227.1 The Stage is SetIn 1914, long-building tensions among European Nations exploded into war. The U.S.A. tried to stay neutral, but eventually entered the war.During this time Americans:Saw tensions in Europe lead to war.Stayed Neutral as long as it could.Were pulled into the war by German actions.Quickly organized for war.Played a decisive role in ending the war.
3Roots of WarVideo Nationalism Imperialism Militarism Alliances Reasons WW I startedRoots ofWarVideoSounds5:34MilitarismAlliances
4Aggressive Nationalism Pride and/or love for one’s country.-France vs. Germany: The French are stillangry about their loss of Alsace and Lorraineto Germany in 1871.-Russia sponsored Pan-Slavism andrivaled Austria-Hungaryin the Balkans.Aggressive NationalismReasons
5Aggressive Nationalism Austria-Hungary, Russia,and the Ottoman Empire wereall multinational empire withsubjects who wanted theirown nations.Aggressive NationalismReasons
6Militarism -Stockpiling of military arms = Reasons-Glorification of the military paintedwar in a romantic light.-A fighting spirit was growing in Europe.There hadn’t been a major war in 100 yrs.-Stockpiling of military arms =arms race (Kaiser William II)-Social Darwinism?
7Arms Race In all areas Especially fierce between Germany and Britain (naval) It was Admiral, the First Sea Lord, was the driving-force behind the development of the Dreadnought that was built at Portsmouth Dockyar between October 1905 and December The Dreadnought was the most heavily-armed ship in history. She had ten 12-inch guns (305 mm), whereas the previous record was four 12-inch guns. The gun turrets were situated higher than user and so facilitated more accurate long-distance fire. In addition to her 12-inch guns, the Dreadnought also had twenty-four 3-inch guns (76 mm) and five torpedo tubes below water. In the waterline section of her hull, the Dreadnought was armored by plates 28 cm thick. The Dreadnought was the first major warship driven solely by steam turbines, making her faster than any other warship. A total of 526 feet long (160.1 meters) the Dreadnought had a crew of over 800 men. By 1914 the British Navy had nineteen Dreadnoughts (thirteen under construction), compared with Germany's thirteen (seven under construction). Other fleets with Dreadnoughts at sea by 1914 were: United States (8), France (8), Japan (4), Austria-Hungary (2) and Italy (1).
8“All the long years of my reign, my colleagues, the Monarchs of Europe, have paid no attention to what I have to say.”I want respect
9Imperialism European nations competed for territories and empires all ReasonsImperialismEuropean nations competedfor territories and empires allover the world.Led to an economic rivalrybetween Germany andBritain.
10Alliances Distrust among the great powers led to pledges to support one another if attacked.International tensions increased.Alliesvs.Central powersAlliancesReasons
11Opposing Alliances (made national leaders VERY nervous) Allied PowersCentral PowersGreat BritainFranceRussia-SerbiaItalyEventually 32 countriesMore soldiers, industry capacityBritish navy supplied food & materials, blockadeGermanyAustria-HungaryOttoman EmpireBulgariaAnd othersEasy communication & troop movementGermany well-trained & well-equipped army
17The Spark! June 28, 1914 - a day to remember The Archduke (heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary) would visit Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia to direct military maneuvers in nearby mountains.An oppressor entering Sarajevo on 28 June was a great insult.
18The Spark! June 28th is known to every Serb as Vidovnan…. Date on which the old Serbian kingdom was conquered by the Muslim Turks at the battle of Amselfelde in 1389.Serbia freed itself from Turkish rule on the same date in 1912.
19Gavrilo Princip Member of the Black Hand, a.k.a. Unity or Death. Assassin of Franz & Sophie Ferdinand
20The main objective of the Black Hand was the creation, by means of violence, of a Greater Serbia. Its stated aim was: "To realize the national ideal, the unification of all Serbs. This organization prefers terrorist action to cultural activities; it will therefore remain secret."By 1914 there were around 2,500 members of the Black Hand. The group was mainly made up of junior army officers but also included lawyers, journalists and university professors.
26The Fuse is Lit!July 5: Germany backs Austria & gives them a “Blank Check”.July 23: Austria sends a list of demands, or ultimatum to Serbia.
27The Boom! July 28: Austria declares war on Serbia. July 30: Russia mobilizes its troops and moves towards the Austrian border in support of Serbia.August 1: Germany declares war on Russia.August 3: Germany tells France to stay neutral, France says no, So Germany declares war on France.
28The Boom!August 4: Germany marches 1.5 million troops through neutral Belgium and the Schlieffen Plan takes effect.August 4: Britain, vowed to protect Belgium, declares war on Germany as a result.September 6-12: German troops are stopped outside of Paris at the battle of the Marne. A German field marshall orders his troops to dig trenches and the French follow.
29British Foreign Minister Sir Edward Gray: “The lamps are going out all over Europe. We shall not see them lit again in our lifetime”
30Timeline 1914 Start of WW I Germany marches 1.5 million troops through neutral BelgiumGermany gives Austriaa “Blank Check”.Germany declares war on Russia.The battle of the MARNEoutside of Paris.Austria declares war on Serbia.July23Aug3Aug4June28July30July5July28Aug1Aug4Sept6-12Britain declares war onGermany for violatingBelgium.Russia mobilizes its troopsin support of Serbia.Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinandis assassinated in Sarajevo,Bosnia.Austria sends a list of demands,or ultimatum to Serbia.Germany declares war on France.
31General Alfred Schlieffen’s plan to avoid a two front war. Schlieffen PlanGeneral Alfred Schlieffen’s plan to avoid a two front war.Russia slow to mobilizeAttack France through Belgium and get to Paris before the Russian’s could mobilize.Britain and Belgium and Italy were neutral up to this point.
