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World War II: The Rise of Dictators

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1 World War II: The Rise of Dictators
World History B – Seminar #7 Warm Up: Totalitarian state 2. Dictator 3. Appeasement

2 Totalitarian State: Government in which a one party dictatorship regulates every aspect of citizens’ lives. Dictator: Ruler who has complete control over a government Appeasement: Policy of giving in to an aggressor’s demands in order to keep the peace.

3 After WWI In the two decades following World War I, a wave of economic and political crises swept the globe. While many people spent the 1920s trying to cope with the uncertainties of the postwar world, by 1929 they suddenly faced a much greater problem. That year, the stock market in the United States crashed. Because so many war-torn nations had come to depend on financial help from America, the stock market’s collapse triggered a worldwide economic depression that left millions around the globe jobless and hungry. In response to the turmoil, some nations turned to fascist dictators, who promised order and stability. Not content to merely rule a country, however, these dictators soon looked to conquer other lands.

4 The Great Depression Worldwide Economic Depression Long-Term Effects
Nazis take control in Germany. Fascists come to power in other countries. Democracies try social welfare programs. Japan expands in East Asia. World War II breaks out. Immediate Effects Millions become unemployed worldwide. Businesses go bankrupt. Governments take emergency measures to protect economies. Citizens lose faith in capitalism and democracy. Nations turn toward authoritarian leaders.

5 Fascists Come to Power in Italy Textbook: page 757
Italy in a deep financial depression after WWI Mussolini promised order and prosperity Introduced “fascism” Fascism: characterized by dictatorship, centralized control of private enterprise, repression of opposition, and extreme nationalism Used “Black Shirts” to impose his rule. Invades Ethiopia Makes a pact with Hitler

6 Compare Fascism and Communism – page 760
Similarities of Totalitarian Rule Fascism

7 Compare Fascism and Communism – page 760
Similarities of Totalitarian Rule Fascism antidemocratic hopes for international change enemies of fascism supported by urban and agricultural workers all businesses state owned

8 Compare Fascism and Communism – page 760
Similarities of Totalitarian Rule Fascism antidemocratic hopes for international change enemies of fascism supported by urban and agricultural workers all businesses state owned antidemocratic and nationalistic enemies of communists supported by business leaders, wealthy landowners and middle class all businesses individually owned but state controlled

9 Compare Fascism and Communism – page 760
Similarities of Totalitarian Rule Fascism antidemocratic hopes for international change enemies of fascism supported by urban and agricultural workers all businesses state owned single party dictatorship state control of the economy use of police spies and terror for control strict censorship and government monopoly of the media indoctrination of youth unquestioning obedience to a single leader antidemocratic and nationalistic enemies of communists supported by business leaders, wealthy landowners and middle class all businesses individually owned but state controlled

10 Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany – page 761
Weimar Republic politically weak and unpopular Huge inflation Two revolutions against Weimar Republic. Once Hitler tried to seize power unsuccessfully. Went to jail. Huge inflation and Great Depression Hitler forms Nazi Party, promises reform, is elected as Chancellor in 1933 Becomes dictator by 1934

11 Hitler’s Third Reich Totalitarian State – Nazis controlled all.
Huge public works programs Big business and labor under government control Built up military Set aside Versailles Treaty and moved military into the Rhineland Indoctrinated the youth Hitler despised Christianity and began to close churches Jews were persecuted as enemies of the state

12 Hitler’s Aggression to 1939 page 773

13 Events of World War II Pacific Europe 1936 1937 1938 March 1936
Hitler marches troops into the Rhineland 1937 April 1937 Germany attacks Guernica, Spain 1938 March 1938 Germany invades Austria September 1938 Germany invades the Sudetenland

14 Events of World War II Europe Pacific 1939 1940 1941 Aug. 1939
March Germany invades Czechoslovakia Aug. 1939 Nonaggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union Sept. 1939 Germany invades Poland; World War II begins 1940 May 1940 Evacuation of British forces at Dunkirk June 1940 France surrenders; the Battle of Britain begins 1941 December 1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor. US declares war on Japan.

15 Europe at WAR

16 The Alliance System in 1942 Allied Powers Axis Powers Great Britain
France Russia United States Axis Powers Germany Italy Japan Ottoman Empire

17 WWII Begins World War II began in Europe with the German blitzkrieg, or lightning war, against Poland in September of By June of 1940, Germany had conquered most of western Europe. In June of 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union. On December 7, 1941, Germany’s ally, Japan, launched a surprise attack on the United States—an act that drew America into the war. Eventually, the Allies turned the tide of the conflict against Germany and Japan. In the Pacific, Allied forces won a major victory in the Battle of Midway and began to recapture territory from the Japanese. In Europe, the Soviet Union captured the German army that besieged Stalingrad in February of The Allies opened a western front in Europe by landing in Normandy in June of 1944, and the combined pressure on two fronts drove Germany to surrender in May of Two atomic bombs dropped on Japan in August forced the Japanese to surrender in September of 1945.

18 The War in the Pacific Late 1930s – Japan attacks China for oil resources and territory 1940 – Japan conquers French Indochina and continues takeover of Pacific Islands. December, 1941 – Japan attacks Pearl Harbor. US enters the war.

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20 Pacific Europe 1941 1942 1943 Events of World War II Dec. 1941
Japanese attack Pearl Harbor; U.S. declares war on Japan 1941 June 1941 Germany invades the Soviet Union Apr. 1942 Allies surrender in Philippines; Bataan Death March begins 1942 Aug. 1942 Hitler orders attack on Stalingrad May 1942 Allies turn back Japanese fleet in Battle of the Coral Sea Nov. 1942 Allies land in North Africa June 1942 Allies defeat Japan in Battle of Midway 1943 Feb. 1943 Germans surrender at Stalingrad Feb. 1943 Japanese abandon the island of Guadalcanal

21 1944 1945 1946 Events of World War II Europe Pacific Oct. 1944
Allies defeat Japan in Battle of Leyte June 1944 Allies invade Europe on D-Day Mar. 1945 Allies capture Iwo Jima Dec. 1944 Battle of the Bulge begins 1945 June 1945 Allies capture Okinawa May 1945 Germany surrenders Aug. 1945 Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1946 Sep. 1945 Japan surrenders

22 Jewish Women and Children in Belsen Concentration Camp During the advance of the 2nd Army, the huge concentration camp at Belsen was relieved. Some 60,000 civilians, mostly suffering from typhus, typhoid, and dysentry were dying in their hundreds daily, despite the frantic efforts being made by medical services rushed to the camp. The camp was declared a neutral area before allies arrived, and the allied Military Government stood to reach the camp at the earliest possible moment, only to be faced by the most indescribable scenes--60,000 people starving and without water for over six days. The camp was littered with the dead and dying, and on closer investigation, it was discovered that the huts capable of housing about 30 people in many cases were holding as many as 500. It was impossible to estimate the number of dead among them. The others were too weak to remove the bodies, so they just had to remain.

23 The Final Solution

24 Hiroshima and Nagasaki


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