18Joseph StalinGeneral Secretary of the Central Committee of the Soviet Union
19Reason the War StartedGermany wants the Sudetenland (rich in resources) to fuel his war machine.Sudetenland located in Austria/Hungary/CzechoslovakiaAnschluss unification of Austria and GermanyGreat Britain and France appease Nazi Party to prevent warCzechoslovakia upset democracyGermany demand the Danzig port back to Germany (strong ties with Germany)Nazi sign Non-aggression Act with Russia
20World War II (Length)Sept 1st, Officially starts when Germany invades PolandDecember 8th, US declares War on Japan (day after Pearl Harbor)2300 servicemen,18 ships and 150 planes lostCongress voted; Senate 82-0 and House to declare war on JapanJune 6th, 1944 – D-DayFebruary of Germany surrenders at Yalta inAugust 6th, First A-bomb dropped (Hiroshima - killed 80,00 Japan says 200,00? –90% of city)August 9th, Second A-bomb dropped (Nagasaki – killed 45,000)September 2nd, 1945 Japan surrenders (War over)
21War and Battles Key Dates Germany invades Soviet Union German troops invade Balkan countriesPearl HarborBattle of AlameinBattle of StahlingradBataan Death MarchBattle of AtlanticD-Day Invasion (Normandy)Battle of the BulgeBattle of the Coral SeaBattle of MidwayGuadalcanalBattle of Leyte GulfBattle of Iwo JimaBattle of OkinawaManhattan Project
22Leningrad Now called St. Petersburg Germany surrounds Leningrad and 600,000 civilians starve and die,000 Soviets a day starve
23Balkan Invasion German drive British forces from Greece take control of Caspian Sea (oil)Suez Canal trade.Germany forces British and other soldiers to work in labor camps
25Battle of AlameinItaly and Germany have control of Northern Africa and are headed towards Cairo/Suez CanalUS decides to start here because the Axis forces are less powerful and stop German forces from Tunisia to Libya.The Battle of Alamein forces Germany out Northern Africa
26Battle of Stalingrad Some of the fiercest fighting of war Germany halted at Stalingrad in 1943 after 3 months of fighting300,000 Germans and 500,000 Soviets dead
27Remember Stalingrad"We think of the great battle on the Volga without hatred or malice.However, we consider Stalingrad to be a lesson from the past which, unfortunately, must be remembered. Should that war be recalled? Some think not, but I don't agree. That war must be recalled until the time when mankind will say: "we don't want war and will do everything possible to prevent it so that never again will there be war on this earth". There will be a day when we shall stop recalling the war and say: it was the last - not because we should like to believe it is so, but because we shall know it is so. Text by the Soviet writer Konstantin Simonov.
28Bataan Death MarchGeneral Douglas MacArthur put in charge of the Philippines, but could do little to stop JapanJapan takes American base at the Philippines by seizing the Capital at ManillaJapan target British Naval base at SingaporeJapan takes British, American and Filipino prisoners and were put on a Death March of over 65 miles were they are clubbed, shot and starved.Around 7,000-10,000 Filipino’s were killedMacArthur ordered to flee to Australia, stated “I shall return!”
29Bataan Peninsula The Bataan Penninsula is Located 28 miles west of Minila
30Bombing of TokyoWhile MacArthur was leaving the Philippines, Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle was put in command of the mission that bombed Japan on April 18.In early 1942, B-25 bombers replaced the aircraft carriers’ short-range bombers because they could attack from farther away. Tokyo was the key target.
31Battle at Coral SeaAmerican Navy despite being half the size of Japans stop Japan’s movement towards AustraliaBattle fought by WarplanesBeginning of Japanese decline
32Island HoppingThe next phase of this War was no to be directed to our primary target…JAPAN.The strategy that led to the eventual downfall of Japan became known as Island Hopping which was the skipping from nearby island to the next nearby island until our hops ended up close to Japan
34Battle of MidwayJapan send 100 ships to Midway to take the Base to continue towards HawaiiUS intercepted and decoded message to help.War fought mostly by planes, shot down 38 Zero’sUS sank 4 Japanese Warships in a period of minutes to send Japan retreating.Turning point of war with Japan
35Guadalcanal City in Solomon Islands controlled by Japan First US offensive.Marine stormed the shores to root out Japan.Many causalities but finally succeeded
41Battle of the AtlanticAt first US could do little to stop Japan in the Pacific.Admiral Charles Nimitz used convoys to prevent Japan from sinking our “Liberty Ships”US forces takes control of the Atlantic for the 1st time.German U-boats lose their effectiveness at sea.
42Battle of the Bulge (cont.) Germany last ditch effort to take back France and regain some powerGermany made some ground but not enoughThis is were the phrase “Bend but not Break” was usedLed to the surrender of the Nazi party and Adolph HitlerVE Day – Victory in Europe.
43D-Day Invasion Normandy (North Shore of France) Code Name “Operation Overlord”Largest single invasion in military historyElaborate plan that included Mulberry HarborBritish and US main designers of the planTotal estimated dead:2500 Allies4,000 to 9,000 Axis(mostly Germans)Higgins Boats
54Manhattan ProjectA project created by FDR as a result of Einstein’s letter in which a team of 12 scientist were placed in a military base for the single purpose of creating and atomic weapon. The result was empowering. The project was led by Physicist…Henry Oppenheimer!
55Albert EinsteinEinstein who is most famous for the creation of the Theory of Relativity and the world most famous equation (E=MC2), came to visit the US in 1933 never went back to Germany. The event was?
