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Title Slide An Introduction to AquaBlok® : A Unique, Patented &

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1 Title Slide An Introduction to AquaBlok® : A Unique, Patented &
Highly Versatile Geotechnical Material Geotechnical Applications Summary – 2012 AquaBlok, Ltd. – Toledo, OH TITLE SLIDE * Unique stone-core design

2 Objectives Objectives
Introduce AquaBlok – the original invention, its history, and the evolution of associated products Discuss key technical advantages – focusing particularly on VERSATILITY Explore various application scenarios – relating primarily to sealing/containment Field preliminary questions Sometimes retell origin of invention: founded by civil engineer with lots of experience in landfill cap/closure and brownfield redevelopment; was approached by Department of Defense about isolating contaminants (white phosphorus) in sediment in an Alaskan wetland; bentonite was identified as a reasonable candidate for capping the sediments – to keep the isolation layer thin – but the question was how to get bentonite placed reliably AquaBlok (AQB) was born! Been manufacturing for more than 10 years, but primary focus historically has been sediment remediation (i.e. capping of contaminated sediments); as more engineers, contractors, etc. gained experience with the product, other applications were quickly and reproducibly identified (this audience is very familiar with the raw ingredients). This talk is really intended to introduce AQB and help explain what makes it different than “ordinary” or raw bentonite; it highlights some key advantages and really focuses on the material’s versatility – that’s what keeps our life interesting (working with many different user groups in many different markets; common denominator: use of AquaBlok to STOP water). This introduction is intended to be photo-rich and “get the wheels turning” as to different settings and circumstances where AquaBlok can add value in the work that you do every day; over more than a decade, we have collected a wealth of data on material characteristics and performance (ourselves, through partnerships with clients, and through analyses by agencies and academics), but we can delve into that detail once the various uses of AQB are better understood. I like to keep presentations conversational, so I welcome questions at any time – especially if I’m skimming over something too quickly or saying something that doesn’t make sense. sm

3 BENTONITE: 101 Bentonite 101 Not Your Average Clay
Naturally Occurring – weathering volcanic ash - composed mostly of montmorillonite - classified by dominant elements (e.g. Na and Ca) Known for Swell - ionic interaction between water and mineralogy create “shingle effect” when exposed to water Recognized for Low Permeability - used for generations in sealing and water proofing applications in a broad range of commercial and environmental settings Take-home messages from this slide: Bentonite is an earthen (natural) material that is mined in various regions of the country and the world; sodium (Na) and calcium (Ca) bentonite are the most common types used in industrial applications; Bentonite is know for swell; picture platelets of clay pushed apart by water molecules (see upper-right inset) due to ionic forces; Swell in and of itself is not worth much – what we’re typically driving for when using bentonite is reduced permeability; Not all bentonite is created equal – we’ve looked at samples of bentonite from all over the country and now all over the world, and even though the mineralogy may, in some cases, be very similar, performance still tends to vary dramatically; our clay comes from Wyoming.

4 Swell + Compaction = Low Permeability
BENTONITE: 101 A + B = C Swell + Compaction = Low Permeability powdered bentonite with adhesive binder solid aggregate core Compaction is key to reducing permeability. It’s the competing forces of swell “plus” compaction that lead to low permeability (this is why when bentonite is used in a traditional manner and is tilled into the top horizon of the resident soil, it is then sheeps-foot rolled for compaction). The simple schematic of the AquaBlok particle in the middle of this slide brings these two forces together into one “composite particle”. AquaBlok is “built” by simply wrapping high quality, fine-grained (200 mesh), powdered bentonite around a solid, stone core. The result: a clay coated rock. Some compare it to a peanut M&M; others to a yogurt covered raisin. To us, its just a simple combination that offers some powerful results. It should be mentioned that there is a third component to this unique sealant material; it is a cellulosic (or plant-derived) polymer or binder that simply serves as the “glue” to hold things together. It makes the dry material durable until placement, but once the product hydrates, the binder serves no purpose. By percent weight, the binder is practically a non-detect (meaning it makes up a miniscule percentage of the product’s overall weight). + = sodium bentonite powder crushed limestone AquaBlok® bentonite-stone composite particle

