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RADIOGRAPHIC FILM PROCESSING DARKROOM. THE PROCESSING AREA PROCESSING AREA VIEWING SECTION.

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Presentation on theme: "RADIOGRAPHIC FILM PROCESSING DARKROOM. THE PROCESSING AREA PROCESSING AREA VIEWING SECTION."— Presentation transcript:

1 RADIOGRAPHIC FILM PROCESSING DARKROOM

2 THE PROCESSING AREA PROCESSING AREA VIEWING SECTION

3 VIEWING AREA PROCESSING AREA

4 VIEWING SECTION VIEWBOX ILLUMINATION INTENSITY-500-1000 FOOT CANDLES

5 PHOTOMETER IS USED TO MEASURE VIEWBOX ILLUMINATION INTENSITY

6 VIEWING STATION

7 VIEWBOX LIGHT IF ONE BULB IS BLOWN ALL BULBS HAVE TO REPLACED

8 VIWBOXES TO BE CLEANED ONCE EVERY 6 MONTHS IF USED 24/7 – BULBS CHANGES ONCE A YEAR IF USED 12/7 BULBS CHANGED ONCE EVERY TWO YEARS

9 VIEWING AREA HOT LIGHT

10 MOST OF MODERN MEDICAL IMAGING DEPARTMENTS USE AUTOMATIC PROCESSORS MOST OF THOSE ARE DAYLIGHT PROCESSORS

11 AUTOMATIC DAYLIGHT PROCESSORS

12 AUTOMATIC DARKROOM PROCESSORS

13

14 MANUAL PROCESSING

15 DARKROOM

16 BASIC COMPONENTS OF DARKROOM STORAGE SHELVES WORKBENCH

17 BASIC COMPONENTS: PROCESSOR

18 BASIC COMPONENTS: CHEMISTRY MIXING TANKS

19 BASIC COMPONENTS: FILM DUPLICATOR

20 DUPLICATING FILM EXPOSED TO ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

21 BASIC COMPONENTS: FILM FLASHER

22 BASIC COMPONENTS: SILVER RECOVERY SYSTEM

23 BASIC COMPONENTS FILM BIN

24 FILM BIN AUDIO ALARM

25 FILM BIN ANATOMY CONTAINS INDIVIDUAL SLOTS THAT HOLD FILMS OF DIFFERENT SIZES

26 TYPICAL DARKROOM FILM BIN 14 x 17 FRONT 11 x 14 10 x 12 8 x 10 OTHER FILMS

27 RADIOGRAPHIC FILM SIZES 14 X17 11 x 14 10 x 12 8 x 10 7 x 17 6 x 12 14 x 36 35 x 43 28 x 35 25 x 30 20 x 25 18 x 43 15 x 30 35 x 91

28 DARKROOM LIGHT WHITE LIGHTS SAFELIGHTS

29 WHITE LIGHT IS USED FOR: EQUIPMENT REPAIR AND DARKROOM CLEANING

30 SAFELIGHTS USED DURING FILM PROCESSING

31 SAFELIGHT BULBS INCANDESCENT RECESSED WITHIN METALLIC LIGHT FIXTURE RED FILTER-- KODAK GBX-2 OR GS-1 AMBER FILTER --WRATTEN 6B

32 SAFELIGHTS REDGREEN LIGHT SENSITIVE FILM ORTHOCHROMATIC AMBER –BLUE LIGHT SENSITIVE FILM TOTAL DARKNESS FOR PANCHROMATIC FILM

