Presentation on theme: "Sounds. 27.1 The Stage is Set In 1914, long-building tensions among European Nations exploded into war. The U.S.A. tried to stay neutral, but eventually."— Presentation transcript:
27.1 The Stage is Set In 1914, long-building tensions among European Nations exploded into war. The U.S.A. tried to stay neutral, but eventually entered the war. During this time Americans: Saw tensions in Europe lead to war. Stayed Neutral as long as it could. Were pulled into the war by German actions. Quickly organized for war. Played a decisive role in ending the war.
Reasons WW I started Militarism Nationalism Alliances Imperialism Sounds Roots of WarVideo 5:34
Pride and/or love for ones country. -France vs. Germany: The French are still angry about their loss of Alsace and Lorraine to Germany in Russia sponsored Pan-Slavism and rivaled Austria-Hungary in the Balkans. Reasons Aggressive Nationalism
Austria-Hungary, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire were all multinational empire with subjects who wanted their own nations. Reasons Aggressive Nationalism
-Glorification of the military painted war in a romantic light. -A fighting spirit was growing in Europe. There hadnt been a major war in 100 yrs. -Stockpiling of military arms = arms race (Kaiser William II) -Social Darwinism? Reasons Militarism
Arms Race In all areas Especially fierce between Germany and Britain (naval) It was Admiral, the First Sea Lord, was the driving-force behind the development of the Dreadnought that was built at Portsmouth Dockyar between October 1905 and December The Dreadnought was the most heavily-armed ship in history. She had ten 12-inch guns (305 mm), whereas the previous record was four 12-inch guns. The gun turrets were situated higher than user and so facilitated more accurate long-distance fire. In addition to her 12-inch guns, the Dreadnought also had twenty-four 3-inch guns (76 mm) and five torpedo tubes below water. In the waterline section of her hull, the Dreadnought was armored by plates 28 cm thick. The Dreadnought was the first major warship driven solely by steam turbines, making her faster than any other warship. A total of 526 feet long (160.1 meters) the Dreadnought had a crew of over 800 men. By 1914 the British Navy had nineteen Dreadnoughts (thirteen under construction), compared with Germany's thirteen (seven under construction). Other fleets with Dreadnoughts at sea by 1914 were: United States (8), France (8), Japan (4), Austria- Hungary (2) and Italy (1).
All the long years of my reign, my colleagues, the Monarchs of Europe, have paid no attention to what I have to say. I want respect
European nations competed for territories and empires all over the world. Led to an economic rivalry between Germany and Britain. Reasons Imperialism
Distrust among the great powers led to pledges to support one another if attacked. International tensions increased. Allies vs. Central powers Reasons Alliances
Opposing Alliances (made national leaders VERY nervous) Allied Powers 1.Great Britain 2.France 3.Russia-Serbia 4.Italy 5.Eventually 32 countries More soldiers, industry capacity British navy supplied food & materials, blockade Central Powers 1.Germany 2.Austria-Hungary 3.Ottoman Empire 4.Bulgaria 5.And others Easy communication & troop movement Germany well-trained & well-equipped army
27.2 The Guns of August "One day the great European War will come out of some damned foolish thing in the Balkans. -Otto Von Bismarck. The Roots of WW I 5:31
The Powder Keg of Europe The assassination of Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand was the immediate, short-range spark that triggered the war.
-a hot-bed of nationalism
The Spark ! June 28, a day to remember The Archduke (heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary) would visit Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia to direct military maneuvers in nearby mountains. An oppressor entering Sarajevo on 28 June was a great insult.
The Spark! June 28th is known to every Serb as Vidovnan…. –Date on which the old Serbian kingdom was conquered by the Muslim Turks at the battle of Amselfelde in –Serbia freed itself from Turkish rule on the same date in 1912.
Gavrilo Princip Member of the Black Hand, a.k.a. Unity or Death. Assassin of Franz & Sophie Ferdinand
The main objective of the Black Hand was the creation, by means of violence, of a Greater Serbia. Its stated aim was: "To realize the national ideal, the unification of all Serbs. This organization prefers terrorist action to cultural activities; it will therefore remain secret." By 1914 there were around 2,500 members of the Black Hand. The group was mainly made up of junior army officers but also included lawyers, journalists and university professors.
