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Origins of World War II. World War One 1914-1918 Germany, Austria Hungary, Turkey Germany, Austria Hungary, Turkey vs vs Britain, USA, Russia, France.

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Presentation on theme: "Origins of World War II. World War One 1914-1918 Germany, Austria Hungary, Turkey Germany, Austria Hungary, Turkey vs vs Britain, USA, Russia, France."— Presentation transcript:

1 Origins of World War II

2 World War One Germany, Austria Hungary, Turkey Germany, Austria Hungary, Turkey vs vs Britain, USA, Russia, France Britain, USA, Russia, France Germany suffered: Germany suffered: - Casualties - Casualties - Starvation - Starvation - Rebellion - Rebellion - Had to surrender - Had to surrender

3 The Big Three Wilson (USA) Wilson (USA) Clemenceau (France) Clemenceau (France) Lloyd George (Britain) Lloyd George (Britain) 14 Points Revenge / Weaken Germany Make Germany pay

4 Treaty of Versailles (Terms) Germany has: Germany has: -No submarines -No submarines -No air force -No air force -Loses 13% of territory in total -Loses 13% of territory in total -Polish corridor lost -Polish corridor lost -Alsace & Lorraine lost -Alsace & Lorraine lost -Rhineland Demilitarised -Rhineland Demilitarised -Colonies Lost -Colonies Lost -War guilt clause -War guilt clause

5 Views of Versailles Germans: Germans:-Murderous-Enslavement -End as a great power -Resented corridor -Secret-Bankrupting Others: -Germans had heavily punished Russians -Still had many resources -Was mostly to blame

6 Other Treaties St Germain St Germain -Austria carved into 4 states Sevres -Turkey

7 League of Nations Wilsons idea Wilsons idea Sought lasting peace Sought lasting peace Collective security Collective security Maintains peace through: Maintains peace through:-Negotiation-Arbitration-Sanctions-Force Mandates Mandates Outside the League -Russia (civil war) -USA (isolationism) -Germany (punishment) + France saw L of N for holding Germany down

8 The 1920s Germans see L of N as Versailles enforcer Germans see L of N as Versailles enforcer French alliances French alliances -Still worried about Germany -Allied with Belgium + Poland, Czeckoslovakia, Yugoslavia 1923 Ruhr occupied by France -Germany fallen behind on reparations -Opposition from workers on strike -Germany engineered hyper inflation 1924 Dawes plan -Reparations modified -More time to pay

9 More 1920s Money go round Money go round 1925 Locarno Pact: 1925 Locarno Pact: -France, UK, Belgium, Germany -Germany accepts Western borders as final -Eases tension 1926 Germany joins L of N 1926 Germany joins L of N 1928 Kellog Briand Pact -Symbolised growing sense of security -France and USA -Renounce War -Fight only in defence -65 countries join 1929 Young Plan -German reparations reduced

10 An era of hope? Yes Yes -International Agreements -Prosperous times -Anti war feeling high No -Old fears remained -Germany not accept Eastern borders or war guilt -UK not interested in Europe -Germany borrowed more than paid -Mussolini and Fascism in Italy -Hitler + Nazis continued to survive

11 Wall Street Crash 1929 Wall Street Crash 1931 Japan occupies Manchuria 1931 Japan occupies Manchuria 1933 Japan leaves League 1933 Japan leaves League 1934 Anschluss tried 1934 Anschluss tried -Leads to depression -Lytton Commission -League fails -Mussolini mobilises in support of Austria

12 USSR joins league 1934 USSR joins league -Afraid of Germany 1935 Italy invades Abyssinia 1935 Italy invades Abyssinia (last remaining independent state) -Wants Mediterranean as Italian lake -Hoare Laval Pact -Seeks compromise -UK not close Suez canal -Sanctions fail 1936 Italy leaves L of N

13 1936 Germany remilitarises Germany remilitarises Rhineland Rhineland -UK & France do nothing -Cements Hitlers power -Army leaders had doubts -Victory none the less Civil War in Spain -Republicans vs Fascists -Franco -Germany + Italy support fascists -Test bed for German military -Bombing of Guernica -Franco Wins -L of N Fails

