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SOME TERMS IN PHYSIOLOGY By By Prof. Dr. Mohammad Hagag Prof. Dr. Mohammad Hagag.

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Presentation on theme: "SOME TERMS IN PHYSIOLOGY By By Prof. Dr. Mohammad Hagag Prof. Dr. Mohammad Hagag."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOME TERMS IN PHYSIOLOGY By By Prof. Dr. Mohammad Hagag Prof. Dr. Mohammad Hagag

2 THE BODY FLUIDS Extracellular fluid compartment: All the fluids outside the cells. Extracellular fluid compartment: All the fluids outside the cells. Intracellular fluid compartment: All the fluids inside the cells. Intracellular fluid compartment: All the fluids inside the cells. Osmosis: Movement of water molecules from area of high conc. to low conc. Osmosis: Movement of water molecules from area of high conc. to low conc.

3 Tonicity : Osmolality of a solution. Tonicity : Osmolality of a solution. Isotonic : Two solutions having same tonicity (any solution has the same tonicity as plasma). Isotonic : Two solutions having same tonicity (any solution has the same tonicity as plasma). Hypotonic : A solution having less tonicity than plasma. Hypotonic : A solution having less tonicity than plasma. Hypertonic : A solution having more tonicity than plasma. Hypertonic : A solution having more tonicity than plasma. Hydrostatic pressure : Pressure exerted by weight of fluid. Hydrostatic pressure : Pressure exerted by weight of fluid.

4 GIT Digestion : Breaking down of large food particles into smaller ones. Digestion : Breaking down of large food particles into smaller ones. Mastication : Chewing. Mastication : Chewing. Deglutition : Swallowing. Deglutition : Swallowing. Reflux: Reverse movement. Reflux: Reverse movement. Jaundice/ Icterus: Yellowish discoloration of skin & mucous membranes( sclera). Jaundice/ Icterus: Yellowish discoloration of skin & mucous membranes( sclera).

5 ENDOCRINE Exocrine gland: Secreting into duct. Exocrine gland: Secreting into duct. Endocrine: Secreting into blood. Endocrine: Secreting into blood. Autocrine :Acts on the same cell. Autocrine :Acts on the same cell. Hormone :Chemical messenger. Hormone :Chemical messenger.

6 Metabolism Metabolism: = anabolism + catabolism (Utilization of food by living organism). Metabolism: = anabolism + catabolism (Utilization of food by living organism). Anabolism: Building up of molecules. Anabolism: Building up of molecules. Catabolism: Breaking down of molecules. Catabolism: Breaking down of molecules. Adolescence/Puberty: The period during which secondary sexual characteristics develop. Adolescence/Puberty: The period during which secondary sexual characteristics develop.

7 . Fertilization: Combining of sperm with ovum. Pregnancy: Growth of fetus in uterus. Fetus: Growing baby inside uterus. Parturition/Labour: Delivery of baby & placenta. Lactation: Process of milk production & secretion.

8 Cardiovascular system 1-Bradycardia : Slow heart (decrease heart rate). 1-Bradycardia : Slow heart (decrease heart rate). 2-Tachycardia : Fast heart (increase heart rate). 2-Tachycardia : Fast heart (increase heart rate). 5-Edema :Abnormal accumulation of excess fluid in any tissue. 5-Edema :Abnormal accumulation of excess fluid in any tissue.

9 . 6-Hypertension:High blood pressure. 6-Hypertension:High blood pressure. 7-Hypotension : Low blood pressure 7-Hypotension : Low blood pressure 8-Ischemia :Reduced blood. 8-Ischemia :Reduced blood. 9-Infarction :The death of tissue due to lack of blood flow. 9-Infarction :The death of tissue due to lack of blood flow. 10-Perfusion: The movement of blood throughout the tissue. 10-Perfusion: The movement of blood throughout the tissue.

10 Blood 1- Erythrocytes :Red blood cells ( RBCs ). 1- Erythrocytes :Red blood cells ( RBCs ). 2- leucocytes : White blood cells ( WBCs ) 2- leucocytes : White blood cells ( WBCs ) 3- Thrombocytes :Blood platelets. 3- Thrombocytes :Blood platelets. 4-Haemoglobin : Carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues [Haem (iron protoporphyrin) globin (2 polypeptides chains)]. 4-Haemoglobin : Carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues [Haem (iron protoporphyrin) globin (2 polypeptides chains)].

11 Nerve and Muscle 1-Active transport : Active carrier mediated transport (involving transport of a substance against its concentration gradient across the plasma membrane. 1-Active transport : Active carrier mediated transport (involving transport of a substance against its concentration gradient across the plasma membrane. 2-Carrier mediated transport : involving transport of a substance across the plasma membrane facilitated by a carrier molecule. 2-Carrier mediated transport : involving transport of a substance across the plasma membrane facilitated by a carrier molecule. 3-Excitable tissue : Tissue capable of producing electrical signals when excited (e,g. nerve and muscle tissue). 3-Excitable tissue : Tissue capable of producing electrical signals when excited (e,g. nerve and muscle tissue).

12 . 4-Concentration gradient : a difference in concentration of a particular substance between two adjacent areas. 4-Concentration gradient : a difference in concentration of a particular substance between two adjacent areas. 5-Electrical gradient : a difference in charge between two adjacent areas. 5-Electrical gradient : a difference in charge between two adjacent areas. 6-Electrochemical gradient : the simultaneous existence of an electrical gradient and concentration (chemical) gradient for a particular ion. 6-Electrochemical gradient : the simultaneous existence of an electrical gradient and concentration (chemical) gradient for a particular ion.


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