Presentation on theme: "PAL scores on many fields… Rob Vierendeels OOF-Project “Pal scoort op vele velden” Grundtvig Blaid Project."— Presentation transcript:
PAL scores on many fields… Rob Vierendeels OOF-Project “Pal scoort op vele velden” Grundtvig Blaid Project
PAL scores on many fields… Pal as a variant of Blended learning E-Pal is a new item Excellent way to handle diversity
PAL PAL (Tutoring) can be defined as People (Students) Who are not professional teachers Helping and supporting The learning of others In an interactive, Purposeful and Systematic way
PAL Research shows tutoring can be highly effective… To teach is to learn twice… Learning to work in a team
PAL effective? Compared to professional teaching, it can give: more practice; more activity and variety; more individualized help; more questioning; simpler vocabulary; more local relevant examples;
PAL effective? Compared to professional teaching, (2): higher disclosure of misunderstanding; more prompting and self-correction; more immediate feedback and praise; more opportunities for generalization; more insight into learning (metacognition); and more self-regulation
PAL effective? Compared to professional teaching, (2): While a tutor can offer a greater quantity of individual support, the quality of that support is likely to be significantly poorer than that of a professional teacher. The detection of errors and misconceptions by tutors might be less reliable than that by a teacher. Tutors might tell or show their tutees something which is actually incorrect, i.e. reinforce mistakes. Tutors might become impatient and just tell their tutee the right answer, or do the task for them, in which case the tutee will learn very little.
PAL: introducing Recruit and match learning tutor and tutee with care: to receive course credit or payment for tutoring? voluntary tutors might be assumed to be better motivated? Tutoring by very able tutors in the subject is more beneficial to the tutee – Motivation Tutor? Students often prefer less able students (Peter Caris) smaller difference in ability seems to be much more challenging and engaging for the tutors
PAL: introducing Recruit and match learning tutor and tutee with care: Schedule contact time –How often will the pair meet each week? –Where? –How long will each session be? Over how many weeks? –Both tutor and tutee must be clear about their time commitment. Handling absence –Consider how to deal with the absence of tutor or tutee. –You might wish to name a ‘standby’ tutor as back-up.
PAL: introducing Specify tutoring method, provide training and access to materials Consider general or specific tutoring skills – Or some of both? – Structured by specific materials, or not? Training of tutors Access to materials
PAL: introducing Monitor, give feedback and intervene to maximize effectiveness Goals of monitoring Self-help guide Self-referral - coach Self-recording Direct observation
PAL: Literature Annis, L.F. (1983). 'The processes and effects of peer tutoring', Human Learning, 2(1), 39-47. Benware, C.A. & Deci, E.L. (1984). 'Quality of learning with an active versus passive motivational set', American Educational Research Journal, 21(4), 755-765, Bevers A., Verschueren N., Verfaillie K., (2007), ‘Studentassistentie als middel tot probleemgestuurd onderwijs in een integratieve setting binnen de bachelor psychologie’, Intern rapport, Faculteit psychologie en pedagogische wetenschappen, KULeuven Bossaerts, B. (2007), Student tutoring. Good practices in België, Koning Boudewijnstichting. Committee on Undergraduate Science Education, Ch4, (1997), Misconceptions as Barriers to Understanding Science, http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/str/4.html De Boeck, P. (2003). Student-assistentie bij probleemgestuurd onderwijs in werkcolleges en practicumvakken van de tweede kandidatuur psychologie. Eindrapport OOI project (vijfde ronde)aan de KUL. Greenlee, G. (1999), Moving Beyond Black and White, http://www.nwrel.org/learns/tutor/spr1999/spr1999.pdf Greenwood, C.R., Carta, J.J., & Kamps, D. (1990). 'Teacher-mediated versus peer-mediated instruction: a review of educational advantages and disadvantages', in Foot, H.C., Morgan. Goodfellow, P., & Schofield, E. (2001). Peer tutorials amongst medical students. Med.Educ. 35:1001-1002. Hoel, T.L., & Haugalokken, O.K. (2004), Response Groups as Learning Resources when Working with Portfolios, Journal of Education for Teaching; 30 (3), 225-241. M.J. and Shute, R.H. (eds.), Children Helping Children. London and New York: John Wiley. Mynard, J. & Almarzouqi, I. (2006); Investigating Peer Tutorship, ELT Journal; 60 (1), 13-22. National Service Projects (2007), http://www.nwrel.org/learns/tutor/index.html Moseley, T et al. (2002). Clinical skills center attending: an innovative senior medical school elective. Acad.Med. Nov; 77(11):1176. Perkins, G. et al. (2002). Peer-led resuscitation training for healthcare students: a randomized controlled study. Intensive Care medicine, published online 24 april 2002). Ramsden, P. (1991). A performance indicator of teaching quality in higher education: the course experience questionnaire, Studies in Higher Education, 16 (2), 129-150. Saunders, D. (1992). Peer tutoring in higher education, Studies in Higher Education, 17 (2). Schaffer, J. (1990). Students teaching students: a medical school peer tutorial programme. Medical Education, 24, 336-343. Talentontwikkeling De Haagse Hogeschool, (2008), Basismodel Tutoring, Intern document, De Haagsche Hogeschool. Topping, K.J. (1996), The Effectiveness of PAL in Further and Higher Education: A Typology and Review of the Literature, Higher Education, 32 (3), p. 321-345. Topping, K., (2000), Peer Assisted Learning: A Practical Guide for Teachers, Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books. Topping, K., (2000), Tutoring, Educational practices series, International Academy of Education (IAE), Brussels, Belgium De Smet, M., Van Keer, H., & Valcke, M. (2007). PAL in het hoger onderwijs - Een studie naar tutorgedrag binnen een online en face-to-face setting, Tijdschrift voor Hoger Onderwijs, 2007/1. Wadoodi, A., & Crosby, J. (2002). Twelve tips for peer-assisted learning: a classic concept revisited. Medical Teacher, 24 (3), 241-244.