35A New Kind of ConflictDeadlier and more destructive than previous wars.First modern, fully industrialized war.Modern weapons being mass-produced resulted in huge numbers of casualtiesNew weapons helped prevent either side from gaining an advantage leading to a stalemate, deadlock, that dragged on for 4 yrs.
38Map of the Trenches Front line trenches These were usually about seven feet deep and about six feet wide. The Allies were forced to dig their trenches in lower ground so they were often waterlogged. They had a zigzag pattern to prevent the enemy from shooting straight down the line. Sandbags were put on both sides of the top of the trench to absorb enemy bullets. Lines of barbed wire protected the frontline trench from any enemy attacks.
40The gases used during WW1 may be classified as: Gas WarfareThe gases used during WW1 may be classified as:1. Lacrimators: (eye irritants and "tear gases") such as Benzylbromide.2. Sternutators: (nasal irritants, "sneeze gases," "vomiting gases“ ), such as Diphenylchlorarsine. Sternutator gases were mixed with the other, more lethal, gases in order to interfere with the men wearing their protective gas masks..3. Lung irritants: (suffocants, respiratory irritants) Chlorine, Phosgene, carbon oxychloride, chlormethylchlorformate, bromacetone, chloropicrin.4. Vesicants (skin irritants, escharotics) Dichlorethylsulphide, or Mustard Gas, chlorarsines and bromoarsines.
42Daily Rations British German 26 1/2 oz. bread or 17 1/2 oz. field biscuit, or 14 oz. egg biscuit13 oz. fresh or frozen meat, or 7 oz. preserved meat53 oz. potatoes, or 4 1/2 oz. Vegetables9/10 oz. coffee, or 1/10 oz. Tea7/10 oz. Sugar, 9/10 oz. salt2 cigars and 2 cigarettes, or 1 oz. pipe tobacco, or 9/10 oz. plug tobacco, or 1/5 oz. Snuff.17 pint spirits or .44 pint wine or .88 pint beer20 oz. Fresh or frozen meat, or 16 oz. preserved or salt meat20 oz. bread, or 16 oz. biscuit or flour4 oz. Bacon, 3 oz. Cheese, 5/8 oz. Tea, 4 oz. Jam, 3oz. Sugar, 1/2 oz. Salt, 1/36 oz. Pepper, 1/20 oz. mustard8 oz. fresh or 2 oz. dried vegetables, 1/10 gal. lime juice (for scurvy)1/2 gal rum (at discretion of commanding general)20 oz. tobacco per week
43After 3 years, Morale Begins Collapsing….Why? By 1917 troops are still in the same trenches as in 1914.The warring nations are on the verge of bankruptcy.Troops mutiniedFood is scarceThe generals have failed to achieve the promised victories.
4627.4 Winning the WarFirst total war in which gov’ts committed all of their resources-both human & industrial-to the war in an effort to win.
47Gov’ts controlled public opinion. Censored the pressUsed propaganda: spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause.Universal military conscription, men were drafted and forced to fight.
48Gov’ts controlled the economy Raised taxes and borrowed huge sums of money (war bonds) to pay for the war.Rationed food and other products.
49Famous Battles Western Front (France) Eastern Front Ottoman Front Marne: Germans dig in outside of ParisVerdun: 5 month battle, each side lost 300,000 menSomme: over 1 million casualties, 5 mile advanceEastern FrontTannenberg: Germans crushed the invading RussiansOttoman FrontGallipoli: Disaster for the Allies who had to give up after a yr. of fightingAsia & Africa: Japan took German possessionsin China and Germany’s Pacific Island colonies
51Trouble in Russia Revolutionaries Not fully industrialized In 1915, there were 2 million Russian casualties on the Eastern FrontNicholas II went to the front to take personal commandAlexandra and Gregory RasputinFood and fuel shortages on the home front
52The MarchRevolutionLast Romanov Czar, Nicholas II gives up the throne on March 15, 1917.
53The November Revolution the Bolsheviks put Vladimir Lenin in chargeMarch 1918, Germany & Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-LitovskEnded Russian involvement in WW I¼ of Russia’s people and European territory to Germany.
541922 Russia becomesthe USSR, the world’sfirst communist state
6627.5 Making the Peace"The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make." (Pres. Wilson’s War message, April 2, 1917)
6727.5 Making the PeaceAfter the war Europe was a shattered continent in ruins.In the years ahead, Europe would continue to pay the cost of war.
68Financial Burdens Political Turmoil Europe was shelled to rubble and needed to be rebuilt.Huge national war debts.The defeated Central Powers had to make reparations, or payments for war damages.Old monarchies in Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire collapsed.The fear of communism.Unrest swept Europe’s colonial empires.
711918, a flu pandemic swept around the world killing 20 million people.
72Treaty of VersaillesThe Big Three meet in Paris- U.S., France, & England.Hopes for peace were high.Pres. Wilson called for a “just peace” w/out revenge.France & England wanted to punish Germany for their aggression.
73German Punishment Forced to sign a “War Guilt Clause” Assumed full responsibility for the war, Article 231$31 billion in war reparations.Prohibited from making war materials and forced to surrender its Navy and reduce its Army to 100,000.Lost nearly 13% of their land in Europe and 10% of its people and all of its overseas colonies. (Polish Corridor)
74President Woodrow Wilson The Fourteen Points “war to end all wars”/ “make the world safe for democracy”Stood firm on the 14th point called for an international League of Nations to prevent future wars.PresidentWoodrowWilson
79Treaty ResultsGermany was left so weakened and humiliated by the treaty that its people resented it.The United States, Germany, and Russia were not members of the newly formed League of Nations.Rise of Totalitarian states in Europe.World War II.