The Main Allied Powers United States United Kingdom Soviet Union France
The main Axis Powers were? Germany Italy Japan Nazi Germany Fascist Italy Japan
Hitler (right) Mussolini (left) Mussolini
Forced Konoye to resign Became Japans Prime Minister Approved the attack on Pearl Harbor Hideki Tojo
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Winston Churchill Prime Minister Of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom Map
Charles De Gaulle Frances President
Joseph Stalin General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Soviet Union
Reason the War Started Germany wants the Sudetenland (rich in resources) to fuel his war machine. Sudetenland located in Austria/Hungary/Czechoslovakia Anschluss unification of Austria and Germany Great Britain and France appease Nazi Party to prevent war Czechoslovakia upset democracy Germany demand the Danzig port back to Germany (strong ties with Germany) Nazi sign Non-aggression Act with Russia
World War II (Length)World War II Sept 1st, Officially starts when Germany invades Poland December 8th, US declares War on Japan (day after Pearl Harbor) –2300 servicemen,18 ships and 150 planes lost –Congress voted; Senate 82-0 and House to declare war on Japan June 6th, 1944 – D-Day February of Germany surrenders at Yalta in August 6th, First A-bomb dropped (Hiroshima - killed 80,00 Japan says 200,00? –90% of city) August 9th, Second A-bomb dropped (Nagasaki – killed 45,000) September 2nd, 1945 Japan surrenders (War over)
War and Battles Key Dates Germany invades Soviet Union German troops invade Balkan countries Pearl Harbor Battle of Alamein Battle of Stahlingrad Bataan Death March Battle of Atlantic D-Day Invasion (Normandy) Battle of the Bulge Battle of the Coral Sea Battle of Midway Guadalcanal Battle of Leyte Gulf Battle of Iwo Jima Battle of Okinawa Manhattan Project
Now called St. Petersburg Germany surrounds Leningrad and 600,000 civilians starve and die ,000 Soviets a day starve Leningrad
German drive British forces from Greece take control of Caspian Sea (oil) Suez Canal trade. Germany forces British and other soldiers to work in labor camps Balkan Invasion
Suez Canal Caspian Sea
Italy and Germany have control of Northern Africa and are headed towards Cairo/Suez Canal US decides to start here because the Axis forces are less powerful and stop German forces from Tunisia to Libya. The Battle of Alamein forces Germany out Northern Africa Battle of Alamein
Battle of Stalingrad Some of the fiercest fighting of war Germany halted at Stalingrad in 1943 after 3 months of fighting 300,000 Germans and 500,000 Soviets dead
Remember Stalingrad "We think of the great battle on the Volga without hatred or malice. However, we consider Stalingrad to be a lesson from the past which, unfortunately, must be remembered. Should that war be recalled? Some think not, but I don't agree. That war must be recalled until the time when mankind will say: "we don't want war and will do everything possible to prevent it so that never again will there be war on this earth". There will be a day when we shall stop recalling the war and say: it was the last - not because we should like to believe it is so, but because we shall know it is so. Text by the Soviet writer Konstantin Simonov.
Bataan Death March General Douglas MacArthur put in charge of the Philippines, but could do little to stop Japan Japan takes American base at the Philippines by seizing the Capital at Manilla Japan target British Naval base at Singapore Japan takes British, American and Filipino prisoners and were put on a Death March of over 65 miles were they are clubbed, shot and starved. Around 7,000-10,000 Filipinos were killed MacArthur ordered to flee to Australia, stated I shall return!
Bataan Peninsula The Bataan Penninsula is Located 28 miles west of Minila
Bombing of Tokyo While MacArthur was leaving the Philippines, Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle was put in command of the mission that bombed Japan on April 18. In early 1942, B-25 bombers replaced the aircraft carriers short-range bombers because they could attack from farther away. Tokyo was the key target.
