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Quantum Mechanical Model Electron Placement. Carries the negative charge of the atom Has mass of 0.0006 amu (6/10000 mass of a proton) Located in region.

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Presentation on theme: "Quantum Mechanical Model Electron Placement. Carries the negative charge of the atom Has mass of 0.0006 amu (6/10000 mass of a proton) Located in region."— Presentation transcript:

1 Quantum Mechanical Model Electron Placement

2 Carries the negative charge of the atom Has mass of amu (6/10000 mass of a proton) Located in region around nucleus Has a spin that creates a magnetic field –Either spins clockwise (up) –Or counterclockwise (down) Atoms are electrically neutral, therefore, the number of electrons = number of protons. Electron basics

3 B. Electron Placement 1. Not Bohr Orbits Electrons rarely, if ever, orbit in neatly defined circles.

4 2. Orbitals = Regions of Probability Where electrons are likely to be found Determined by electron density –Area of high density = many electrons are there = Orbital! –Area of low density = few electrons are there = Not Orbital! B. Electron Placement

5 Orbital Shapes: 2. Orbitals = Regions of Probability –s - spherical shape, centered on nucleus–p - dumb-bell shaped, with three possible orientations on x-, y- or z-axes. Dumb-bell neck centers on nucleus –d - clover shaped, with four possible orientations in xy, yz, zx, and x 2 – y 2 planes; also one dumb-bell- with-ring shape, on z-axis. Five total orbital orientations. –f – very complex shapes, with seven orbital orientations. (pictures dont do this shape justice.)

6 3. Energy Levels As Bohr theorized, we believe electrons have certain levels of energy (level = n = 1, 2, 3, etc.) For each level of energy, there are sublevels of energy: Energy levelSublevels n = 11s1s n = 22s, 2p n = 33s, 3p, 3d n = 44s, 4p, 4d, 4f B. Electron Placement

7 Each level n has n sublevels Each sublevel (s, p, d, f) corresponds to orbital shapes and orientations: –Sublevel s contains one s orbital –Sublevel p contains three p orbitals –Sublevel d contains five d orbitals –Sublevel f contains seven f orbitals 3. Energy Levels

8 4. Fitting electrons into place: Electron Configuration Aufbau Principle: Electrons will inhabit the lowest possible energy level and sublevel. Pauli Exclusion Principle: Each orbital holds a maximum of two electrons: one of each spin. Hunds Rule: Electrons will spread themselves out in a sublevel so that a maximum number of unpaired electrons result –If a sublevel were a bus, electrons wouldnt share seats unless they had to. B. Electron Placement

9 Electron Configuration ENERGYENERGY 1s1s 2s2s 2p2p 3s3s 3p3p 4s4s 3d3d Fluorine: 9 protons, 9 electrons 1s 2 2s22s2 2p52p5


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