5 Composite Particle System
Gate + PONDSEAL TM ORGANOCLAY HoleBlok TM Many variations on the “composite” theme have evolved since the original invention. Essentially, we now deliver a wide variety of fine-grained materials (e.g. clays, chemicals, treatment media) into and adjacent to water for an equally wide variety of reasons. The product names on the left reflect low permeable sealant materials for various environments (PONDSEAL for basin sealing), HoleBlok for down-well applications, Saltwater for saline environments (because bentonite alone doesn’t perform well in brackish or saline water). The product names on the right are examples of treatment or biological composites: AquaGate+Organo delivers a modified clay to sorb PAHs and petroleum derivatives (on the environmental side of our business); BARACLEAR delivers alum to address excess phosphorus; and SubmerSeed actually delivers viable wetland seeds for targeted placement in inundated conditions (or areas prone to inundation). SALTWATER

6 Material Composition sodium bentonite and adhesive binder
expands when hydrated average particle 1/4 - 3/8” (dry) Our focus, again, in this presentation is our “work horse” product – the sodium bentonite wrapped aggregate for sealing applications. This schematic isn’t much more complicated than the “circle inside a circle”; it’s just intended to remind you of the simple building blocks. Our most versatile blend is built on an AASHTO #8 crushed limestone and is 20% sodium bentonite, by dry weight. We can work off of smaller (#9) and larger (#57) core material and manipulate the percentage of clay: stone for unique applications; but we’ve found that what we call the “2080 #8” blend (20% clay, 80% stone on a #8 aggregate) provides the “biggest bang for the buck” – best combination of positive attributes of the clay and stone at the best price. solid aggregate (limestone) core not to scale

7 AquaBlok AquaBlok Hydration Time Lapse 1 min post 24 hr post hydration
This is sort of the bunch line: It shows a time lapse of the same vessel of material just after 1” of product is added through water atop ~1” of ordinary gravel, and that same quantity of product 24 hours later – after it’s had the chance to swell and create a seal. Note the void spaces between particles (L) are filled on the right; note too that the product has nearly doubled in material thickness (see red line) in 24 hours. The vast majority of swell and sealing takes place in the first 6-8 hours after inundation, but it can take a full 24 hours to get complete hydration. This relatively thin layer (1” dry) swells to nearly 2” if unconsolidated by overburden, but this doubling is not a linear relationship; in other words, 1” will swell to ~2”, but 6” won’t swell to ~12”, but something closer to 8” – this is important, it demonstrates that the material self-consolidates (or self-compacts), helping to drive down permeability. The standard hydraulic conductivity of standard AQB is 10-7 to 10-8 cm/s and can therefore be very effective, even in these relatively thin applications. NOTE: This is a good opportunity to utilize the Gatorade bottle demonstration. Beyond the novelty of being able to open the cap upside down, it also shows many (additional) characteristics of the hydrated product. If a presentation is made in person, it is good to pass around two bottles: one dry and the other hydrated, both with the same quantity of product.

8 Values & Tech Advantages: 1 of 2
Values & Technical Advantages Technically Effective – extreme low permeability a result of reliable swell and self-compaction Offers Targeted Placement – even through water - will not drift or dissipate, minimal dusting Easy to Handle – behaves much like stone aggregate - installed by hand or using a broad range of standard construction equipment - in-field blending typically not recommended - often no need to mechanically compact the material Adds Safety – reduces exposure and manual labor So what makes AQB so different from ordinary bentonite? We know that good quality bentonite has the ability to dramatically reduce permeability when compacted; AQB benefits from the swell characteristics of the clay but SELF-compacts because of the stone. Unlike a granular or bentonite chips, AQB has very little dust and will literally “sink like a stone” – allowing for reliable placement even through standing water. Because AQB is essentially PRE-BLENDED with the stone, it takes away many handling steps; it essentially handles like stone aggregate itself (just keep equipment DRY!). The safety factor really comes down to the material’s ability to free flow into voids in its dry state; it can be backfilled into confined spaces and around pipes and structures without having to put manpower into a vulnerable spot to facilitate compaction.