33 FILM TRAY 7.5 W AT LEAST 3 FEET FROM THE FILM TRAY

34 FILM TRAY 15 W AT LEAST 4 FEET FROM THE FILM TRAY

35 LATENSIFICATION INCCREASED SENSITIVITY TO SAFELIGHT ILLUMINATION AFTER FILM WAS EXPOSED

36 DARKROOM DESIGN

37 LEAD SHIELDING IF ADJACENT TO X-RAY ROOM 1/16 INCH OF LEAD IN THE WALLS ALL THE WAY TO THE CEILING.

38 IF ADJACENT TO X-RAY ROOMS PASS-BOXES NEEDED TO PASS FILMS DIRECTLY FROM THE X-RAY ROOM TO DARKROOM

39 VENTILATION SYSTEM MUST BE LIGHTPROOF AND ABLE TO FILTER OUT DUST

40 HUMIDITY 40-60% > 60%--FILM FOG <40% STATIC ARTIFACTS

41 SIZE BIG ENOUGH!!!?

42 COLOR WALLS AND CEILING CAN BE PAINTED IN ANY COLOR

43 TEMPERATURE 50-70 º F FOR FILM STORAGE– TO SLOW DOWN THE AGING PROCESS OF THE FILM

44 WOULD YOU STORE IT LIKE THIS???

45 STORE YOUR FILMS STANDING ON THE EDGE TO AVOID PRESSURE MARKS. USE FILM STORAGE CARTS OR SHELVES

46 COLOR OF THE MAZE DARK-- NOT OT REFLECT WHIT LIGHT INTO THE DARKROOM

47 DARKROOM TESTING WHITE LIGHT LEAKS SAFELIGHT FOG

48 SAFELIGHT TEST

49 SENSITOMETRY

50 SENSITOMETRY-QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF FILM RESPONSE TO EXPOSURE & DEVELOPMENT

51 FILM DEVELOPMENT

52 SENSITOMETRIC STRIPS

53 PRODUCING STRIP WITH PENETROMETER

54 X-RAY TUBE

55 PRODUCING STRIP WITH SENSITOMETER

56 VISIBLE LIGHT

57 MEASURING DENSITY WITH DENSITOMETER

58 VISIBLE LIGHT I o I t

59 OD OPTICAL DENSITY OD= LOG Io/I t

60 0.3 = 2 X DENSITY

61 OD vs % OF LIGHT TRANSMISSION 0 1 2 3 4 100 10 1 0.1 0.01 OD% TRANSMISSION

62 Characteristic curve Characteristic curve, a curve used to show the exposure properties of a film or a film screen system. The characteristic curve, which was described in 1890 by Hurter and Driffield, is a representation of how the exposure of the film is related to the measurable signal, i.e. the blackening of the film, or film density. The characteristic curve is different for different film types but has a general shape as shown in Fig.1. The base and fog density is measured on an unexposed film. The shape of the characteristic curve tells the user the contrast properties (slope of the linear part) and the useful exposure range (length of the linear part). It also will indicate the speed of the film (or film-screen system), which can be judged from the curve's position along the horizontal axis. The speed class can also be found from the characteristic curve

63 SENSITOMETRIC CURVE H & D CURVE D Log E CURVE CHARACTERISTIC CURVE

64 SOLARIZATION

65 SYNERGISTIC REACTION PHENIDONE HYDROQUINONE

66 SOLARIZATION FILM DUPLICATION EXPOSURE TIME DENSITY

67 Base Plus Fog ( GROSS FOG, D min 0.15 -.20 OD) The density of the unexposed film base plus any chemical fogging that may occur during processing

68 Inertia Point TRESHOLD The point at which the film has absorbed sufficient light energy to start forming a latent image.

69 Toe A non-linear region where shadow detail is recorded in negative materials (Highlight detail in print material). Compression of the density differences occur and contrast is decreased.

70 Straight Line Portion ( GAMMA, SLOPE) The linear section where most of the information is recorded. This section is used to determine the processed contrast of the film.

71 RANGE OF USEFUL DENSITIES 0.25-2.0

72 Shoulder A non-linear section. Compression of density differences occur and contrast is decreased. It is unusual to record information on this region of the curve, however this region may be reached with overexposure or extended development such as push processing to increase effective film speed

