2Data 1. To identify problems to work on. Why Gather Data? Facts or figures fromwhich conclusions can bedrawn.A basis for reasoning,discussion or calculation.DataWhy Gather Data?1. To identify problems to work on.2. To analyze the selected problem as in- assessing extent of problem- identifying patterns- verifying probable causes3. To prevent problems from arising orrecurring.4. To select possible action plans5. To establish effectiveness ofimplemented solutions.
3Checksheet A check sheet is a form prepared to facilitate checking off or marking.The function of a check sheet is toprovide a systematic technique forrecording observations and should be designed so thatdata can be posted on them and used with minimum effort.Check sheets serve many purposes andshould be designed so data can beposted on them and used withminimum effort.Checksheet1. Agree as to what event is being observed.2. Decide on the time period during whichdata will be collected.3. Design a form which is clear completeand easy to use.4. Collect data consistently and honestly.Constructinga checksheet
4Pareto Diagram How to construct A Pareto Diagram is a special form of vertical graphs which helps us to determinewhich problems to solve in what order.Doing a Pareto diagram based uponcheck sheets or other forms of datacollection helps us direct our attention andefforts to truly important problems.ParetoDiagramHow to constructStep 1. Select the standard for comparison,e.g., annual cost, frequency of defectsStep 2. Select the time period to be studied.Step 3. Gather data. Use a checklistStep 4. Transfer information from a check sheetto a column graph arranged indescending order.Step 5. Summarize data from the check sheetto construct the cumulative line.
11Different Uses 4. To evaluate before and after corrective action. Effective
12Problem, Effect or Result Cause and Effect DiagramA cause and effect diagram is a picturecomposed of lines and arrows to representrelationships between effects and its causes.A primary use for Cause and Effect diagramsis to analyze existing problems or situations sothat corrective measures can be taken.The Cause and Effect diagram is a valuabletoo to use in sorting out “non-contributing”causes; leaving only the “true” causes.How to constructStep 1. Pick a result, effect or problem tobe solved. Virtually display problemstatement.Problem, Effect or Result
13Problem, Effect or Result How to construct Cause & Effect DiagramStep 2. Categorize causes by major elementsand put boxes around them.Start with 4Ms and 1E (Man, Machine,Materials, Method, Environment)MachineManProblem, Effect or ResultMethodMaterialsEnvironment
14Problem, Effect or Result How to Construct a Cause & Effect DiagramStep 2. Categorize causes by major elementsand put boxes around them.Start with 4Ms and 1E (Man, Machine,Materials, Method, Environment)Problem, Effect or ResultManMachineMethodMaterialsEnvironment
15Problem, Effect or Result How to Construct a Cause & Effect DiagramStep 2. Add smaller branches to main causesand continue adding until all possiblecauses are exhausted.Problem, Effect or ResultUse brainstorming to generate a large number of specificcauses in each category.Ask who, why, what, when, where, or how to stimulatethinking.
16Brainstorming It is a creative process for generating a large quantity of ideas utilizing a group.
17How to Use a Cause and Effect Diagram Step 1.Compare all causes (What is)against operational standard(What should be).Circle the causes for causing“bad” effect.The diagram can be used toevaluate if operational standardis inadequate.
18How to Use a Cause and Effect Diagram Find out which of the circledcauses have a significanteffect on the problem.How?1. Use technical knowledge2. Obtain opinion3. Verify through datagathering4. Do more analysis of data5. Possibly design anexperimentStep 2.
19How to Use a Cause and Effect Diagram Steps3. Construct a plan on how theproblems are to be resolved.* the plan should include activities,timetable and person responsible.4. Because the Cause & Effect diagramreflects graphically the results ofinvestigating a problem, it is agood idea to post it in the workarea so that everyone can seewhy action is necessary.5. Continue improvements and revisionsto improvements.3,4 & 5
20Histogram A Histogram is a graph which shows the frequency of occurrence in anumber of related measurements.A histogram reveals how measurementsvary from one another and displaysthe distribution of data. It can beused to compare sample results withspecification.
21How to Construct a Histogram Step 1. Gather data. Minimum of 50 observations.
22How to Construct a Histogram Step 2. Identify the largest and smallestmeasurement. Compute the range.Range = Maximum - Minimumreading readingRange == .08
23How to Construct a Histogram Step 3. Determine how many classes arerequired to make a histogram.Compute for the class interval.RClass Interval = =KClass Interval = or .02K is a constant determined from a table.
24How to Construct a Histogram For Constant K,DATA and Class AmountsNumber of Appropriate No.Observations of ClassesOver
25How to Construct a Histogram Step 4. Determine the boundary line betweenclasses.Class Class Interval
26How to Construct a Histogram Step 5. Transfer data to a tally sheetTally Sheet
27How to Construct a Histogram Step 6. Transform data from tally sheetto a Histogram.
28Scatter Diagram A Scatter Diagram is used to study the possible relationships between one variableand another.The Scatter Diagram is used to test forpossible cause and effect relationships.It cannot prove that one variable causesthe other, but it does make it clearwhether a relationship exists and thestrength of that relationship.
29Scatter Diagram A Scatter Diagram is set up whereby the horizontal axis (X-axis) represents the measurement values ofone variable and the vertical axis (Y-axis) representsthe measurement of the second variable.Variable2Variable 1
30How to Construct a Scatter Diagram Step 1. Collect 50 to paired samplesof data that you think may berelated. Construct a data sheetas follows:Relationship between Manual & Auto Titration (Sn + 2)
31How to Construct a Scatter Diagram Step 2. Draw the horizontal and Vertical Axesof the diagram.50434240Auto g/lyManual g/lX
32How to Construct a Scatter Diagram Step 3. Plot the data on the diagram. If youfind the values being repeated, circlethat point as many times as appropriate.
33Scatter Diagram Patterns Positively Correlated Negatively Correlated No Correlation
34Stratification Helps analyze cases in which data Stratification is a process of classifyingdata into subgroups based on categoriesand characteristics.Helps analyze cases in which dataactually masks the real facts.Breaks down single numbers intomeaningful categories or classificationsto focus on the corrective action.
35When to Stratify? 1. During data gathering to design check sheets, create checklist, scatter diagramand cause and effect diagram.2. During data analysis when using histograms,pareto charts, scatter diagrams andcause and effect analysis.Stratification break down single numbers intomeaningful categories or classifications to focuson corrective action.
36What is a Control Chart? Control Chart is a graphic representation of a process.Sample averages are plotted on the chart.Statistically determine the upper and lowercontrol limits drawn on either side of theprocess average.Makes it possible to tell if a process is functioning normallyand to see immediately if malfunctioning has occurred.