9 Values & Tech Advantages: 2 of 2
Values & Advantages, cont . . . Durable - Self-healing (even through drying and re-hydration) - Self-supported (thanks to internal aggregate core) Eco-friendly – comprised entirely of earthen ingredients - Does not detrimentally alter water chemistry - Evaluated by EPA in projects throughout US & beyond Versatile – addresses a broad range of technical challenges in and around aquatic environments Durability is a hallmark of both major raw ingredients, so it’s not surprising that AQB brings some important collective advantages: matrix of stone helps contain clay so that even in the outside chance that it dries and cracks, it can benefit from bentonite’s ability to “re-heal” or swell to close cracks; stone also provides significant structural support – interlocking aggregate is much more stable than the raw clay alone (often use smooth peanut butter vs. extra crunchy peanut butter analogy here). AQB rarely would dry out when buried/surrounded by soil unless exposed to extended drought; it draws water through capillary action. AQB also can withstand repeated freeze/thaw cycles – clearly an important characteristic in more northern climates. Eco-friendly is almost cliché, but it’s important to recognize that because of our history working in sensitive environmental locations, we’ve been heavily scrutinized and ultimately approved by agencies like the EPA (state and federal) and their equivalents around the world; any time you are putting hundreds or even thousands of tons of something into or next to the water, it’s important to feel confident that it is not going to hurt fish and wildlife. Plants (especially aggressive ones like cattails) can grow through AQB, especially when applied as a thin cap; the material is nutrient poor, so it isn’t a great growth media, but if plants do grow through the material, the clay has enough rebound to close off the breach once the plant material has died and decayed. Versatility is what keeps life most interesting; we’ve coined the phrase “Nature’s Duct Tape” because we’re finding more reasons every day that it is just a good, loyal tool to have in the toolbox. Nature’s Duct Tape. TM Simple. Unique. Versatile. Effective. 9

10 Sealant “Blanket” Lining
Ponds & Basins Ponds & Basins Now that we’ve worked through some text-heave slides, it’s time to get into some photos! The images on the left show the original concept: placement of dry particles through standing water. This particular application involves a slinger truck (a radial conveyor belt driven off the back of a live box hopper). The contractor is putting 18 tons of material into an existing basin to reinforce the toe of a dam. For water depths of 10’ or less, typical application rate recommendations start at 7-lbs/SF or 1” dry. Thinner applications (4-5-lbs/SF) have been shown to improve containment, but the goal is to create a consistent blanket of product. Just picture AQB like snowflakes accumulating on the bottom of the basin. Whether it’s placement at the toe of a dam or an application over an inconsistency in the bottom substrate (e.g. stone outcropping, sand seam, etc.), effective treatment over isolated areas is a real strong suite for AQB. That is not to say we don’t get involved in full basin linings . . . The photo on the right is construction phase. The contractor opted to put 1” of dry AQB over a ¾-acre basin to improve the holding capacity of the retention pond. You may be able to see snow on the shoreline. The contractor was pushed by weather and was concerned that beyond being very expensive to haul and handle, clay would be difficult to compact in these deteriorating conditions. A two-man crew and a slinger placed 120 tons of AQB over ~32,000SF in under 5 hours. Typically AQB is utilized as a full lining when traditional alternatives (compacted clay, geomembranes) are not technically or economically feasible or desirable. NOTE: Even coverage is easier in the dry (right) where the applicators can confirm placement and rake out any inconsistencies. However, contractors can apply AQB through water with reliable consistency, especially when they take the time to “grid” the area to be treated with rope and/or stakes. This way, the applicator knows exactly how much product needs to be placed in a given area. It feels somewhat like painting a wall; the applicator often does one or more passes over the target area and then comes back again (sometimes from a different angle) to confirm consistent coverage. Sealant “Blanket” Lining

