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The Road to World War II.

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1 The Road to World War II

2 January 1933: Hitler became Chancellor of Germany

3 Hitler soon ordered a programme of rearming Germany (1935)
Hitler visits a factory and is enthusiastically greeted. Many Germans were grateful for jobs after the misery of he depression years.

4 March 1936: German troops marched into the Rhineland
The Rhineland was a region of Germany that was ‘demilitarised’ after the Treaty of Versailles. Germany was not allowed to have troops in the region. Hitler’s actions showed how he was willing to directly challenge the treaty.


6 March 1938: Nazi Germany annexed Austria
Again, this went against the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which banned Germany from uniting with Austria. However, the arrival of German troops was met with great enthusiasm by many Austrian people.

7 March 1939: Germany invaded Czechoslovakia
Hitler had ordered the occupation of a part of Czechoslovakia known as the Sudetenland (in October 1938). Many hoped that that this would be the last conquest of the Nazis. However, in March 1939, he ordered his troops to take over the remainder of Czechoslovakia. This was the first aggressive step that suggested that a war in Europe would soon begin.

8 August 1939: Germany and Russia signed a non-aggression pact
Hitler and Stalin (the Russian leader) signed a ‘non-aggression pact’. They promised that neither country would attack the other in the event of war. As part of the deal, Hitler promised Stalin part of Poland, which he planned to invade soon. This photo shows the Russian foreign minister signing the pact, whilst Stalin stands smiling in the background

9 Hitler also hated Communism, the form of government in Russia
Stalin Hitler The non-aggression pact was surprising. Hitler and Stalin were seen as natural enemies. When Hitler talked of taking over new land for Germany, many thought that he meant Russia. Hitler also hated Communism, the form of government in Russia

10 September 1939: Germany invaded Poland
But, the pact allowed Germany to march into Poland without fear of an attack from Russia. On 3rd September 1939, Germany invaded Poland and started a War with Britain and France. German troops marching into Warsaw, the capital of Poland.

11 May 1940: Germany turned west and invaded France and the Netherlands
In May 1940, Germany used Blitzkrieg tactics to attack France and the Netherlands. British troops were forced to retreat from the beaches of Dunkirk in northern France. Captured British troops, May 1940

12 By June 1940, France had surrendered to the Germans
Britain now stood alone as the last remaining enemy of Hitler’s Germany in Western Europe. Adolf Hitler tours Paris after his successful invasion.

13 September 1940-May 1941: the Blitz
For the following nine months, the German air force (Luftwaffe) launched repeated bombing raids on British towns and cities. This was known as the BLITZ and was an attempt to bomb Britain into submission.

14 Operation Barbarossa, June 1941
But in May, 1941, Hitler ordered a change of tactics. He decided to halt the bombing of Britain and launch an attack against Russia. He betrayed Stalin and ignored the promises he had made. This was a bold move that would prove to be an important turning point in the War.

15 Quick Facts (write 2-3) A. War Costs
US Debt $9 billion US Debt $98 billion The war cost $330 billion times the cost of WWI & as much as all previous federal spending since 1776

16 Quick Facts (write 2-3) B. Human Costs

17 Quick Facts (write 2-3) B. Human Costs
50 million people died (compared to 15 million in WWI) 21.3 million Russians (7.7 million civilians) 11 million died as a result of the HOLOCAUST (6 million Jews + 5 million others)

18 When? US involvement 1939 1941 1945 Sept.1 - Germany invades Poland (official start to the war) Sept. 3 -Britain & France declare war on Germany Dec. 7 – Japan bombs Pearl Harbor; US enters the War May - Germans Surrender Sept. - Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Japanese Surrender

19 Who? Axis Allies (major powers) (major powers) Great Britain Germany
Russia Italy United States Japan France (note: France surrendered to Germany in 1940 (after 6 weeks of fighting)

20 Major Leaders Adolf Hitler Nazi Germany Benito Mussolini Italy

21 Major Leaders Hideki Tojo Winston Churchill Japanese Prime Minister
British Prime Minister

22 Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Major Leaders Joseph Stalin Russian Leader Franklin Delano Roosevelt US President

23 Why? (underlying causes of WWII)
1. Treaty of Versailles A. Germany lost land to surrounding nations B. War Reparations 1) Allies collect $ to pay back war debts to U.S. 2) Germany must pay $57 trillion (modern equivalent) 3) Bankrupted the German economy & embarrassed Germans Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson during negotiations for the Treaty

