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Lords institute of engineering and technology

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Presentation on theme: "Lords institute of engineering and technology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lords institute of engineering and technology
Welcome To Lords institute of engineering and technology Mechanical Department Batch

2 Automatic control of railway gate
Mini project on Automatic control of railway gate

3 What is an embedded system?
II In built Embedded System = Computer Inside a Product

4 Embedded System Embedded system is combination of hardware & software for specific application. Embedded system means the processor is embedded into that application. An embedded product uses a microprocessor or microcontroller to do one task only. In an embedded system, there is only one application software that is typically burned into ROM.

5 How an embedded system works..?
It works with the help of both the hardware and software requirements Hardware: processor, memories, peripherals, power supply etc.., Software: assembly language program (ALP) like c, c++ ..,

6 Types of embedded systems
Simple embedded system ex: small electrical equipments completes its work with in the approximated time Complex embedded system ex: used in military missiles for target based system

7 Examples of embedded systems
Electronic devices in the kitchen E.g.: bread machines, food processors, microwave ovens Living Rooms E.g.: televisions, stereos, remote controls Work places E.g.: fax, pagers, laser printers, cash registers, credit card readers

8 Automotive & Industrial



11 Chapter -2 Micro controller

12 Micro controller The first micro controller was implemented in by a car company wolves wagons in their cars. The 1st micro controller (8048) was developed by Intel in 1976.

13 Found in 1984. Corporate headquarters located in San Jose, California. AVR basic architecture was developed by two students ‘Alf- Egil Bogen’and ‘Vegard Wollan’ at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. IP Core was sold to Atmel by Alf and Vegard

14 ATMEL  AT89C, AT90S, AT Mega, ATCAN AT Mega AT Mega 8 , AT Mega 8515 AT Mega 8535, AT Mega 16 AT Mega 32, AT Mega 162,…………

15 AT Mega Microcontroller
AT represents the name of the manufacturing company “ATMEL”. ATMEL  Advanced Technology Memory End Logic MEGA Clock Frequency of the micro controller (1MHz)

16 Features of ATMega8515 40 Pin IC, PDIP package
High-performance, Low-power AVR 8-bit Microcontroller RISC Architecture 130 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers Program and Data Memories 8K Bytes of In-System Self-programmable Flash 512 Bytes EEPROM Endurance: 100,000 Write/Erase Cycles 512 Bytes Internal SRAM 35 Programmable I/O Lines

17 Pin configuration From 1-40 1 Vcc 40 39 Port B Port A 8 9 10 32 ATMEGA
8515 Reset ICP 31 ALE 30 OC1B Port D 29 28 17 Port C XTAL2 18 XTAL1 19 GND 20 21

18 Memories in AT Mega Data Memory  Temporary EEPROM  Permanent
Flash Memory/Programmable Memory  Permanent

19 Data Memory General Purpose Registers (G.P.R)
 32 registers  R0 to R31  Each 8 bits I/O Registers  64  Each 8 bits SRAM  512 bytes

20 Memory Mapping of Data Memory
$0000 G. P. R $001F $0020 I/O Registers $005F $0060 SRAM $025F

21 Register Pairs / Indirect Addressing
R r x pair R y pair z pair R27 R29 R31 R26 R28 R30 $025F $  R27 $5F  R26 Rah Ral

22 Status Register It is an 8 bit Special register where each bit in the register represents a Flag. Zero Interrupt Zero Negative Bit Store Over flow Sign Half carry

23 Chapter - 3 IR sensors

24 Working of IR pairs Power supply IR transmitter IR receiver comparator

25 DETECTION FACTORS: Six factors typically affect the Probability of Detection (Pd) of most area surveillance (volumetric) sensors, although to varying degrees. These are the: 1) Amount and pattern of emitted energy; 2) Size of the object; 3) Distance to the object; 4) Speed of the object; 5) Direction of movement

Most sensors have been designed with a specific application in mind. The environment categorizes these applications where they are most commonly employed. The two basic environments or categories are exterior and interior. Each of the two basic categories has a number of sub-sets, such as fence, door, window, hallway, and room. The first two of the following set of graphics show a “FREE TREE” illustration of the sensors most applicable to the these two environments.

27 Chapter - 4 Stepper motor

28 Stepper Motor History : Definition : Construction and Operation : Types of Stepper Motor : Real World Stepper Motor

29 Picture of stepper motor

30 Circuit connections

31 Operation principle of stepper motor

32 PRECAUTION If the stepper motor moves slightly and/or queers hack and forth, there are a number of possible causes. If you are using a battery power supply, the batteries may be too weak to power the motor properly. Note; Batteries wear out quickly because the current draw from stepper motors is usually high. If you substituted another transistor for the TIP120 NPN transistor, the substitute transistor may not be switching properly or the current load of the stepper motor may be too great. Solution; use TIPO120 transistors. You have the stepper motor improperly wired into the circuit. Check the coils using an ohmmeter and rewire if necessary. The pulse frequency is too high. If the pulses to the stepper moor are going faster that the motor can react, the motor will malfunction.

33 Conclusion This is to conclude that this project Automatic control of railway gate is useful to know when the train is passes through the gate, and to close or open the gate automatically as the train is about to reach the gate. Through which accidents can be avoided as people tend to cross the track in spite the gate is being closed

34 Thank you

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