Battle at Coral Sea American Navy despite being half the size of Japans stop Japans movement towards Australia Battle fought by Warplanes Beginning of Japanese decline
Island Hopping The next phase of this War was no to be directed to our primary target…JAPAN. The strategy that led to the eventual downfall of Japan became known as Island Hopping which was the skipping from nearby island to the next nearby island until our hops ended up close to Japan
Battle of Midway Japan send 100 ships to Midway to take the Base to continue towards Hawaii US intercepted and decoded message to help. War fought mostly by planes, shot down 38 Zeros US sank 4 Japanese Warships in a period of minutes to send Japan retreating. Turning point of war with Japan
Guadalcanal City in Solomon Islands controlled by Japan First US offensive. Marine stormed the shores to root out Japan. Many causalities but finally succeeded
Europe an N. Africa
Midway in Oceania Midway in Oceania Hawaii
Map of Southeast Asia
Battle of the Atlantic At first US could do little to stop Japan in the Pacific. Admiral Charles Nimitz used convoys to prevent Japan from sinking our Liberty Ships US forces takes control of the Atlantic for the 1st time. German U-boats lose their effectiveness at sea.
Battle of the Bulge (cont.) Germany last ditch effort to take back France and regain some power Germany made some ground but not enough This is were the phrase Bend but not Break was used Led to the surrender of the Nazi party and Adolph Hitler VE Day – Victory in Europe.
D-Day Invasion Normandy (North Shore of France) Code Name Operation Overlord Largest single invasion in military history Elaborate plan that included Mulberry Harbor British and US main designers of the plan Total estimated dead: –2500 Allies –4,000 to 9,000 Axis –(mostly Germans) Higgins Boats
Leyte Gulf Largest Naval engagement in History US wiped out Japans Navy for good.
Map of Leyte Gulf (in Philippians)
Iwo Jima Small island in the Pacific Part of Island hopping technique in Pacific US victory took control of airbase
Iwo Jima (Memorial in DC)
Map of Iwo Jima
Okinawa Another major Island hopping victory in the Pacific US Victory
Battle of the Bulge
Manhattan Project A project created by FDR as a result of Einsteins letter in which a team of 12 scientist were placed in a military base for the single purpose of creating and atomic weapon. The result was empowering. The project was led by Physicist…Henry Oppenheimer!Henry Oppenheimer!
Albert Einstein Einstein who is most famous for the creation of the Theory of Relativity and the world most famous equation (E=MC2), came to visit the US in 1933 never went back to Germany. The event was?
The Letter Einstein wrote a letter to US President FDR, warning him of Liza Minters discovery of splitting the atom. Einstein was adamant that the US must beat Hitler on the creation of an atomic weapons or the world is doomed. The letter led to:
3 Bombs Initial Bomb created and TESTED.TESTED Little Boy 1 st to be dropped. Fat Man 2 nd to be dropped. –Initial plan was to test one –Display one (detonate to show Japan) –Keep one (Japan believed it was a trick, would have nothing to do with it!)
Hiroshima A city of military and industrial significance in Japan 7 th Largest city in Japan First A-bomb was dropped Bomb dropped August 6 by Paul Tibbets Name of the airplane was the Anola Gay Tibbets mother Instantly killed 80,00 people, Japan claimed 200,00 Nagasaki Nagasaki was picked as a result of Military and Industrial importance also It was the largest port in south Japan Instantly killed 45,000 people
Paul Tibbett and the Enola Gay
Little Boy Re-enactment
After Little Boy Hiroshima
After Fat Man Nagasaki
September 2nd, 1945 September 2nd, 1945 Japan surrenders VJ Day
Effects On July 26 th, 1945, China, UK and the US called for a Japanese surrender at the Potsdam Declaration. Japan ignored the ultimatum. 10 days later Truman gave the order. Within the first 4 months of the drop, 90 to 166,000 est. dead at Hiroshima and 60 to 80,000 dead at Nagasaki. It is believed that 60% of the deaths died instantly from flash, flame or falling debris. 6 day later Japan surrendered 60 to 70 million died 40 to 50 million civilians Divide by 4
On Sunday, December 7th, 1941 the Japanese launched a surprise attack against the U.S. Forces stationed at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. By planning his attack on a Sunday, the Japanese commander Admiral Nagumo, hoped to catch the entire fleet in port. As luck would have it, the Aircraft Carriers and one of the Battleships were not in port. (The USS Enterprise was returning from Wake Island, where it had just delivered some aircraft. The USS Lexington was ferrying aircraft to Midway, and the USS Saratoga and USS Colorado were undergoing repairs in the United States.)On Sunday, December 7th, 1941 In spite of the latest intelligence reports about the missing aircraft carriers (his most important targets), Admiral Nagumo decided to continue the attack with his force of six carriers and 423 aircraft. At a range of 230 miles north of Oahu, he launched the first wave of a two- wave attack. Beginning at 0600 hours his first wave consisted of 183 fighters and torpedo bombers which struck at the fleet in Pearl Harbor and the airfields in Hickam, Kaneohe and Ewa. The second strike, launched at 0715 hours, consisted of 167 aircraft, which again struck at the same targets. At 0753 hours the first wave consisting of 40 Nakajima B5N2 "Kate" torpedo bombers, 51 Aichi D3A1 "Val" dive bombers, 50 high altitude bombers and 43 Zeros struck airfields and Pearl Harbor Within the next hour, the second wave arrived and continued the attack.