24 Why? (underlying causes of WWII)
2. World-wide Depression A. The Depression made Germany’s debt even worse B. Desperate people turn to desperate leaders 1) Hitler seemed to provide solutions to Germany’s problems Wallpapering with German Deutchmarks

25 Why? (underlying causes of WWII)
2. World-wide Depression 2) Hitler provided scapegoats for Germany’s problems (foreigners, Jews, communists, Roma (Gypsies), mentally ill, homosexuals) 3) Kristallnacht - vandalism & destruction of Jewish property & synagogues

26 Why? 3. Rise of Totalitarian Regimes
A. In a Totalitarian country, individual rights are not viewed as important as the needs of the nation Communist Dictatorship (USSR) Fascist Dictatorship (Germany, Italy) Fascism: military government with based on racism & nationalism with strong support from the business community Totalitarianism Military Dictatorship (Japan)

27 Why? 4. Isolationism of Major Powers A. Why was the U.S. Isolationist?
1. Great Depression (problems at home) 2. Perceptions of WWI a. WWI did not seem to solve much b. People began to think that we’d got into WWI for the wrong reasons (greedy American businessmen!)

28 Why? 4. Isolationism of Major Powers 3. Opposition to war (Pacifism)
a. Washington Conference (1922) - Limits on size of country's navies b. Kellogg-Briand pact (1928) - condemned war as a way to solving conflicts

29 Why? 4. Isolationism of Major Powers
B. This led to policies of “Appeasement” 1. Appeasement: give dictators what they want and hope that they won’t want anything else 2. Begins with Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Italian invasion of Ethiopia, and continues with Hitler . . .

30 So What Was Hitler Asking For?
Return of German Speaking Lands - “Lebensraum” Austria - Peacefully Annexed in 1938 German Troops Parade in Streets of Czechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939

31 So What Was Hitler Asking For?
Return of German Speaking Lands - “Lebensraum” Sudentenland - (now part of Czech Republic) Munich Conference - Great Britain & France give to Hitler in return for peace Hitler then invades the rest of Czechoslovakia German Troops Parade in Streets of Czechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939

32 So What Was Hitler Asking For?
Return of German Speaking Lands Nonaggression Pact Russia stays out of the war in return for 1/2 of Poland and Baltic States Hitler's triumphal entry into Danzig, Poland 1939 Great Britain & France finally declare war on Germany

33 How Did Hitler Make War? Blitzkrieg “Lightning War”
In the next year, Hitler invades: Denmark Norway The Netherlands, France Hitler in Paris

34 US Assistance Roosevelt provided aid to the Allies: Lend-Lease - 1939
US “lent” war materials to cash-strapped Great Britain Atlantic Charter US secretly meets with England to commit to defeating Germany London Firefighter Tackles an Air Raid Blaze

35 Meanwhile … in the Pacific
Pearl Harbor: “a date which will live in infamy” What? Surprise attack by the Japanese on American forces in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Effect? US declares war on Japan & other Axis powers USS Arizona Sinking in Pearl Harbor

36 "The Nazi occupation of Poland was horrific
"The Nazi occupation of Poland was horrific. Twenty percent of the Polish people died in forced labor, of hunger, or from fighting. Resistance was impossible. Even the feeblest opposition brought devastating, over-whelming reprisals. Drs. Lazowski and Matulewicz decided to resist anyway, and their solution was brilliant. They knew that the Germans were terrified of a typhus outbreak. So they injected dead typhus bacteria into various patients, then sent blood samples to the German authorities. The blood tested positive for typhus. The Germans conducted more tests, and most were also positive. The occupation authorities quarantined the area. The people were not deported for slave labor and German troops stayed away. Drs. Lazowski and Matulewics spared their neighbors the worst of World War II, because even impossible problems have solutions." – Thorpe, Scott, How to Think Like Einstein, Barnes & Noble Books, Inc., 2000, p. 127.

