Presentation on theme: "World War II: The Rise of Dictators"— Presentation transcript:
1World War II: The Rise of Dictators World History B – Seminar #7Warm Up:Totalitarian state 2. Dictator3. Appeasement
2Totalitarian State: Government in which a one party dictatorship regulates every aspect of citizens’ lives.Dictator: Ruler who has complete control over a governmentAppeasement: Policy of giving in to an aggressor’s demands in order to keep the peace.
3After WWIIn the two decades following World War I, a wave of economic and political crises swept the globe. While many people spent the 1920s trying to cope with the uncertainties of the postwar world, by 1929 they suddenly faced a much greater problem.That year, the stock market in the United States crashed. Because so many war-torn nations had come to depend on financial help from America, the stock market’s collapse triggered a worldwide economic depression that left millions around the globe jobless and hungry. In response to the turmoil, some nations turned to fascist dictators, who promised order and stability. Not content to merely rule a country, however, these dictators soon looked to conquer other lands.
4The Great Depression Worldwide Economic Depression Long-Term Effects Nazis take control in Germany.Fascists come to power in other countries.Democracies try social welfare programs.Japan expands in East Asia.World War II breaks out.Immediate EffectsMillions become unemployed worldwide.Businesses go bankrupt.Governments take emergency measures to protect economies.Citizens lose faith in capitalism and democracy.Nations turn toward authoritarian leaders.
5Fascists Come to Power in Italy Textbook: page 757 Italy in a deep financial depression after WWIMussolini promised order and prosperityIntroduced “fascism”Fascism: characterized by dictatorship, centralized control of private enterprise, repression of opposition, and extreme nationalismUsed “Black Shirts” to impose his rule.Invades EthiopiaMakes a pact with Hitler
6Compare Fascism and Communism – page 760 Similarities of Totalitarian RuleFascism
7Compare Fascism and Communism – page 760 Similarities of Totalitarian RuleFascismantidemocratichopes for international changeenemies of fascismsupported by urban and agricultural workersall businesses state owned
8Compare Fascism and Communism – page 760 Similarities of Totalitarian RuleFascismantidemocratichopes for international changeenemies of fascismsupported by urban and agricultural workersall businesses state ownedantidemocratic and nationalisticenemies of communistssupported by business leaders, wealthy landowners and middle classall businesses individually owned but state controlled
9Compare Fascism and Communism – page 760 Similarities of Totalitarian RuleFascismantidemocratichopes for international changeenemies of fascismsupported by urban and agricultural workersall businesses state ownedsingle party dictatorshipstate control of the economyuse of police spies and terror for controlstrict censorship and government monopoly of the mediaindoctrination of youthunquestioning obedience to a single leaderantidemocratic and nationalisticenemies of communistssupported by business leaders, wealthy landowners and middle classall businesses individually owned but state controlled
10Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany – page 761 Weimar Republic politically weak and unpopularHuge inflationTwo revolutions against Weimar Republic. Once Hitler tried to seize power unsuccessfully. Went to jail.Huge inflation and Great DepressionHitler forms Nazi Party, promises reform, is elected as Chancellor in 1933Becomes dictator by 1934
11Hitler’s Third Reich Totalitarian State – Nazis controlled all. Huge public works programsBig business and labor under government controlBuilt up militarySet aside Versailles Treaty and moved military into the RhinelandIndoctrinated the youthHitler despised Christianity and began to close churchesJews were persecuted as enemies of the state
13Events of World War II Pacific Europe 1936 1937 1938 March 1936 Hitler marches troops into the Rhineland1937April 1937Germany attacks Guernica, Spain1938March 1938Germany invades AustriaSeptember 1938Germany invades the Sudetenland
14Events of World War II Europe Pacific 1939 1940 1941 Aug. 1939 March Germany invades CzechoslovakiaAug. 1939Nonaggression pact between Germany and the Soviet UnionSept. 1939Germany invades Poland; World War II begins1940May 1940Evacuation of British forces at DunkirkJune 1940France surrenders; the Battle of Britain begins1941December 1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor. US declares war on Japan.
16The Alliance System in 1942 Allied Powers Axis Powers Great Britain FranceRussiaUnited StatesAxis PowersGermanyItalyJapanOttoman Empire
17WWII BeginsWorld War II began in Europe with the German blitzkrieg, or lightning war, against Poland in September of By June of 1940, Germany had conquered most of western Europe. In June of 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union. On December 7, 1941, Germany’s ally, Japan, launched a surprise attack on the United States—an act that drew America into the war. Eventually, the Allies turned the tide of the conflict against Germany and Japan.In the Pacific, Allied forces won a major victory in the Battle of Midway and began to recapture territory from the Japanese. In Europe, the Soviet Union captured the German army that besieged Stalingrad in February of The Allies opened a western front in Europe by landing in Normandy in June of 1944, and the combined pressure on two fronts drove Germany to surrender in May of Two atomic bombs dropped on Japan in August forced the Japanese to surrender in September of 1945.
18The War in the PacificLate 1930s – Japan attacks China for oil resources and territory1940 – Japan conquers French Indochina and continues takeover of Pacific Islands.December, 1941 – Japan attacks Pearl Harbor.US enters the war.
20Pacific Europe 1941 1942 1943 Events of World War II Dec. 1941 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor; U.S. declares war on Japan1941June 1941Germany invades the Soviet UnionApr. 1942Allies surrender in Philippines; Bataan Death March begins1942Aug. 1942Hitler orders attack on StalingradMay 1942Allies turn back Japanese fleet in Battle of the Coral SeaNov. 1942Allies land in North AfricaJune 1942Allies defeat Japan in Battle of Midway1943Feb. 1943Germans surrender at StalingradFeb. 1943Japanese abandon the islandof Guadalcanal
211944 1945 1946 Events of World War II Europe Pacific Oct. 1944 Allies defeat Japan in Battle of LeyteJune 1944Allies invade Europe on D-DayMar. 1945Allies capture Iwo JimaDec. 1944Battle of the Bulge begins1945June 1945Allies capture OkinawaMay 1945Germany surrendersAug. 1945Atomic bombs dropped onHiroshima and Nagasaki1946Sep. 1945Japan surrenders
22Jewish Women and Children in Belsen Concentration Camp During the advance of the 2nd Army, the huge concentration camp at Belsen was relieved. Some 60,000 civilians, mostly suffering from typhus, typhoid, and dysentry were dying in their hundreds daily, despite the frantic efforts being made by medical services rushed to the camp. The camp was declared a neutral area before allies arrived, and the allied Military Government stood to reach the camp at the earliest possible moment, only to be faced by the most indescribable scenes--60,000 people starving and without water for over six days. The camp was littered with the dead and dying, and on closer investigation, it was discovered that the huts capable of housing about 30 people in many cases were holding as many as 500. It was impossible to estimate the number of dead among them. The others were too weak to remove the bodies, so they just had to remain.