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The Rise of Totalitarianism and the Path to WWII

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1 The Rise of Totalitarianism and the Path to WWII

2 Totalitarianism Single party dictatorship
Full state control of the economy Uses police and spies to enforce state policy Strict censorship of media Requires unquestioning obedience to a single leader or authority Regulates every aspect of its citizens’ lives

3 The Soviet Union

4 Josef Stalin 1878 – 1953 (life) 1922 – 1953 (reign) Communist
Ruthless Soviet leader who may have killed as many as 60 million of his own people as part of his campaign to install a totalitarian regime and industrialize the Russian economy

5 Italy

6 Fascism Extreme nationalism which glorifies militarism and the law and order brought by a strong dictator Teaches that the state is more important than the rights of the individual Anti-communist!

7 Benito Mussolini 1883 – 1945 (life) 1922 – 1943 (reign)
Fascist ruler of Italy from , Nicknamed “Il Duce” Used his “Blackshirts” to suppress political opposition to his party’s leadership and created the “Young Fascists” to indoctrinate children into the party’s militaristic beliefs

8 Japan

9 Japanese militarism Between WWI & WWII, Japan’s military gained increasing influence over the government, especially after the Manchurian Incident Japanese politicians who objected to imperial militarism started to have “accidents” leading to fear to voice opposition 9

10 Emperor Hirohito 1901 – 1989 (life) 1926 – 1989 (reign)
Emperor of Japan Declared that his reign would be dedicated to Showa (enlightened peace) Historians remain divided on how large a role Hirohito had in the day-to-day running of Japan in the years before WWII 10

11 The Manchurian Incident
The Chinese province of Manchuria had abundant natural resources which Japan needed to fuel its imperial ambitions In 1931, the Japanese military faked an attack by Chinese troops on its forces in Korea to create an excuse for invading Manchuria and seizing these resources

12 The Rape of Nanjing December 1937
Angered by Chinese resistance, Japanese forces were given free rein over the captured city of Nanjing Japanese soldiers raped, tortured, and killed over 200,000 civilians in one of the worst war crimes in modern history 12

13 Hideki Tojo 1884 – 1948 (life) Prime Minister of Japan from 1941 – 1944 Army General who was appointed head of Japan’s militarist government by Hirohito and given the responsibility of carrying out Japan’s war effort Ordered the attack on Pearl Harbor and approved of the mistreatment of prisoners of war in the Philippines & Burma

14 Germany

15 The Weimar Republic After WWI, the new German government was burdened with trying to pay off the war reparations required by the Treaty of Versailles The US attempted to help by extending Germany loans through the Dawes Plan, but after the Great Depression struck in 1929 the German economy collapsed once again These economic problems, coupled with German anger over the other unfair conditions of the Treaty (loss of territory, forced demilitarization) created an opportunity for extremists to seize power

16 Adolf Hitler 1889 – 1945 (life) 1933 – 1945 (reign)
Austrian immigrant to Germany Head of the National Socialist German Workers (NAZI) Party Had spent time in prison for treason after attempting to seize power in 1923, but was elected to the office of Chancellor of Germany in democratic elections in 1933

17 The Third Reich Hitler quickly moved to eliminate all political opposition, cementing the Nazi Party in power and establishing himself as “Fuhrer” (leader) of the new German empire (or Third Reich) he intended to build across Europe 17

18 The Nuremberg Laws 29 laws signed into law in 1935 by Hitler
Legally defined Jews as a separate “race” Prohibited marriage or sexual relations between Jews and Germans Denied Jews German citizenship rights Jews could not serve in government, certain other professions such as medicine or teaching 18

19 The Night of Broken Glass or Kristallnacht
Retaliation for the murder of a German embassy official by a Jewish gunman “Kristallnacht”: Hitler allowed mob attacks against Jewish neighborhoods to go unpunished November 9 & 91 Jews killed, arrested 200 synagogues destroyed 19

20 Hitler Violates the Treaty of Versailles
Began to rebuild the German military, both by increasing its size and by developing new weaponry Moved troops back into the demilitarized zone along the Rhine River France & Britain, while disturbed by Hitler’s moves, took no action

21 The Axis Powers September 1940
Created with the signing of the Tripartite Pact, formally joining Italy, Germany, and Japan in a military alliance Each power expected to control its own sphere of interest – Germany would dominate Northern and Europe and Russia, Italy would dominate the Mediterranean and Africa, while Japan would have sway in East Asia and the Pacific 21