37 Germany’s Attack in Europe
Denmark, Holland Norway (Quisling) Belgium and France Dunkirk Britain Winston Churchill

38 Dunkirk

39 “. We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end
“...We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end...We shall fight in the seas and oceans...We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing-grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender...” — Winston Churchill

40 “We have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat.”
— Winston Churchill

41 “Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will say, ‘This was their finest hour.’” — Winston Churchill

42 “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.”
— Winston Churchill

43 Germany’s Attack in Europe
Balkans Russia US isolation

44 Maximum Axis Control (Sept 1942)

45 Allied Counterattacks in Europe
Soviet North Africa Italy Normandy Battle of the Bulge


47 Allied Counterattacks in Europe
Surrender Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt The Marshall Plan

48 "Men occasionally stumble over the truth, but most of them pick themselves up and hurry off as if nothing happened." – Churchill, Winston, quoted in Thorpe, Scott, How to Think Like Einstein, Barnes & Noble Books, Inc., 2000, p.119.

49 Japan’s Invasion China Blockade Pearl Harbor Southeast Asia

50 Allied Counterattacks in the Pacific
Midway Southeast Asia Island hopping Japanese main islands

51 Pacific War


53 "I am tired and sick of war. Its glory is all moonshine... War is hell."
– William Tecumseh Sherman (quoted in John Keegan, A History of Warfare, 1993, 6)

54 “If a man does his best, what else is there?”
-General George S. Patton ( )

55 He served as the Soviet Union’s first Commisar of war
Trotsky The Bolsheviks controlled this part of Russia in the civil war The Heartland or center around Moscow Which of the following countries did not intervene in the Russian civil war ? America,Germany,Japan Germany

56 Finland, Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania gained their independence as a result of the Russian civil war. What act/event led to Russia regaining these territories? The Hitler/Stalin non-aggression pact August 23, 1939 Which economic policy produced greater economic production in Russia, War Communism or the New Economic Policy? New Economic Policy The New economic policy was said to be a compromise with what? Capitalism Which of the following men would have most supported the NEP? Stalin/Trotsky/Kirov Trotsky

57 A revolt by the sailors at this naval base led Lenin to believe that he needed to change from war communism to the NEP. Kronstadt Naval base in Petrograd Name one area of the economy controlled by the government under the NEP. Large industries, foreign trade, transportation The true political power in the Soviet System was found in this group which consisted of the Communist party’s top leaders. Politburo He argued for the doctrine of “permanent revolution”. Trotsky

58 If Stalin did not believe in “permanent revolution” then what did he believe in?
Socialism in one country Who wrote Problems with Leninism in 1924? Stalin If I believed in the NEP, would that make me a left or right Bolshevik? Right Ultimately, would Stalin have been a left or right bolshevik? Left

59 What was Stalin’s economic policy called?
5 year plan What the two key areas of production focused on in the 5 year plans? Industrial output and Agricultural output Which aspect of the economy improved the most? Industrial The soviet economy was put under the direction of this agency? GOSPLAN This group most resisted the collectivzation of agriculture Kulaks

60 In the second 5 year plan, Stalin made concessions to the Peasants that were very similar to those of the ______. New Economic Policy The assassination of this man led to the great purge by Stalin. Sergei Kirov What group was targeted in the purge? Old Bolsheviks Stalins use of Kirov for emergency powers was similar to what event for Hitler? Burning of the Reichstag

61 In 1922 the Soviets signed the Treaty of Rapallo, a treaty of friendship with which country?
Germany He was the king of Italy that appointed Mussolini as the Premier. Victor Emmanuel

62 What type of job did Benito Mussolini hold before he became a politician?
Editor of newspapers Avanti, Il popolo d’Italia Who is Benito Mussolini named after? Benito Juarez Would a fascist be to the political left or right? Right Name two things that characterized fascism: Nationalistic,militaristic,anti-marxist

63 The fascists followed strong leaders
The fascists followed strong leaders. What was the Italian and German name for leader? Il Duce, Der Fuhrer If you went to a party with a squadistri, what would he be wearing? Black shirt Legend has it that Mussolini took power in Italy when his black shirts did this: Marched on Rome 1922 What happened first; Mussolini’s march on Rome or the Enabling act? Mussolini’s march on Rome

64 What do Hitler and Mussolini have in common for how they came to be Prime Minister’s for their country? Both were appointed This moderate socialist’s murder caused a political crisis for Mussolini Giacomo Matteotti Mussolini developed these as means of carrying out an economic policy that blended private ownership in and government control of the economy. Syndicates or corporations