The Fuse is Lit! July 5: Germany backs Austria & gives them a Blank Check. July 23: Austria sends a list of demands, or ultimatum to Serbia.
The Boom! July 28: Austria declares war on Serbia. July 30: Russia mobilizes its troops and moves towards the Austrian border in support of Serbia. August 1: Germany declares war on Russia. August 3: Germany tells France to stay neutral, France says no, So Germany declares war on France.
August 4: Germany marches 1.5 million troops through neutral Belgium and the Schlieffen Plan takes effect. August 4: Britain, vowed to protect Belgium, declares war on Germany as a result. September 6-12: German troops are stopped outside of Paris at the battle of the Marne. A German field marshall orders his troops to dig trenches and the French follow. The Boom!
British Foreign Minister Sir Edward Gray: The lamps are going out all over Europe. We shall not see them lit again in our lifetime
Timeline June 28 July 5 July 23 July 28 July 30 Aug 1 Aug 3 Aug 4 Aug 4 Sept 6-12 Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia. Germany gives Austria a Blank Check. Austria sends a list of demands, or ultimatum to Serbia. Austria declares war on Serbia. Russia mobilizes its troops in support of Serbia. Germany declares war on Russia. Germany declares war on France. Germany marches 1.5 million troops through neutral Belgium Britain declares war on Germany for violating Belgium. The battle of the MARNE outside of Paris Start of WW I
Schlieffen Plan Russia slow to mobilize Attack France through Belgium and get to Paris before the Russians could mobilize. Britain and Belgium and Italy were neutral up to this point. General Alfred Schlieffens plan to avoid a two front war.
27.3 A New Kind of Conflict
A New Kind of Conflict Deadlier and more destructive than previous wars. First modern, fully industrialized war. –Modern weapons being mass- produced resulted in huge numbers of casualties –New weapons helped prevent either side from gaining an advantage leading to a stalemate, deadlock, that dragged on for 4 yrs.
Map of the Trenches Front line trenches These were usually about seven feet deep and about six feet wide. The Allies were forced to dig their trenches in lower ground so they were often waterlogged. They had a zigzag pattern to prevent the enemy from shooting straight down the line. Sandbags were put on both sides of the top of the trench to absorb enemy bullets. Lines of barbed wire protected the frontline trench from any enemy attacks.
Photos from the Trenches
Gas Warfare The gases used during WW1 may be classified as: 1. Lacrimators: (eye irritants and "tear gases") such as Benzylbromide. 2. Sternutators: (nasal irritants, "sneeze gases," "vomiting gases ), such as Diphenylchlorarsine. Sternutator gases were mixed with the other, more lethal, gases in order to interfere with the men wearing their protective gas masks.. 3. Lung irritants: (suffocants, respiratory irritants) Chlorine, Phosgene, carbon oxychloride, chlormethylchlorformate, bromacetone, chloropicrin. 4. Vesicants (skin irritants, escharotics) Dichlorethylsulphide, or Mustard Gas, chlorarsines and bromoarsines.
New Weapons Tank U-Boat Machine Gun Airplane
Daily Rations 20 oz. Fresh or frozen meat, or 16 oz. preserved or salt meat 20 oz. bread, or 16 oz. biscuit or flour 4 oz. Bacon, 3 oz. Cheese, 5/8 oz. Tea, 4 oz. Jam, 3oz. Sugar, 1/2 oz. Salt, 1/36 oz. Pepper, 1/20 oz. mustard 8 oz. fresh or 2 oz. dried vegetables, 1/10 gal. lime juice (for scurvy) 1/2 gal rum (at discretion of commanding general) 20 oz. tobacco per week 26 1/2 oz. bread or 17 1/2 oz. field biscuit, or 14 oz. egg biscuit 13 oz. fresh or frozen meat, or 7 oz. preserved meat 53 oz. potatoes, or 4 1/2 oz. Vegetables 9/10 oz. coffee, or 1/10 oz. Tea 7/10 oz. Sugar, 9/10 oz. salt 2 cigars and 2 cigarettes, or 1 oz. pipe tobacco, or 9/10 oz. plug tobacco, or 1/5 oz. Snuff.17 pint spirits or.44 pint wine or.88 pint beer British German
After 3 years, Morale Begins Collapsing….Why? By 1917 troops are still in the same trenches as in The warring nations are on the verge of bankruptcy. Troops mutinied Food is scarce The generals have failed to achieve the promised victories.
