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Origins of World War II.

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Presentation on theme: "Origins of World War II."— Presentation transcript:

1 Origins of World War II

2 World War One 1914-1918 Germany, Austria Hungary, Turkey vs
Britain, USA, Russia, France Germany suffered: - Casualties - Starvation - Rebellion - Had to surrender

3 The Big Three Wilson (USA) Clemenceau (France) Lloyd George (Britain)
14 Points Revenge / Weaken Germany Make Germany pay

4 Treaty of Versailles (Terms)
Germany has: -No submarines -No air force -Loses 13% of territory in total -Polish corridor lost -Alsace & Lorraine lost -Rhineland Demilitarised -Colonies Lost -War guilt clause

5 Views of Versailles Germans: -Murderous -Enslavement
-End as a great power -Resented corridor -Secret -Bankrupting Others: -Germans had heavily punished Russians -Still had many resources -Was mostly to blame

6 Other Treaties St Germain -Austria carved into 4 states Sevres -Turkey

7 League of Nations Wilson’s idea Sought lasting peace
Collective security Maintains peace through: -Negotiation -Arbitration -Sanctions -Force Mandates Outside the League -Russia (civil war) -USA (isolationism) -Germany (punishment) + France saw L of N for holding Germany down

8 The 1920s Germans see L of N as Versailles enforcer French alliances
-Still worried about Germany -Allied with Belgium + Poland, Czeckoslovakia, Yugoslavia 1923 Ruhr occupied by France -Germany fallen behind on reparations -Opposition from workers on strike -Germany engineered hyper inflation 1924 Dawes plan -Reparations modified -More time to pay

9 More 1920s Money go round 1925 Locarno Pact:
-France, UK, Belgium, Germany -Germany accepts Western borders as final -Eases tension 1926 Germany joins L of N 1928 Kellog Briand Pact -Symbolised growing sense of security -France and USA -Renounce War -Fight only in defence -65 countries join 1929 Young Plan -German reparations reduced

10 1924-29 An era of hope? No Yes -Old fears remained
-Germany not accept Eastern borders or war guilt -UK not interested in Europe -Germany borrowed more than paid -Mussolini and Fascism in Italy -Hitler + Nazis continued to survive Yes -International Agreements -Prosperous times -Anti war feeling high

11 1929-1934 -Leads to depression 1929 Wall Street Crash
-Lytton Commission -League fails -Mussolini mobilises in support of Austria 1929 Wall Street Crash 1931 Japan occupies Manchuria 1933 Japan leaves League 1934 Anschluss tried

12 1934-1936 1934 USSR joins league -Afraid of Germany
1935 Italy invades Abyssinia (last remaining independent state) -Wants Mediterranean as Italian lake -Hoare Laval Pact -Seeks compromise -UK not close Suez canal -Sanctions fail 1936 Italy leaves L of N

13 1936 Germany remilitarises Rhineland -UK & France do nothing
-Cements Hitler’s power -Army leaders had doubts -Victory none the less Civil War in Spain -Republicans vs Fascists -Franco -Germany + Italy support fascists -Test bed for German military -Bombing of Guernica -Franco Wins -L of N Fails

14 1936 Rome Berlin Axis -Japan attacks China -Rape of Nanking 1937 Rome Berlin Tokyo 1938 Anschluss -Germany occupies and absorbs Austria -Hitler’s homeland 1930s policy of appeasement -France & UK -Based on giving way to Hitler’s demands -Depression of more concern -Rearmament costly -Next war could be even more destructive -Central Europe far away -Defensive Maginot Line thinking

15 1938 Munich Crisis Hitler demands Sudetenland from Czeckoslovakia
Chamberlain flies to Germany (Munich) Germany, Italy, France, UK do not consult Czecks Appeasement in action Versailles broken, L of N fails

16 1939 Slide to War Rest of Czeckoslovakia divided by Germany, Poland, Hungary Pact of Steel, Germany + Italy Anti-Communism pact signed by Japan, Germany, Italy France + UK guarantee Polish security Soviet-German non-aggression pact Molotov & Ribbentrop Secret agreement to divide Poland War inevitable

17 1939 War Begins September 1 German Blitzkrieg in Poland
Russia joins in to divide Poland War in Atlantic U Boats aiming to cut UK supplies Phoney War in France

18 1940 Attacks in the West Norway Low Countries France Panzer Blitz
British + French unco-ordinated UK retreat for evac at Dunkirk Mussolini enters war Britain alone USA neutral Lend Lease

19 Ongoing War in 1940s Battle of Britain
Germany sought air superiority for invasion Narrow German defeat Radar vital German tactics inconsistent

20 1940-41 Germany on Top Italians defeated by British in North Africa
Germans invade Balkans to support Italy NZ + allies defeated in Greece + Crete Rommel victories in desert Bombing Blitz on UK Battle of Atlantic being lost Vital for raw materials for UK

21 1941 Fatal Year for Axis Hitler determined to invade USSR
-Thinks war in West is won -Slavs inferior -Wants living space Hitler’s fatal miscalculation -Broke principle of avoiding war on two fronts -Russia vast and a harsh environment -Russia bigger population

22 1941 Japan Seeks an Empire Co-prosperity sphere Wanted resources
Oil vital Living space Been in negotiations with USA Suspicions and rivalry between the two had escalated Japan decided on a knock-out blow Tactical success Strategic blunder

23 Japan’s Fatal Miscalculation
USA much larger + industrial Determined on revenge Hitler hoped Japan would declare war on Russia so he declared war on USA A world war is the result

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