14 1936 Rome Berlin Axis 1936 Rome Berlin Axis -Japan attacks China -Rape of Nanking 1937 Rome Berlin Tokyo 1937 Rome Berlin Tokyo 1938 Anschluss 1938 Anschluss -Germany occupies and absorbs Austria -Hitlers homeland 1930s policy of appeasement -France & UK -Based on giving way to Hitlers demands -Depression of more concern -Rearmament costly -Next war could be even more destructive -Central Europe far away -Defensive Maginot Line thinking

15 1938 Munich Crisis Hitler demands Sudetenland from Czeckoslovakia Hitler demands Sudetenland from Czeckoslovakia Chamberlain flies to Germany (Munich) Chamberlain flies to Germany (Munich) Germany, Italy, France, UK do not consult Czecks Germany, Italy, France, UK do not consult Czecks Appeasement in action Appeasement in action Versailles broken, L of N fails Versailles broken, L of N fails

16 1939 Slide to War Rest of Czeckoslovakia divided by Germany, Poland, Hungary Rest of Czeckoslovakia divided by Germany, Poland, Hungary Pact of Steel, Germany + Italy Pact of Steel, Germany + Italy Anti-Communism pact signed by Japan, Germany, Italy Anti-Communism pact signed by Japan, Germany, Italy France + UK guarantee Polish security France + UK guarantee Polish security Soviet-German non- aggression pact Soviet-German non- aggression pact Molotov & Ribbentrop Molotov & Ribbentrop Secret agreement to divide Poland Secret agreement to divide Poland War inevitable War inevitable

17 1939 War Begins September 1 German Blitzkrieg in Poland September 1 German Blitzkrieg in Poland Russia joins in to divide Poland Russia joins in to divide Poland War in Atlantic War in Atlantic U Boats aiming to cut UK supplies U Boats aiming to cut UK supplies Phoney War in France Phoney War in France

18 1940 Attacks in the West Norway Norway Low Countries Low Countries France France Panzer Blitz Panzer Blitz British + French unco- ordinated British + French unco- ordinated UK retreat for evac at Dunkirk UK retreat for evac at Dunkirk Mussolini enters war Mussolini enters war Britain alone Britain alone USA neutral USA neutral Lend Lease Lend Lease

19 Ongoing War in 1940s Battle of Britain Battle of Britain Germany sought air superiority for invasion Germany sought air superiority for invasion Narrow German defeat Narrow German defeat Radar vital Radar vital German tactics inconsistent German tactics inconsistent

20 Germany on Top Italians defeated by British in North Africa Italians defeated by British in North Africa Germans invade Balkans to support Italy Germans invade Balkans to support Italy NZ + allies defeated in Greece + Crete NZ + allies defeated in Greece + Crete Rommel victories in desert Rommel victories in desert Bombing Blitz on UK Bombing Blitz on UK Battle of Atlantic being lost Battle of Atlantic being lost Vital for raw materials for UK Vital for raw materials for UK

21 1941 Fatal Year for Axis Hitler determined to invade USSR Hitler determined to invade USSR -Thinks war in West is won -Slavs inferior -Wants living space Hitlers fatal miscalculation -Broke principle of avoiding war on two fronts -Russia vast and a harsh environment -Russia bigger population

22 1941 Japan Seeks an Empire Co-prosperity sphere Co-prosperity sphere Wanted resources Wanted resources Oil vital Oil vital Living space Living space Been in negotiations with USA Been in negotiations with USA Suspicions and rivalry between the two had escalated Suspicions and rivalry between the two had escalated Japan decided on a knock-out blow Japan decided on a knock-out blow Tactical success Tactical success Strategic blunder Strategic blunder

23 Japans Fatal Miscalculation USA much larger + industrial USA much larger + industrial Determined on revenge Determined on revenge Hitler hoped Japan would declare war on Russia so he declared war on USA Hitler hoped Japan would declare war on Russia so he declared war on USA A world war is the result A world war is the result


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