Casualties USArmy : 218 KIA, 364 WIA. USNavy: 2,008 KIA, 710 WIA. USMarineCorp: 109 KIA, 69 WIA. Civilians: 68 KIA, 35 WIA. TOTAL: 2,403 KIA, 1,178 WIA. Battleships USS Arizona (BB-39) - total loss when a bomb hit magazine. USS Oklahoma (BB-37) - Total loss when she capsized and sunk in the harbor. USS California (BB-44) - Sunk at her berth. Later raised and repaired. USS West Virginia (BB-48) - Sunk at her berth. Later raised and repaired. USS Nevada - (BB-36) Beached to prevent sinking. Later repaired. USS Pennsylvania (BB-38) - Light damage. USS Maryland (BB-46) - Light damage. USS Tennessee (BB-43) Light damage. Destroyers USS Downes (DD-375) - Destroyed. Parts salvaged. USS Cassin - (DD-37 2) Destroyed. Parts salvaged. USS Shaw (DD-373) - Very heavy damage. USS Helm (DD-388) - Light Damage. Cruisers USS New Orleans (CA-32) - Light Damage.. USS San Francisco (CA38) - Light Damage. USS Detroit (CL-8) - Light Damage. USS Raleigh (CL-7) - Damaged but repaired. USS Helena (CL-50) - Light Damage. USS Honolulu (CL-48) - Light Damage.. Minelayer USS Ogala (CM-4) – Sunk, later raised and repaired. Seaplane Tender USS Curtiss (AV-4) - Severely damaged but later repaired. Repair Ship USS Vestal (AR-4) - Sever ely damaged but later repaired. Harbor Tug USS Sotoyomo (YT-9) - Sunk but later raised and repaired. Aircraft 188 Aircraft destroyed (92 USN and 92 U.S. Army Air Corps.) Pearl Harbor Casualties
Pearl Harbor Photos Photos found in an old Brownie stored in a foot locker from a sailor who, was on the USS QUAPAW ATF-11O.
Pearl Harbor 1
Pearl Harbor 2
Pearl Harbor 3
Pearl Harbor 4
Pearl Harbor 5
Pearl Harbor 6
Pearl Harbor 7
Pearl Harbor 8
Pearl Harbor 9
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Pearl Harbor 11
Pearl Harbor 12
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Pearl Harbor 14
Pearl Harbor 15
WW I Fatalities
WW II Fatalities CountryMilitaryCivilianTotal Soviet Union*8,668,00016,900,00025,568,000 China1,324,00010,000,00011,324,000 Germany3,250,0003,810,0007,060,000 Poland 850,0006,000,0006,850,000 Japan1,506,000300,0001,806,000 Yugoslavia 300,0001,400,0001,700,000 Rumania* 520, , ,000 France* 340, , ,000 Hungary* 750,000 Austria 380, , ,000 Greece* 520,000 Italy 330,000 80, ,000 Czechoslovakia 400,000 Great Britain 326,000 62, ,000 USA 295,000 Holland 14, , ,000 Belgium 10,000 75,000 85,000 Finland 79,000 Canada 42,000 India 36,000*** 36,000 Australia 39,000 Spain** 12,000 10,000 22,000 Bulgaria 19,000 2,000 21,000 New Zealand 12,000 South Africa 9,000 Norway 5,000 Denmark 4,000
Pearl Harbor December 7 th, soldiers, 150 planes and 18 ships lost Congress voted 82-0 (Senate) and (House) to declare war on Japan. FDR This day will live in infamy Tojo I feel we have woke a sleeping giant!
Strategy Pearl Harbor had two characteristics that made it susceptible to attack. (1)The harbor was shallow and a bottleneck. (2) Oahu is shaped like a bowl (high on the edges and low in the middle)
Arguably the one single day that unexpectedly changed American history the most? The event was precipitated by one of the most recognized person in history. The person was? July 16,1939 Henry Oppenheimer