11 Torn/Compromised Synthetic Liner
Ponds & Basins, cont . . . Ponds & Basins, cont . . . When people see AQB lining installations, many jump to the conclusion that the product is intended to compete directly with geoomembranes. While we are most certainly utilized for full-basin treatments, the product is more complementary than competitive. Tares, UV damage, failing seems, and general degradation through time are all realities of any synthetic product. But if 99% of the basin is being contained by a membrane effectively, spot treatment makes sense. Because AQB is all-earthen and non-corrosive, it is completely compatible with the wide array of geomembranes available on the market. Because of the weight and self-compacting nature of AQB, it can often be as simple as direct placement over the area of vulnerability. Think of these repairs just like you would placement of a band-aid: the goal should be intimate contact between the AQB and the liner and just like with a bandage, enough overlap to provide lasting protection. Again, the primary benefits here are minimal site prep (no draining, drying cleaning, priming, etc.), ease of placement, and cost savings especially because the basin doesn’t have to be taken out of commission to complete the repair. CAUTIONARY NOTES: If the breach is on a steep slope and/or slick membrane, extra care may need to be given to keep the AQB stable over the tare – AQB is tacky, but like any bulk material, it is prone to slump if not supported. If the liner is covered with sand or other earthen layer, this substrate should be cleared so that AQB can be placed directly atop the liner. If the breach occurs in shallow water (<2’) or in areas with sustained energy (like wind), consider armoring the hydrated AQB with 2-3” of gravel to protect the product over time. Torn/Compromised Synthetic Liner

12 Vertical Barrier Trench
Dams, Berms & Levees This application turns product placement on its axis so that AQB is gravity dropped into a vertical trench. AQB’s purpose here is to serve as a barrier to lateral migration of water. Essentially, it’s the equivalent of installing a core trench into an existing dam. In the case above, the “cut-off wall” or “barrier trench” is installed adjacent to a waste water pond. Trench dimensions are driven by the depth of the seep and constructability (based on soil types). In this particular case, the trench needed to be relatively wide (18”) to achieve the depth needed to intercept the seep. The vulnerability was isolated to an area ~9’ below the top of the dam, so the contractor excavated to a depth of 11-12’ to be sure that AQB had good competent clay to “key” into. Contractors (and clients) like this approach because: Often the repair can be completed without drawing the basin down/taking it out of operation; Trench can be cut with standard equipment (trenchers, excavators, etc.) with minimal disturbance to surroundings; Trench widths are modest – typically ~6-18” depending on depth of seep, equipment availability, and soil types; AQB can be added to a trench that has water in it – as long as contractor can see to construct the trench, water in the excavation is not a problem (it will just hydrate the product as it is added); Filling the trench with AQB takes less time than cutting the trench – in the project above, it took the contractor 2-3 hours to excavate the nearly 50’ run, but it only took 1.5 hours to backfill the trench (and most of this time was spent shuttling bulk bags from the stockpile area to the trench itself); The AQB self-consolidates and swells to key into surrounding soils – this means the product can be added quickly and without any form of manual compaction; Once the product is added to the target grade (R) the trench can be surface dressed with soil and seeded, making it hard to tell that the repair ever took place; If additional seeps are identified in other portions of the dam, individual trench applications can be installed to address the seeps or they can be “tied into” existing (hydrated) barrier trenches – the newly installed AQB will simply hydrate into the existing material. NOTE: Worth pointing out that the 1-CY bulk bags weigh 2,400-lbs each and are equipped with four lifting straps and a discharge snout (pictured above). These snouts allow for directed placement, but the material does discharge quickly (<10 seconds) if opened completely. One trick contractors use to control the rate and direction of discharge is to cut the sides of the bulk bag, working from the top to the bottom – so that the desired quantity can be metered out at a desired rate. Legally, we cannot re-use the bulk bags, so there is no deposit on them (essentially, they are disposable). Vertical Barrier Trench Construction

13 Dams, Berms & Levees, cont . . . Plugging Remnant Field Tiles
This is a smaller-scale repair that is common on dams and levees in wetland environments. This particular rehab was on a levee constructed back in the 1960s. It is located within a 10,000+ acre wetland unit managed by the USFWS on Lake Erie. If you look at the center photo, the goal was to maintain the unit to the left as a shallow water (“wet”) environment while managing the unit to the photo’s right as a “moist” unit (without standing water). The photo on the left shows a 24” wide channel that runs through the levee from the wet to the moist unit (left to right on the center photo); this is a common culprit of water loss the remnants of an agricultural field tile. When the levee was built, an excavator bucket was used to break the tile and back clay over what remained. Over time, these clay packs fail, providing regular conduits through the levee. The photo on the right shows water pouring from the backside (into the moist unit) prior to repair. The AQB fix was pretty simple: four, 50-lb bags of AQB were hand placed into the upstream side of the cavity and allowed to hydrate. Within one hour, the water had slowed substantially. By the next morning, water had stopped flowing on the backside. Managers appreciate this repair option for several reasons: This is a common issue that would typically require an excavator (and skilled operator), consistent borrow clay, and several hours to repair. By contrast, the AQB fix can be completed without equipment, a skilled operator, or any burrow material at all and it can be completed in literally minutes The AQB repair cost savings is substantial over traditional alternatives and in the case of a managed unit like the one above, saves even more money by reducing the electricity needed to pump water into the wet unit. If the soil around the AQB plug is stable, this repair is stable and should last years. The lifespan of AQB should be thought of in geologic terms – after all, it’s built of stone and volcanic ash. Plugging Remnant Field Tiles

