, and that you will apply its principles in your future flights. Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.39www.avhf.com

40 THE END For more training programs and for self-evaluation exercises, please visit our web site at: Additional training flights are available here.available here Copyright © 2012 David R. Hunter, Ph.D.40www.avhf.com


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