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To Investigate the Relationship Between Prolonged QT Interval and Maternal Smoking Research Done by: Bindu Punnoose Mentor: Dr. Michael Myers, Ph.D. Columbia.

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Presentation on theme: "To Investigate the Relationship Between Prolonged QT Interval and Maternal Smoking Research Done by: Bindu Punnoose Mentor: Dr. Michael Myers, Ph.D. Columbia."— Presentation transcript:

1 To Investigate the Relationship Between Prolonged QT Interval and Maternal Smoking Research Done by: Bindu Punnoose Mentor: Dr. Michael Myers, Ph.D. Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center

2 Review of Literature Moss AJ, Schwartz PJ: Delayed Repolarization (QT or QT-U prolongation) and Malignant Ventricular Arrhythmias. Mod. Concepts Cardiovascular Dis 1982 Schwartz PJ, Montemerio M, et al: The QT Interval Throughout the First Six Months of Life Circulation 1982 Malloy MH, Kleinman JC, Land GH, et al: The Association of Maternal Smoking With Age and Cause of Infant Death Am. J. of Epid. 1988

3 Review of Literature (..contd) Milerad J, Sundell H: Nicotine Exposure and Risk of SIDS Acta. Paediatr. Suppl Schwartz PJ, et al: Prolongation of the QT Interval and the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome The New England Journal of Medicine 1998

4 Hypothesis A relationship exists between prolonged QT interval in infants and maternal smoking

5 Materials and Methods Electrocardiograms of 24 infants (12 males 12 females) all 2 months old analyzed 17 babies from rural Native American population 7 babies from urban population in New York City All infants healthy at birth with apgar scores greater than 8 Smoking habits of mothers obtained via questionnaire given at beginning of study

6 Materials and Methods (..contd) Babies selected by means of availability, good health, and no other risk factor (maternal alcohol consumption, low birth weight, difficult pregnancy) ECGs taken during baseline period of previous study were amplified and collected onto VCR tapes Data from tapes digitized at 500 samples/sec and transformed into plottable wave forms

7 Materials and Methods (..contd) ECGs of each baby marked at Q, R1, R2, and T segments using special purpose software programs for 25 intervals per baby Intervals measured in milliseconds, times recorded into SYSTAT QT adjusted for heartrate using Bazettes formula: QTc= (Q-T)/ (R2-R1) Average QTcs were found

8 Materials and Methods (..contd) QTcs analyzed using SYSTAT Statistical analyses performed: t test for paired and unpaired observations Relationships looked for between QTc interval and maternal smoking Factors such as birth weight, sex, and maternal age also tested

9 Results The mean QTc for all cases was 399+/- 26 msec Smoking during pregnancy did not affect QTc interval Sex and birthweight did not affect QTc interval Maternal age affected QTc interval –Infants divided into 2 groups: – old mothers >25 years of age –young mothers <25 years of age

10 Results (..contd) Infants with mothers classified as young had significantly longer QTcs than infants with old mothers (t(23)=2.11, p<.05)

11 Discussion As further supported by this study, QT interval of infants should be researched more thoroughly Since prolonged QT interval is mostly thought to be genetically based and the extreme of a normal distribution, risk may be quantitatively related to length; factors affecting length could alter risk

12 Discussion (..contd) Environmental contributions such as maternal age could give infants at risk the extra push needed for prolonged QT interval to occur Perhaps young mothers have sub-optimal in- utero environments, making their infants prone to such a syndrome Controversy exists as to whether ECGs should be done on all infants. This would be costly and can have clinical implications


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