14 Dams, Berms & Levees, cont . . . Repairing/Discouraging Animal Damage
While this application might seem inconsequential – maybe even funny – at first blush, people spend lots and lots of money not to mention time trying to address damage created by burrowing animals like muskrats, nutria, groundhogs, beaver, etc. This is a classic example of AQB’s capability to keep small issues small. The goal here is to plug the borrows before an isolated issue expands to cause major problems. Homeowners, lake and wetland managers, and maintenance personnel have tried some creative methods, but they usually involve pouring concrete or trying to compact clay and/or stone into the cavities. The challenge with any of these materials is that it is difficult to provide a consistent and durable backfill. Concrete obviously serves many purposes well, but this is not one of them. Not only does it shrink and crack with time, it also provides a hard surface to accelerate erosion and invite further problems. Unlike concrete that shrinks, cracks, and degrades with time, AQB swells, self-heals, and remains pliable and durable through time. AQB is not a silver bullet – it won’t prevent rodents from digging into the bank from the start, but it will discourage them from continuing to cause damage in areas that have been plugged. Repairing/Discouraging Animal Damage

15 Anti-Seep Collars/Plugs
Utility-related Applications Now we transition to utility-related applications . . . The photos on the left show the NRCS utilizing AQB as an anti-seep around PVC pipe. In this case, they install the product into a prefab form, but it is also utilized as a backfill around traditional diaphragm collars (to provide structural support and a consistent seal without compromising the integrity of the collar). The two photos on the right show more of an anti-seep plug rehabilitation using AQB. This is an eye-opening example of how even small diameter pipe can cause big issues. These are two 1.5” diameter PVC lines (the black pipes) that are part of a residential geothermal loop system running into a pond. They are bedded in very tight clay and operated without incident for more than 10 years. We received a call from the homeowner that his sump pump started running out of the blue and had continued to do so for literally 12 months non-stop. We had them auger a hole ~3’ deep next to the PVC lines (from on top) and with just 2-3’ of head pressure from the pond, water quickly filled the hole. The contractor dug down, exposed about 12” of both pipes, and placed AQB all the way around the pipe (about 12” min. on all sides). By the following morning, the sump pump stopped for the first time in literally a year. We obviously won over a customer (and contractor) with this simple installation. Anti Seep Collar/Plug Installation

16 Utility-related Applications Trench Dams/Water Stops
bedding H This is just an anti-seep collar on a grander scale. These “dams” are typically installed as a safety measure. They are placed every 50 ft. (for example) along a utility line to hold back water migrating along the outside of the pipe (through the bedding stone). Traditional materials used include compacted clay (usually found on- or near-site), clay or stone mixed with bentonite, or flowable fill. Drawbacks of these alternatives: Compacted Clay: requires proper borrow material, labor intensive, difficult to get proper compaction without moving or damaging pipe, can slump with time (allowing seepage or even failure); Clay/Stone/Bentonite Mixes: requires field mixing, performance based on uniformity (which is hard to achieve) Flowable Fill: shrinks, cracks, rigidity can stress and even crack pipe Advantages of AQB alternative: No borrow material needed No compaction needed No field blending needed (uniformity insured right out of packaging) Consistent swell adheres clay to pipe and keys to surrounding soils “Flowable” in dry state – easy to place without voids or inconsistencies Provides structural support for pipe – won’t settle or create shear stress AquaBlok Trench Dams/Water Stops