56The LetterEinstein wrote a letter to US President FDR, warning him of Liza Minters discovery of splitting the atom. Einstein was adamant that the US must beat Hitler on the creation of an atomic weapons or the world is doomed. The letter led to:
573 Bombs Initial Bomb created and TESTED. “Little Boy” 1st to be dropped.“Fat Man” 2nd to be dropped.Initial plan was to test oneDisplay one (detonate to show Japan)Keep one(Japan believed it was a trick, would have nothing to do with it!)
58HiroshimaA city of military and industrial significance in Japan7th Largest city in JapanFirst A-bomb was droppedBomb dropped August 6 by Paul TibbetsName of the airplane was the “Anola Gay” Tibbets motherInstantly killed 80,00 people, Japan claimed 200,00NagasakiNagasaki was picked as a result of Military and Industrial importance alsoIt was the largest port in south JapanInstantly killed 45,000 people
65EffectsOn July 26th, 1945, China, UK and the US called for a Japanese surrender at the Potsdam Declaration. Japan ignored the ultimatum.10 days later Truman gave the order.Within the first 4 months of the drop, 90 to 166,000 est. dead at Hiroshima and 60 to 80,000 dead at Nagasaki.It is believed that 60% of the deaths died instantly from flash, flame or falling debris.6 day later Japan surrendered60 to 70 million died 40 to 50 million civiliansDivide by 4
66On Sunday, December 7th, 1941 the Japanese launched a surprise attack against the U.S. Forces stationed at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. By planning his attack on a Sunday, the Japanese commander Admiral Nagumo, hoped to catch the entire fleet in port. As luck would have it, the Aircraft Carriers and one of the Battleships were not in port. (The USS Enterprise was returning from Wake Island, where it had just delivered some aircraft. The USS Lexington was ferrying aircraft to Midway, and the USS Saratoga and USS Colorado were undergoing repairs in the United States.)In spite of the latest intelligence reports about the missing aircraft carriers (his most important targets), Admiral Nagumo decided to continue the attack with his force of six carriers and 423 aircraft. At a range of 230 miles north of Oahu, he launched the first wave of a two-wave attack. Beginning at 0600 hours his first wave consisted of 183 fighters and torpedo bombers which struck at the fleet in Pearl Harbor and the airfields in Hickam, Kaneohe and Ewa. The second strike, launched at 0715 hours, consisted of 167 aircraft, which again struck at the same targets.At 0753 hours the first wave consisting of 40 Nakajima B5N2 "Kate" torpedo bombers, 51 Aichi D3A1 "Val" dive bombers, 50 high altitude bombers and 43 Zeros struck airfields and Pearl Harbor Within the next hour, the second wave arrived and continued the attack.
67Pearl Harbor Casualties USArmy : 218 KIA, 364 WIA.USNavy: 2,008 KIA, 710 WIA.USMarineCorp: 109 KIA, 69 WIA.Civilians: 68 KIA, 35 WIA.TOTAL: 2,403 KIA, 1,178 WIA.BattleshipsUSS Arizona (BB-39) - total loss when a bomb hit magazine.USS Oklahoma (BB-37) - Total loss when she capsized and sunk in the harbor.USS California (BB-44) - Sunk at her berth. Later raised and repaired.USS West Virginia (BB-48) - Sunk at her berth. Later raised and repaired.USS Nevada - (BB-36) Beached to prevent sinking. Later repaired.USS Pennsylvania (BB-38) - Light damage.USS Maryland (BB-46) - Light damage.USS Tennessee (BB-43) Light damage.DestroyersUSS Downes (DD-375) - Destroyed. Parts salvaged.USS Cassin - (DD-37 2) Destroyed. Parts salvaged.USS Shaw (DD-373) - Very heavy damage.USS Helm (DD-388) - Light Damage.CruisersUSS New Orleans (CA-32) - Light Damage..USS San Francisco (CA38) - Light Damage.USS Detroit (CL-8) - Light Damage.USS Raleigh (CL-7) - Damaged but repaired.USS Helena (CL-50) - Light Damage.USS Honolulu (CL-48) - Light Damage..MinelayerUSS Ogala (CM-4) – Sunk, later raised and repaired.Seaplane TenderUSS Curtiss (AV-4) - Severely damaged but later repaired.Repair ShipUSS Vestal (AR-4) - Sever ely damaged but later repaired.Harbor TugUSS Sotoyomo (YT-9) - Sunk but later raised and repaired.Aircraft188 Aircraft destroyed (92 USN and 92 U.S. Army Air Corps.)
68Pearl Harbor PhotosPhotos found in an old Brownie stored in a foot locker from a sailor who, was on the USS QUAPAW ATF-11O.
85WW II Fatalities Country Military Civilian Total Soviet Union* CountryMilitaryCivilianTotalSoviet Union*8,668,00016,900,00025,568,000China1,324,00010,000,00011,324,000Germany3,250,0003,810,0007,060,000Poland850,0006,000,0006,850,000Japan1,506,000300,0001,806,000Yugoslavia1,400,0001,700,000Rumania*520,000465,000985,000France*340,000470,000810,000Hungary*750,000Austria380,000145,000525,000Greece*Italy330,00080,000410,000Czechoslovakia400,000Great Britain326,00062,000388,000USA295,000Holland14,000236,000250,000Belgium10,00075,00085,000Finland79,000Canada42,000India36,000***Australia39,000Spain**12,00022,000Bulgaria19,0002,00021,000New ZealandSouth Africa9,000Norway5,000Denmark4,000
87Pearl Harbor December 7th, 1941 2300 soldiers, 150 planes and 18 ships lostCongress voted 82-0 (Senate) and (House) to declare war on Japan.FDR “This day will live in infamy”Tojo “I feel we have woke a sleeping giant!”
88StrategyPearl Harbor had two characteristics that made it susceptible to attack.The harbor was shallow and a bottleneck.(2) Oahu is shaped like a bowl (high on the edges and low in the middle)