65 Who was the Lateran accord an agreement between?
Mussolini and the Pope Karl Liebknicht belonged to which German political party? Social Democrat With what name did he sign some of his letters? Spartacus Did the Sparticist revolt in 1919 Germany succeed? No

66 Who were the only two Presidents of the Weimar Republic?
Friederich Ebert and Paul Von Hindenburg To stop this Putsch, the workers of Berlin shut down the cities utilities and transportation Kapp Putsch What did France do to help cause German hyper inflation? Occupied the Ruhr Valley Which two countries signed the Locarno pact Germany and France

67 In the Locarno pact Germany promised to permanently demilitarize the Rhineland. Who broke this promise? Hitler Who was the leader of the SA or brown shirts? Ernst Roehm On what night will Ernst get killed by Hitler’ order? Night of the long knives –June 30, 1034 What did Erich Ludendorf help Hitler try to do in 1923? Munich Beer Hall Putsch

68 Where did Hitler spend most of 1923/1924?
In jail While in jail what did Hitler write? Mein Kampf What was Lebensraum to Hitler? Living Space Where did Hitler propose to get this Lebensraum? Soviet Union

69 This event on February 27, 1933 caused President Von Hindenburg to suspend freedom of speech, the press and other civil liberties. The Reichstag fire What did the Reichstag pass by 2/3 vote on March 23, 1933 The enabling act What did the enabling act give to Hitler? Dictatorial powers for 4 years What right did German Jews lose in 1933? The right to hold government jobs.

70 These laws defined a person as a jew if they had at least one Jewish grandparent?
Nuremburg laws What did the Nuremburg laws deprive German Jews of? Citizenship and the right to marry non-Jews This event followed the assassination of a German official in Paris by a Polish Jew. Kristalnacht

71 In 1924 France signed an alliance with Czechoslovakia-when would France fail to live up to this alliance? When Hitler took the Sudetenland in 1938. We know that Hitler issued the Nuremburg laws in 1935, what did he do in that year in violation of the Versailles treaty? He declared he would rearm Germany Where was Italy aggressive in 1935? Ethiopia Who was the leader of Ethiopia? Haile Selassi To what organization did Haile Selassie protest this? League of nations.

72 What did Hitler remilitarize in 1936?
The Rhineland What two agreements did this violate? Versailles and Locarno What group won the Spanish parliamentary election in 1936? The left wing popular front party He led the conservatives in the Spanish Civil war against the liberal gov’t. Francisco Franco

73 Who aided Franco in his war effort?
Mussolini and Hitler In 1938 Hitler completed an anschluss with this country. Austria What did Neville Chamberlain give to Hitler in 1938 to appease him. The Sudetenland The meeting between Hitler, Chamberlain and Daladier is known as the: Munich Conference

74 What two aspects of the newly created Poland did Germany seek to change?
Germany wanted the free city of Danzig back and more routes over the Polish Corridor. What did Hitler get before he invaded Poland? Non-aggression pact with Russia. What did Russia get as a result of this agreement? A sphere of influence in Eastern Europe

75 What happened on September 1, 1939?
Hitler invaded Poland, starting WWII What happened on Sept. 3, 1939? Great Britain and France declared war on Germany

76 He organized the SS Heinrich Himmler Who became the Prime Minister after Franz von Papen in 1932? Kurt Von Schleicher Who appointed Hitler to be Chancellor in 1933? Paul Von Hindenburg Who was Hitler’s Vice chancellor? Franz Von Papen

77 World War II Review

78 Was English Economist John Maynard Keynes for or against the harsh war reparations charged to Germany in the treaty of Versailles? Against

79 German inflation shot up after the French occupied this German region in 1923.

80 Mussolini seizing power
Which came first: Mussolini seizing power or Hitler’s “beer hall Putsch” Mussolini seizing power

