2 What is the Cold War?Conflict that existed between the United States and Soviet UnionLasted from 1945 to 1991It is called cold because the two sides never went to war directly with each other
3 If the U.S. and Soviet Union never fought directly, why do we call it a war? Many wars fought because of the conflict between the US and USSRThe US and USSR competed for power by using their political, economic, and military clout throughout the worldBoth sides sacrificed heavily in order to “win” and both sides felt their national survival was at stake
4 How has the Cold War affected all of us? Brought the world to brink of nuclear destructionWas the direct cause of the U.S. wars in Korea and VietnamLed to the 1969 moon landingIs primarily responsible for the U.S. nation debt (approx. 7.9 trillion dollars)Shaped the post-World War II era
5 What Caused the Cold War? MISTRUSTNations did not trust each otherWhen disagreement arose, assume the worstSoviets remember attempt by U.S. forces to overthrow Communist government during their civil warThe U.S. felt that Stalin had broken promises about free elections in Eastern Europe after World War II
6 What Caused the Cold War? COMPETITION FOR POWERThe U.S. and USSR emerged from WWII the most powerful nations in the world: Called Super PowersBoth wanted to create a “new world order” that would protect their interestsOften, the 2 sides would disagree on what that should be, producing conflict.
7 What Caused the Cold War? COMPETING IDEOLOGIESAn ideology is a way of looking at the world or a system of beliefsThe Soviets had a communist dictatorship and opposed capitalismThe Americans had a capitalist economy and opposed communism
8 What is Communism?Communism favors collective or community ownership of propertyThe government (acting for the people) makes economic decisions“From each according to his capacity, to each according to his needs”Communists seek to overthrow existing governments in violent revolutions
9 Why did Americans dislike Communism so much? Many felt communism discouraged hard work and promoted lazinessCommunism took away personal freedom and individualityCommunism was opposed to religionThe USSR was a brutal dictatorship – people equated Communism with dictatorship