17 Control Structures Utility-related Applications/I & I
We often find ourselves involved in rehabilitations where water has either undermined around a structure or created failures because of seepage at joints and material transitions. Any time unlike materials come together (e.g. concrete to HDPE) there is an increased potential for leaks that can compound to cause instability. Especially when equipment is already mobilized on-site, these are often small bulk bag applications. In other cases, the issues can be addressed using 50-lb bags. As more and more engineers learn of AQB, we find ourselves written into specs during structure installation. Construction-phase treatments are a preventative maintenance step and cost pennies on the dollar as compared to the costs of repairing (or replacing) a structure after damage occurs. NOTE: The USFWS has begun using AQB to bed their PVC Agri Drain control structures in wetland environments. The primary benefit is that they can achieve a reliable and reproducible seal without the need to compact near the structure itself (a practice that can either result in under compaction or cracked structures). Reinforcing/Bedding Control Structures

18 I&I Manhole Utility-related Applications/I & I
AQB is also being utilized as a simple backfill on the exterior of aging and ailing infrastructure like manholes and catch basins. Loose mortar on risers, leaks around stubs, and fatigue cracks are all examples of areas that can be fortified using AQB. A minimum thickness of 6” of material is recommended for these areas of vulnerability, but certain techniques and equipment – like the “air knife” or “vac truck” (lower R photo) – can minimize material need. The goal in these cases is to reduce volumes of “infiltration” – clean water entering infrastructure intended to convey water that ultimately needs to be treated. AQB spot repair not only can reduce this infiltration, it can also extend the life and function of the infrastructure itself and often at significant cost savings over traditional alternatives. Loose Mortar, Stub Outs, Fatigue Cracks

19 Utility-related Applications/I & I Pre-cast Joints, Failing Rings
I&I Case Study: 1 Utility-related Applications/I & I CASE STUDY: Pre-Treatment This is an example of infiltration reduction on a leachate pump station at a landfill. This catch basin is intended to handle leachate only, but when sheet flow runoff from the adjacent cell flows downhill and to this station, it was finding its way between the semi-circular slab and the top of the basin. Pre-cast Joints, Failing Rings

20 Utility-related Applications/I & I
I&I Case Study: 2 Utility-related Applications/I & I The AQB remedy was pretty simple. The engineer called for an apron of AquaBlok to encircle the slab. CASE STUDY: Treatment

21 Utility-related Applications/I & I
I&I Case Study: 3 Utility-related Applications/I & I By the time the contractor finished surface grading, the flow into the basin had stopped (center photo). The beauty with these types of applications is that the results are quantifiable and economically justifiable. The landfill could compare pre-application volumes after a 1” rain to post-application volumes, and the cost of the product installation was an easy economic decision based on the reduction in water to be treated. CASE STUDY: Post-Treatment

22 Other Geotechnical Applications
Sink Holes Other Geotechnical Applications Now we will briefly touch on some other situations and circumstances where AQB has been utilized. Sink holes are an example of an application where others have utilized the positive attributes of AQB without our even knowing it. We are looking to build our own experience with these types of applications but it is a perfect example of how our material can be utilized in conjunction with other materials and manufactured products to improve the total performance of the repair. Because sink holes are more prevalent in certain geographies, this use may or may not be of significance to you. But if it resonates or if you have specific projects you’d like to discuss, we’d be happy to participate. Sink Holes

23 Cellular Confinement Other Geotechnical Applications
AQB in conjunction with a 3-dimensional geocell is yet another example of the product’s compatibility with other technologies familiar to the industry. This combination is most relevant when slopes are extreme (steeper than 3:1) and/or when other forces are at work on the project. In the case of the photos above, AQB is being utilized not only as a hydraulic sealant, but also a chemical barrier. Custom formulations of AQB (beyond the off-the-shelf 2080) are typically required to address specific contaminants. The projects above are at MGP (manufactured gas plant) sites (L, C) and a landfill (R). In the cases where AQB is placed adjacent to or into a stream or channel, it is often recommended that the product be armored to protect it from continuous or high flow conditions. AQB can withstand flow rates of 4-5 ft/sec over sustained periods (an impressive performance standard for a material made up of fine-grained clay particles), but the upper-most bentonite layer will be sacrificed under these conditions – exposing stone that then armors the sealant layer below. Because the settings shown above (C, R) are prone to high, fast moving water, AQB is actually armored with articulated concrete mats. Cellular Confinement/Bank Stabilization

