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Welcome To Lords institute of engineering and technology Mechanical Department Batch 2006-10.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome To Lords institute of engineering and technology Mechanical Department Batch 2006-10."— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome To Lords institute of engineering and technology Mechanical Department Batch

2 Mini project on Automatic control of railway gate

3 Embedded System = Computer Inside a Product II In built

4 Embedded System Embedded system is combination of hardware & software for specific application. Embedded system means the processor is embedded into that application. An embedded product uses a microprocessor or microcontroller to do one task only. In an embedded system, there is only one application software that is typically burned into ROM.

5 How an embedded system works..? It works with the help of both the hardware and software requirements Hardware: processor, memories, peripherals, power supply etc.., Software: assembly language program (ALP) like c, c++..,

6 Types of embedded systems Simple embedded system ex: small electrical equipments completes its work with in the approximated time Complex embedded system ex: used in military missiles for target based system

7 Examples of embedded systems Electronic devices in the kitchen E.g.: bread machines, food processors, microwave ovens Living Rooms E.g.: televisions, stereos, remote controls Work places E.g.: fax, pagers, laser printers, cash registers, credit card readers

8 Automotive & Industrial



11 Chapter -2 Micro controller

12 The first micro controller was implemented in 1968 by a car company wolves wagons in their cars. The 1 st micro controller (8048) was developed by Intel in 1976.

13 Found in Corporate headquarters located in San Jose, California. AVR basic architecture was developed by two students Alf- Egil Bogenand Vegard Wollan at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. IP Core was sold to Atmel by Alf and Vegard

14 ATMEL AT89C, AT90S, AT Mega, ATCAN AT Mega AT Mega 8, AT Mega 8515 AT Mega 8535, AT Mega 16 AT Mega 32, AT Mega 162,…………

15 AT Mega Microcontroller AT represents the name of the manufacturing company ATMEL. ATMEL Advanced Technology Memory End Logic MEGA Clock Frequency of the micro controller (1MHz)

16 Features of ATMega Pin IC, PDIP package High-performance, Low-power AVR 8-bit Microcontroller RISC Architecture 130 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers Program and Data Memories 8K Bytes of In-System Self-programmable Flash 512 Bytes EEPROM Endurance: 100,000 Write/Erase Cycles 512 Bytes Internal SRAM 35 Programmable I/O Lines

17 Pin configuration From 1-40 ATMEGA 8515 Port A Port B Port C Port D Reset XTAL2 XTAL1 GND Vcc OC1B ALE ICP

18 Memories in AT Mega Data Memory Temporary EEPROM Permanent Flash Memory/Programmable Memory Permanent

19 Data Memory General Purpose Registers (G.P.R) 32 registers R0 to R31 Each 8 bits I/O Registers 64 Each 8 bits SRAM 512 bytes

20 Memory Mapping of Data Memory $0000 G. P. R I/O Registers SRAM $001F $0020 $005F $0060 $025F

21 Register Pairs / Indirect Addressing R r x pair R y pair z pair R27 R29 R31 R26 R28 R30 R al R ah $025F $02 R27 $5F R26

22 Status Register It is an 8 bit Special register where each bit in the register represents a Flag. Interrupt Bit Store Half carry Sign Over flow Negative Zero

23 Chapter - 3 IR sensors

24 Working of IR pairs Power supply IR transmitterIR receivercomparator

25 DETECTION FACTORS : Six factors typically affect the Probability of Detection (Pd) of most area surveillance (volumetric) sensors, although to varying degrees. These are the: 1) Amount and pattern of emitted energy; 2) Size of the object; 3) Distance to the object; 4) Speed of the object; 5) Direction of movement

26 SENSORS APPLICATIONS : Most sensors have been designed with a specific application in mind. The environment categorizes these applications where they are most commonly employed. The two basic environments or categories are exterior and interior. Each of the two basic categories has a number of sub-sets, such as fence, door, window, hallway, and room. The first two of the following set of graphics show aFREE TREE illustration of the sensors most applicable to the these two environments.

27 Chapter - 4 Stepper motor

28 Stepper Motor History : Definition : Construction and Operation : Types of Stepper Motor : Real World Stepper Motor

29 Picture of stepper motor

30 Circuit connections

31 Operation principle of stepper motor

32 PRECAUTION If the stepper motor moves slightly and/or queers hack and forth, there are a number of possible causes. If you are using a battery power supply, the batteries may be too weak to power the motor properly. Note; Batteries wear out quickly because the current draw from stepper motors is usually high. If you substituted another transistor for the TIP120 NPN transistor, the substitute transistor may not be switching properly or the current load of the stepper motor may be too great. Solution; use TIPO120 transistors. You have the stepper motor improperly wired into the circuit. Check the coils using an ohmmeter and rewire if necessary. The pulse frequency is too high. If the pulses to the stepper moor are going faster that the motor can react, the motor will malfunction.

33 Conclusion This is to conclude that this project Automatic control of railway gate is useful to know when the train is passes through the gate, and to close or open the gate automatically as the train is about to reach the gate. Through which accidents can be avoided as people tend to cross the track in spite the gate is being closed


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