2Background Powers in Europe before 1914 Great Britain: world-wide empire, naval power; A weak, divided Europe is in its best interest.Germany: Newly unified nation (in 1871) Trying to industrialize, build its military and establish colonies around the world.France: wanted to recover Alsace-Lorraine from Germany
3BackgroundRussia: economically stagnant (not industrialized) with an outdated social system (serfs, the czar)Austria-Hungary: a powerful empire in southeast Europe; Now losing its dominance over the German statesThe Ottoman Empire: “The Sick Old Man of Europe.” Key geographical position (Europe, Asia, Africa), once controlled vast territories
54 Causes of W.W. INationalism: strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country and the people who share one’s culturePan-German Movement: attempt to unite al German-speakers in one country (Germany)Pan-Slavic Movement: attempt to unite all Slavic peoples in one country (Russia)2.Imperialism: Gr. Br. and G are competing for colonies; Serbia and A-H fight for control of Bosnia-Herzegovina and F and G fight Alsace-Lorraine
64 Causes of W.W. I3. Militarism: building up the armed forces and the glorification of all things military4. Alliance Systems: Treaties between groups of countries that promise military aid to any member nation that is attacked. (That means that if one nation is attacked, the countries that are allied with them get dragged into the conflict.)
7The Spark That Lit The Fire The Balkan Peninsula was known as the “powder keg of Europe.”
8The Spark That Lit the Fire Serbia had become independent from the Ottoman Empire.Bosnia-Herzegovina had belonged to the Ottoman Empire. Now it had been annexed by A-H.The Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to the throne of A-H) and his wife Sophie were traveling throughout the provinces of the empire. One city they visited was Sarajevo.
10The Black Hand Secret society founded May 1911 Part of the Pan-Slavic MovementWanted to unite all the southern Slavs (Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, etc.) which had been annexed by Austria-Hungary
11The Spark that Lit the Fire Members of the Black Hand planned an assassination attempt.Gavrilo Princip, Nedjelko Cabrinovic and Trifko Grabez were the three recruits who were trained and equipped to do the job. Later 4 others (including 2 high school students) joined them.June 28, 1914While the original plan did not work, a chance encounter allowed Gavrilo Princip to shoot the Archduke and his wife.
16The Spark that Lit the Fire A-H blamed Serbia and issued an ultimatum. When Serbia refused to comply, A-H declared war against Serbia.Serbia was part of an alliance w/ Russia.This declaration of war by A-H caused theTriple Entente nations to declare waragainst Germany (allied with A-H, came into the war on their side)
18The Spark that Lit the Fire Eventually over 30 nations and their colonies fought in the Great War.At the time, people in Europe called this conflict the Great War.They also thought that this war was so large in scope and so horrible that no one would ever go to war again. They said that this conflict was “the war to end all wars.”Later on, people began to refer to the conflict as a world war.