24 Other Geotechnical Applications Temporary Dams/Stream Diversion
Bladder AquaBlok Base This usage for AQB evolved through its initial use on a single site. AQB was first placed as a base (L) to seal large and irregular cobble beneath a “bladder dam.” When the contractor saw how fast, easy, and effective it was, they opted to create their next temporary stream diversion out of local soil and then simply face the earthen dam with AQB (R). The area beneath the dam could then be dewatered and the dam could be easily breached when work was completed (due to the flexibility of the hydrated material). Hydrated product could be safely disposed of on-site (it was actually used to help stabilize a portion of the stream’s shoreline). Temporary Dams/Stream Diversion 24

25 Other Geotechnical Applications
Flood Mitigation Other Geotechnical Applications The name “AquaBlok” seems somehow more relevant when a community is under water or about to be. AQB has been used to reinforce sandbag protection, especially when water is finding it’s way beneath the traditional barrier. It has also been used almost like a premium sandbag to protect critical structures like utility boxes, transformers, etc. Flood Mitigation

26 Packaging Options Packaging Options 50-lb. bags* Bulk bags*
48 bags/pallet (2,400-lbs.) Durable 3-ply paper bags Available singly and by the pallet Bulk bags* 2,400-lb (1cy) per tote Water resistant poly w/ discharge snout Available singly or by the truckload * Product extremely water sensitive -- should be stored under-roof or completely beneath reliable tarps prior to application As demonstrated by this simple packaging, AQB is not flashy . But what it lacks in glamour it makes up in functionality. The bulk totes are our workhorse packaging unit. Each is 1 CY or ~2400-lbs and features four lift straps and a discharge snout on the center of the bottom. They can be stacked two-high and ship on a hardwood pallet. We also offer 50-lb bags for what I call “wheelbarrow repairs” – if the job isn’t big enough to justify equipment or if access is tough, it’s nice to have the option to sling bags manually. Again, think Nature’s Duct Tape! Pallets of 50’s include 48 bags, so also contain 2400-lbs or 1 CY of material. In either case, pallets should be stored either under-roof, or at the very least, under a secure tarp. If water gets on AQB, it’s going to do what it knows how to do And it’s best for that not to happen until the product has been applied. Humidity has not proven to be problematic, provided the product is kept in it’s original packaging. We do recommend minimizing the head-space in the bulk bags, particularly when stored in an area prone to broad temperature swings. If the product warms during the day and then cools at night, it can cause condensation in the empty portion of the bag that can then drip back down on the product – hydrating it. Keeping the top of the bag tied and air space minimized will combat condensation. Shelf-life in dry storage should be years. We’ve had product warehoused for multiple years in various climates (Maine to Wyoming to Houston, TX) without issue.

27 All testing conducted by independent, AASHTO- certified soils lab
Geotechnical Data Geotechnical Data Dry State Characteristics Permeability Percent Swell Shear Strength Erosion Resistance Swell Pressure Bearing Capacity Compaction Freeze/Thaw Response My goal is never to bog an introductory presentation down with too much technical detail, but it’s important that you know that this data is available. Our founder and majority owner is a data-loving P.E., so we’ve spent a lot of our own time and resources (and others’) investigating AQB. We have a wealth of information that has been collected by independent, certified labs, agencies, and a pretty impressive list of universities. If you need to know more about any dry or wet-state characteristics or any other detail, please don’t hesitate to reach out and ask. All testing conducted by independent, AASHTO- certified soils lab

28 Post-It Post-It® Note = scrap paper + glue AquaBlok®
Just as . . . AquaBlok® = bentonite + stone In both cases, The whole is greater than the sum of its parts . . . Just like a post-it note is simply scrap paper and glue, AQB is “just” stone and clay. But hopefully today’s introduction has begun to demonstrate that the convenience of bringing the two together into the field offers some real conveniences and advantages.

29 Thank You Thank you! Questions?
If you have any specific projects where AQB may have a good fit, we’d certainly love to discuss and answer any project-specific questions that you might have . . .

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