73 QUANTITATIVE DATA OBTAINED FROM H&D CURVE FILM SPEED FILM CONTRAST B+F ( BASE PLUS FOG) EXPOSURE LATITUDE

74 FILM SPEED SLOW FAST

75 FILM CONTRAST AVERAGE GRADIENT A.G.= (OD2 – OD1)/ (LRE2 –LRE1)

76 FILM CONTRAST STEEPNESS OF THE SLOPE

77 FILM CONTRAST AVERAGE GRADIENT D2 D1 LRE2LRE1

78 FILM LATITUDE LATITUDE LATITUDE

79 CONTRAST VERY HIGH VISIBILITY OF DETAIL

80 VISIBILITY OF DETAIL vs CONTRAST HIGH CONTRAST LOW CONTRAST

81 PROCESSOR MONITORING DEVELOPER TEMP DEVELOPMENT TIME. SPEED FOG CONTRAST FOG SPEED CONTRAST

82 THE AUTOMATIC PROCESSOR

83 AUTOMATIC PROCESSOR DAYLIGHT SYSTEM

84 PROCESSOR

85 SECTIONS OF THE PROCESSOR D F W D

86

87 ENTRANCE ROLLERS ENTRANCE ROLLER ENTRANCE ROLLER

88 FILMS ORIENTATION ON THE TRAY 14 X 17 11 X 14 10 X 12 8 X 10 7 X 17

89 PROCESSOR SYSTEMS & SUBSYSTEMS TRANSPORT TEMP. CONTROL RECIRCULATION REPLENISHMENT DRYER ELECTRICAL

90 TRANSPORT TRANSPORT FILM THROUGH PROCESSOR, REGULATION OF IMMERSION TIME, AGITATE SOLUTIONS

91 TRANSPORT ROLLER GUIDE SHOE RACKS

92 TURNAROUND ASSEMBLY MASTER GUIDE SHOE

93 TURNAROUND ASSEMBLY MASTER ROLLER GUIDE SHOE SQUEEGE ROLLER

94 TEMPERATURE CONTROL DRYER AND SOLUTION TEMPERATURE ELECTRICAL HEATER

95 TEMPERATURE VARIATION +- 5 DEG. FARENHEIT

96 TEMPERATURE DEVELOPER FIXER WASH DRYER 95 DEG F 95 DEG. F 90-95 DEG. F 135 DEG. F

97 TEMP. CONTROL

98 DRYER TEMP. DRYER BLOWER RECIRCULATION

99 RECIRCULATION –AGITATION OF SOLUTIONS+ FILTRATION PUMP FILTER

100 RECIRCULATION

101 REPLENISHMENT SYSTEM

102 REPLENISHMENT PUMP DF

103 REPLENISHMENT RATES FOR EVERY 14 IN. OF FILM 60-70 ML OF DEVELOPER 100-110 ML OF FIXER

104 PROCESSING TIME +- 2 % VARIATION 45 SEC-210 SEC. MOST PROCESSORS DROP TIME 90 SEC.

105 RADIOGRAPHIC ARTIFACTS

106 TYPES OF ARTIFACTS PROCESSING EXPOSURE HANDLING AND STORAGE

107 PROCESSING ARTIFACTS HYPORETENTION PI-LINES GUIDE SHOE MARK STATIC ENTRANCE ROLLER MARK CRINKLE MARK FINGER MARKS EMULSION PICK-OFF WATER STAIN

108 EXPOSURE ARTIFACTS MOTION IMPROPER POSITIONING POOR FILM SCREEN CONTACT DOUBLE EXPOSURE FOREIGN OBJECTS BACK-SCATTER CASSETTE UPSIDE-DOWN BROKEN CASSETTE IMPROPER USE OF GRID

109 HANDLING & STORAGE ARTIFACTS LIGHT FOG RADIATION FOG STATIC SCRATCHES HYPORETENTION

110 FILMS STUCK TO EACH OTHER DURING PROCESSING

111 HYPORETENTION

112 PI-LINE

113 GUIDE SHOE MARK

114 STATIC

115

116

117 ROLLER MARKS

118 FINGER MARKS

119 CRIMPING MARK

120 PICK-OFF

121 WATER STAIN

122

123 POOR FILM SCREN CONTACT

124 H.T. (High Voltage) CABLES

125 DOUBLE EXPOSURE

126 BACKSCATTER OR CASSETTE UPSIDE-DOWN

127 BACKSCATTER

128 BACKSCATTER OR CASSETTE UPSIDE-DOWN

129 MOIRE EFFECT

130 WARPED CASSETTE-LIGHT LEAK

131 HAIR BUN

132 CLOTHES RIBBING

133 GRID CUT-OFF

134 JEWELLERY

135 SCATTER FOG

136 SANDBAG

137 FOGGING

138 KYPHOSIS-CHIN

139 STRAP

140 Q.A. TESTS COLLIMATION FOCAL SPOT SIZE KVP CALIBRATION EXPOSURE LINEARITY EXPOSURE REPRODUCIBILITY FILM-SCREEN CONTACT PROTECTIVE APPAREL INTEGRITY

141 COLLIMATION (LIGHT FIELD/RADIATION FIELD CONGRUENCY) SEMI-ANUALLY NINE PENNY TEST OR SPECIAL TOOL TEST +- 2% OF SID

142

143 FOCAL SPOT SIZE ANNUALLY PINHOLE CAMERA, SLIT CAMERA, STAR PATTERN +- 50%

144 STAR PATTERN

145 LINE PAIR TEST TOOL

146 KVP CALLIBRATION ANNUALLY KVP METER +- 10%

147 KVP METER

148 EXPOSURE LINEARITY ANNUALLY DOSIMETER +- 10%

149 EXPOSURE REPRODUCIBILITY ANNUALLY RADIATION DOSIMETER +-5%

150 FILM/SCREEN CONTACT ANNUALLY WIRE MESH NO DARK AREAS PRESENT ON THE FILM

151 WIRE MESH

152 HOW USE WIRE MESH TO TEST FILM SCRREN CONTACT CASSETTE

153 PROTECTIVE APPAREL ANNUALLY FLUORO NO CRACKS OR HOLES


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