Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Quantum Model of the Atom Electrons in Atoms. zSchrödinger Wave Equation (1926) ydefines probability of finding an e -

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Quantum Model of the Atom Electrons in Atoms. zSchrödinger Wave Equation (1926) ydefines probability of finding an e -"— Presentation transcript:

1 Quantum Model of the Atom Electrons in Atoms

2 zSchrödinger Wave Equation (1926) ydefines probability of finding an e -

3 Orbital zOrbital (electron cloud) yRegion in space where there is 90% probability of finding an e -

4 Orbital A 3-dimensional space around a nucleus in which electrons are most likely to be found A 3-dimensional space around a nucleus in which electrons are most likely to be found Shape represents electron density (not a path the electron follows) Shape represents electron density (not a path the electron follows) Each orbital can hold up to 2 electrons Each orbital can hold up to 2 electrons

5 Quantum Numbers UPPER LEVEL zFour Quantum Numbers: ySpecify the address of each electron in an atom

6 Quantum Mechanics Describes the arrangement and space occupied by electrons in atoms

7 Quantum Mechanics Describes the arrangement of electrons in atoms in terms of: Main or principal energy levels or shells (n) Main or principal energy levels or shells (n) (Oklahoma City) Energy sublevels or subshells Energy sublevels or subshells (Britton Road) Orbitals Orbitals (house # 200) Electron spin Electron spin (room # 4)

8 Quantum Numbers 1. Principal Quantum Number ( n ) yEnergy level or shell ySize of the orbital

9 Principal Quantum Number ( n ) Contain electrons that are Close in energy Close in energy Similar distance from nucleus Similar distance from nucleus Have values of n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6….. Have values of n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6…..

10 Energy Levels (Shells) The first shell (n = 1) is lowest in energy, 2 nd level next and so on 1<2<3<4 The first shell (n = 1) is lowest in energy, 2 nd level next and so on 1<2<3<4 Low energy electrons are closest to the nucleus Low energy electrons are closest to the nucleus

11 Quantum Numbers s p d f 2. Angular Momentum Quantum # ( l ) yEnergy sublevel or subshell yShape of the orbital

12 Subshells Energy sublevels within energy level Energy sublevels within energy level All electrons in a subshell have the same energy All electrons in a subshell have the same energy Designated s, p, d, f.. Designated s, p, d, f.. Sublevel energy: s { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/217833/1/slides/slide_11.jpg", "name": "Subshells Energy sublevels within energy level Energy sublevels within energy level All electrons in a subshell have the same energy All electrons in a subshell have the same energy Designated s, p, d, f..", "description": "Designated s, p, d, f.. Sublevel energy: s

13 Main Energy LevelsSublevels n=44s, 4p, 4d, 4f n=33s, 3p, 3d n=22s, 2p n=11s n=# of energy sublevels per energy level

14 Sublevels in n = 1,2, 3 n = 33d 3p3s n = 2 2p 2s n = 11s

15 Quantum Numbers 3. Magnetic Quantum Number ( m l ) yOrientation of orbital Specifies the exact orbital within each sublevel

16 s subshell contains 1 s orbital 1s 2s 3s

17 p subshell contains 3 p orbitals pxpx pzpz pypy

18 d subshell contains 5 d orbitals

19 f subshell contains 7 f orbitals

20 Quantum Numbers zn=# of energy sublevels per energy level zn 2 =# of orbitals per energy level zSublevel sets: 1 s, 3 p, 5 d, 7 f

21 Number of Electrons Each orbital can hold up to 2 electrons Maximum number of electrons in any energy level = 2n 2 n =12(1) 2 = 2 n =22(2) 2 = 8 n =32(3) 2 =18

22 Electrons Allowed All 2s electrons have the same energy All 2s electrons have the same energy All 2p electrons have the same energy which is slightly higher than the energy of the 2s electrons All 2p electrons have the same energy which is slightly higher than the energy of the 2s electrons s sublevel 2 electrons p sublevel 6 electrons d sublevel 10 electrons f sublevel 14 electrons

23 Quantum Numbers zOrbitals combine to form a spherical shape. 2s 2p z 2p y 2p x

24 Quantum Numbers 4. Spin Quantum Number ( m s ) yElectron spin +½ or -½ yAn orbital can hold 2 electrons that spin in opposite directions

25 Quantum Numbers 1. Principal # 2. Ang. Mom. # 3. Magnetic # 4. Spin # energy level sublevel (s,p,d,f) orbital electron spin zPauli Exclusion Principle yNo two electrons in an atom can have the same 4 quantum numbers. yEach e - has a unique address

26 zPauli Exclusion Principle yEach orbital can hold TWO electrons with opposite spins.

27 A. Number of electrons in a p orbital 1e or 2e B. Number of orbitals in a p subshell 3 C. Number of orbitals in 4d subshell 5 D. Maximum number of electrons in a 3d subshell 10e

28 ORBITAL DIAGRAM zSzShows the electrons in each orbital zCzCircles, boxes, or lines are used to represent orbitals zAzArrows or half-arrows represent electrons

29 l = 0s subshell 1p 2d 3f

30 m l 0 s orbital

31 M l p orbital

32 M l d orbital

33 M l f orbital

34 electron spin m s +1/2 -1/2

35 Orbital diagram nl mlml msms 700+1/2 61+1/ /2 7s 6p 5d

36 Orbital diagram nl mlml msms /2 42-1/ f d f

37 Feeling overwhelmed? Read Section 4-2!


Download ppt "Quantum Model of the Atom Electrons in Atoms. zSchrödinger Wave Equation (1926) ydefines probability of finding an e -"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google