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The Dutch Transit of Venus Expeditions of 1874 and 1882 Robert van Gent, Anne Zandstra, Hans Hooijmaijers & Klaus Staubermann.

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Presentation on theme: "The Dutch Transit of Venus Expeditions of 1874 and 1882 Robert van Gent, Anne Zandstra, Hans Hooijmaijers & Klaus Staubermann."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Dutch Transit of Venus Expeditions of 1874 and 1882 Robert van Gent, Anne Zandstra, Hans Hooijmaijers & Klaus Staubermann

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3 The visibility circumstances of the transit of Venus of 9 December 1874 End of the transit 6:26 UT Begin of the transit 1:49 UT

4 Frederik Kaiser ( ) Volkert S.M. van der Willigen ( )

5 Transit of Venus expedition to Réunion (1874) Location: Saint Denis, Ile de la Réunion (Indian Ocean) Longitude 55° 27' 01.1" East Latitude 20° 51' 35.3" South Jean Abraham Chrétien Oudemans ( ): Chief astronomer. Head Geodetic Survey of Java. Trained by Frederik Kaiser (director of Leiden Observatory from 1837 to 1872). Director of Utrecht Observatory from 1876 to Pieter Jan Kaiser ( ): Astronomer responsible for the photographic observations. Head Department of Verification of Nautical Instruments. Son of Frederik Kaiser. Ernst Frederik van de Sande Bakhuyzen ( ): Astronomer. Younger brother of Hendrik Gerard van de Sande Bakhuyzen (director of Leiden Observatory from 1872 to 1908). Director of Leiden Observatory from 1908 to Hendrik Theodorus Soeters ( ): Assistant of J.A.C. Oudemans. Engineer Geodetic Survey of Java. Marinus Bernardus Rost van Tonningen ( ): Photographer assigned to assist P.J. Kaiser. T.F. Blanken: First mate. Dealt with shipping matters and other odd jobs.

6 Shipping routes of the Compagnie des Messageries Maritimes (Archives Leiden Observatory)

7 Main Instruments carried to Réunion (1874) Photoheliograph by Dallmeyer (Teyler's Stichting, Haarlem) Refractor by Utzschneider & Fraunhofer (Mrs. de Beaufort-Stoop) Merz heliometer (Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen/Haarlem & Bataafsch Genootschap/Rotterdam) Steinheil refractor (Leiden Observatory) Airy double-image micrometer (Leiden Observatory) Astronomical timekeeper by Fraunhofer & Utzschneider (Leiden Observatory) 14 chronometers (Topographical Survey of Java: Hohwü 394, 455, 502 & 514, Schmidt 325 & 334; Teyler's Stichting: Knoblich 1700; Leiden Observatory: Kiek & Casseres 547, 549 & 556, Hohwü 568, 591 & 594, Arnold 418) 2 universal instruments (Topographical Survey of Java: Repsold and Pistor & Martins) 3 heliotropes (Leiden Observatory & Polytechnic Institute Delft) 2 models of the transit of Venus by Boosman (Leiden Observatory)

8 Refractor by Utzschneider & Fraunhofer lent by mrs. Anna Alida de Beaufort-Stoop Ø = 9.6 cm; f = 160 cm Museum Boerhaave, Leiden

9 Chronometer by Knoblich & Krille (Altona) Teylers Museum, Haarlem

10 Model of a Transit of Venus by Willem Boosman (Museum Boerhaave, Leiden)

11 P.J. Kaiser’s 1862 thesis on the use of photography in astronomy

12 Photoheliograph by John Henry Dallmeyer (London) Ø = 10.0 cm, f = 230 cm Plate size = 16.3 × 16.3 cm Mounting by H. Olland (Utrecht) Teylers Museum, Haarlem

13 Plate measuring engine by Repsold & Söhne (Museum Boerhaave, Leiden)

14 Sketch map of Reunion (Archives Leiden Observatory)

15 Sketch map of Saint-Denis Archives Leiden Observatory

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17 Living quarters in Saint-Denis (Archives Utrecht Observatory)

18 The members of the 1874 transit of Venus expedition Standing (f.l.t.r.): P.J. Kaiser, M.B. Rost van Tonningen, T.F. Blanken(?) Seated (f.l.t.r.): J.A.C. Oudemans, H.T. Soeters(?), E.F. van de Sande Bakhuyzen

19 Observation camp in Saint-Denis (Archives Utrecht Observatory)

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21 Present-day view of the observation camp (photograph Dominique Tournès)

22 “A day with the natives” (Archives Utrecht Observatory)

23 Telegram & transcript of the results (Archives Leiden Observatory)

24 The visibility circumstances of the transit of Venus of 6 December 1882 End of the transit 20:15 UT Begin of the transit 13:57 UT

25 Transit of Venus expedition to Curaçao (1882) Location: Fort Nassau, Willemstad, Curaçao (West Indies) Longitude 68° 56' 17" West Latitude 12° 07' 30" North Paulus Hendricus Brocx ( ): Chief observer. Naval officer 2 nd class. Son of Lodewijk Gerard Brocx, Minister of Naval Affairs from 1868 to Pieter Cornelis Swaan ( ): Assistant. Naval officer 2 nd class. H. Lelyveld: Assistant. Second mate.

26 Propeller steam ship 3 rd class Alkmaar (Maritime Museum, Amsterdam)


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