81 According to this plan from 1924, German war reparations were reduced and put on a sliding scale.
Dawes Plan

82 Which came first: The Locarno treaty or the Kellogg-Briand Pact?
Treaty of Locarno

83 What agreement outlawed war as a national policy choice?
Kellogg-Briand Pact

84 In March of 1936, Hitler rearmed this territory in violation of the Treaty of Versailles.

85 Which two countries withdrew from the league of nations in 1933?
Germany and Japan

86 What countries made up the axis powers in 1942?
Japan, Italy, Germany

87 Which countries belonged to the Grand Alliance in 1944?
France, England, America, Russia

88 In October 1935, Mussolini successfully invaded this country.

89 These laws deprived German Jew of all rights of citizenship
Nuremburg Laws

90 Who appointed Hitler Chancellor of Germany?

91 After what event was the enabling act passed in Germany?
Reichstag fire

92 Who talked Hindenburg into appointing Hitler to Chancellor?
Franz Von Papen

93 Which came first: the beginning of the Spanish civil war or the Anschluss?

94 Who said “we are 100 years behind the advanced countries
Who said “we are 100 years behind the advanced countries. We must make up this distance in 10 years. Either we do it or we shall go under” Stalin

95 Hitler took this country in 1938 to complete the outlawed Anschluss he desired.

96 Czechoslovakia had to lose this in order for England to gain “Peace in our time”

97 Who said: “I bring you Peace in our time”?
Neville Chamberlain British Prime Minister

98 After what meeting did Chamberlain get the paper which brought “Peace in our time”
Munich Conference 1938

99 Arguably, the Munich agreement between Chamberlain and Hitler was history’s best example of this:

100 The first “crisis” on the way to world war II occurred when Japan took this territory in 1931.

101 This was signed 8 days before Hitler invaded Poland
Non-Aggression Pact between Russia and Germany

102 Who made the following statement: “Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state” Mussolini

103 This country actually separated Germany from East Prussia?
Poland Polish Corridor

104 For which country was this true: It was bitterly disappointed by its modest territorial gains by the treaty of Versailles Italy

105 What did Stalin receive as a result of the German invasion of Poland?
the right to reclaim the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

106 What was the code name to Hitler’s invasion of Russia?
Operation Barbarosa

107 Which of the leaders was able to increase industrial output by 250% before 1933?

108 He abolished divorce and told women to stay at home and produce children.

109 The better-off peasants that Stalin sought to liquidate were known as:

110 According to one young Russian: there was no capital in Soviet Russia except_____________.

111 You could identify Mussolini’s private army because they wore:
Black shirts

112 In 1922 Mussolini did this to force King Victor Emmanuel III to give him power.
March on Rome

113 Mussolini accelerated the pace of Italian fascism after the death of this socialist leader.

114 Hitler sought power through democratic means after the failure of this event.
Beer Hall Putsch

115 According to Hitler, how did Germany lose world war I?
They were stabbed in the back by communists and Jews

116 What was the name of the German government that followed the German Empire?
Weimar Republic

117 What event inspired Hitler to launch the “Beer Hall Putsch”?.
Mussolini’s march on Rome

118 In “Mein Kampf” Hitler outlined his basic themes:
Anti-semitism living space leader dictator

119 In a room full of dictators, who would answer if you called out “il Duce”?

120 He was Hitler’s minister of Propaganda.
Joseph Goebbels

121 The economic crisis of the Great Depression
According to your text, no factor contributed more to Hitlers success than this. The economic crisis of the Great Depression

122 This agreement saw the Pope accepting the government of Benito Mussolini
Lateran treaty 1929

123 The night of the Long knives
On the night of June 30, 1934 Hitler eliminated the storm trooper leadership, this night was later called: The night of the Long knives

124 He was the leader of Hitler’s secret police the SS

125 What painting describes one event of the Spanish Civil War?

126 This French government was a puppet to the Nazi’s after 1942.

127 What was the first battle to be lost by the army of the German third Reich?
Battle of Britain

128 Hitler’s plan to kill all of the Jews was referred to by this term:
Final Solution

129 Great Patriotic war of the Fatherland
Broad based Russian nationalism, as opposed to narrow communist ideology, became the powerful unifying force in what was appropriately called “Great…” Great Patriotic war of the Fatherland

130 He was the leader of the “Free French” movement
Charles De Gaulle

131 The Germans were turned back at this battle in Southern Russia.

132 German General was defeated at this battle in North Africa only 70 miles from Alexandria, Egypt
El Alemein

133 Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower
On June 6, 1944, american and British troops under ________ landed on the beaches of Normandy. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower

134 The Japanese lost this battle just off the coast of Australia.
Battle of Coral Sea

135 Victory in Europe came in this month in 1945.

136 Victory over Japan came in this month of 1945

137 What country created a greater co-prosperity sphere?

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