22 German Expansionism In March of 1938, Hitler annexed his homeland of Austria into Germany, thereby uniting most Germanic peoples of Europe His next goal was to add German speaking areas in Poland and Czechoslovakia

23 The Munich Conference When Hitler demanded that Czechoslovakia return territory (the Sudetenland) that it had been given as part of the Treaty of Versailles, the Czechs called on Britain and France for protection Britain arranged for a conference with Germany in fall of 1938 (Czechoslovakia was not invited to attend) to reach a peaceful resolution to the Sudetenland crisis

24 Peace for Our Time Britain and France agreed to allow Hitler to take the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia; Hitler, in turn, promised that he would engage in no further territorial aggression in Europe British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain returned home declaring to the British public that “I believe it is peace for our time” (it wasn’t!) 24

25 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
August 1939 Germany and the Soviet Union signed a non-aggression (agreement not to fight – NOT an alliance) This was shocking to the rest of the world because of Hitler and Stalin’s mutual dislike and distrust of one another This removed the Soviet Union as a potential ally for Britain and France if a war with Germany broke out

26 American Isolationism
Following WWI, Americans began to overwhelmingly support isolationism, or avoiding involvement in international disputes by limiting non-trade contact with foreign states

27 The Kellogg-Briand Pact
1928 International agreement that essentially banned war Signed by nearly every free nation in the world Nations agreed to limit the size of their navies & other offensive arms There was, however, no way to enforce the pact, so it wasn’t effective 27

28 Europe Refuses to Pay In 1934, all European nations in Europe (except Finland) who had war debts to the US announced that they were broke (due to the Great Depression) and would not repay what they owed

29 The Nye Committee Congressional committee created in 1934 to investigate the role that arms manufacturers had in involving US in WWI The committee’s report implied that certain businesses had profited from the war, leading many American’s to believe that they had been tricked into getting involved in WWI

30 Neutrality Acts 1935 Act: Made it illegal for the US to sell weapons to any nation at war 1937 Act: “Cash and Carry” – any non-military supplies sold to nations at war had to be paid for in cash and carried away on their ships 1939 Act: After WWII started, policy was amended to allow arms sales to Britain, but still under “cash & carry” terms

31 Roosevelt’s Internationalism
FDR wasn’t an isolationist Supported the idea that trade between nations increases prosperity for all and decreases the chances of war Not supported by the American public FDR had to be careful not to push the idea too far due to the popularity of isolationism

32 The Quarantine Speech October 1937
FDR called for a “quarantine” (political and economic sanctions) against any “aggressor” nations who disregard international law or attack their neighbors unprovoked Angered many American isolationists because it involved the US in the foreign affairs of others

33 US and European Jews 1933 – 39: 350,000 Jews left Germany, most sought to flee Europe altogether Many applied for visas to emigrate to the US, but were denied due to US immigration quota laws and rising nativism in US

34 Destroyers for Bases Deal
Spring 1940: FDR agreed to trade 50 surplus US Navy destroyers to Britain (who needed them to protect shipping) in exchange for allowing the US to build naval bases in British-controlled territories

35 Isolationism Debate Fight for Freedom Committee: some people wanted the US to take an active role in the war Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies: some wanted the US to increase aid to the Allies but not get involved in the fighting America First Committee: some opposed ANY involvement in the war

36 FDR’s “Four Freedoms” Speech
January 1941 Roosevelt argued that the US & Britain were natural allies because they both stood for: Freedom of speech Freedom of worship Freedom from want Freedom from fear

37 Lend-Lease Act March 1941 US declared that it would lend or lease (since it couldn’t sell due to the Neutrality Acts) weapons to nations considered “vital to the defense of the US” US went on to send $40 billion in weapons to Allies over the course of WWII

38 Hemispheric Defense Zone
To help protect British shipping, FDR declared the entire Western Atlantic to be part of the Western Hemisphere and thereby under the protection of the US per the Monroe Doctrine FDR then ordered the US Navy to patrol this part of the Atlantic, leading to several deadly encounters between US destroyers and German U-boats

39 The Atlantic Charter August 1941
FDR met with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to lay out a post-war plan for economic prosperity Many question whether or not this is where FDR promised Churchill that he would find a way to get the American people to support the US entering the war

40 US Embargo of Japan US cut off Japan’s access to critical war materials such as steel and oil (both of which Japan bought almost entirely from America) to put pressure on Japan to make peace with China and Britain Japan considered this an act of war and began to plan an attack on US military facilities in Hawaii and the Philippines

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