Gallery Walk Activity The European Conflict Clip 4:48
27.4 Winning the War First total war in which govts committed all of their resources- both human & industrial-to the war in an effort to win.
Govts controlled public opinion. –Censored the press –Used propaganda: spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause. Universal military conscription, men were drafted and forced to fight.
Govts controlled the economy –Raised taxes and borrowed huge sums of money (war bonds) to pay for the war. –Rationed food and other products.
Famous Battles Western Front (France) –Marne: Germans dig in outside of Paris –Verdun: 5 month battle, each side lost 300,000 men –Somme: over 1 million casualties, 5 mile advance Eastern Front –Tannenberg: Germans crushed the invading Russians Ottoman Front –Gallipoli: Disaster for the Allies who had to give up after a yr. of fighting Asia & Africa: Japan took German possessions in China and Germanys Pacific Island colonies
Trouble in Russia Revolutionaries Not fully industrialized In 1915, there were 2 million Russian casualties on the Eastern Front Nicholas II went to the front to take personal command Alexandra and Gregory Rasputin Food and fuel shortages on the home front
Last Romanov Czar, Nicholas II gives up the throne on March 15, The March Revolution
The November Revolution the Bolsheviks put Vladimir Lenin in charge March 1918, Germany & Russia signed the Treaty of Brest- Litovsk –Ended Russian involvement in WW I –¼ of Russias people and European territory to Germany.
1922 Russia becomes the USSR, the worlds first communist state
Why did America get involved in 1917?
1. Germanys use of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare.
May 7, 1915 sinking of the Lusitania 1,200 passengers killed, including 128 Americans
December 1916, Germany announced it would resume unrestricted submarine warfare.
2. The Zimmerman Telegram
2. In early 1917, sent from Germany to Mexico asking them to join Germany in a war with America.
What Germany offered Mexico.
On April 6, 1917 Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany. The stalemate on the western front is broken.
November 9, 1918 the Kaiser abdicated. November 11, 1918 =Armistice Day
27.5 Making the Peace "The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make." (Pres. Wilsons War message, April 2, 1917) democracy libertydominion
27.5 Making the Peace After the war Europe was a shattered continent in ruins. In the years ahead, Europe would continue to pay the cost of war.
Financial Burdens Europe was shelled to rubble and needed to be rebuilt. Huge national war debts. The defeated Central Powers had to make reparations, or payments for war damages. Political Turmoil Old monarchies in Russia, Germany, Austria- Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire collapsed. The fear of communism. Unrest swept Europes colonial empires.
Survivors were known as the Lost Generation
1918, a flu pandemic swept around the world killing 20 million people.
Treaty of Versailles The Big Three meet in Paris- U.S., France, & England. Hopes for peace were high. Pres. Wilson called for a just peace w/out revenge. France & England wanted to punish Germany for their aggression.
Forced to sign a War Guilt Clause Assumed full responsibility for the war, Article 231 $31 billion in war reparations. Prohibited from making war materials and forced to surrender its Navy and reduce its Army to 100,000. Lost nearly 13% of their land in Europe and 10% of its people and all of its overseas colonies. (Polish Corridor) German Punishment
The Fourteen Points war to end all wars/ make the world safe for democracy Stood firm on the 14 th point called for an international League of Nations to prevent future wars. President Woodrow Wilson
Treaty Results Germany was left so weakened and humiliated by the treaty that its people resented it. The United States, Germany, and Russia were not members of the newly formed League of Nations. Rise of Totalitarian states in Europe. World War II.