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1 A Graph-Based Metamodel for Object-Oriented Software Metrics Tom Mens( ) Postdoctoral Fellow – Fund for Scientific Research (Flanders) Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 2 Goal use graphs as an underlying formalism/representation to define a formal framework for OO metrics independent of the programming language (e.g., Smalltalk, Java, or C++) the life-cycle phase (e.g., design or implementation) identify a minimal set of primitive functions to cover an as wide variety of OO metrics as possible implement open and customisable metrics tools easy to add new OO metrics easy to incorporate new language features easy to use and customise at different levels of abstraction

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 3 Approach top-down improve existing metrics tools CodeCrawler SoulMetrics bottom-up develop generic graph-based formalism validate on a variety of OO metrics suites on a significant number of different programs

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 4 Tool support: CodeCrawler a language independent reverse engineering tool combines metrics and software visualization based on the FAMIX language-independent metamodel implemented in VisualWorks 3.0 Smalltalk runs on every major platform

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 5 Tool support: CodeCrawler

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 6 Tool support: CodeCrawler

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 7 Tool support: SoulMetrics a generic logic-programming-based metrics tool defined in SOUL, a logic meta-programming environment on top of Smalltalk VisualWorks 7 a collection of logic predicates fully integrated in the Smalltalk GUI (browser) runs on every major platform

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 8 Tool support: SoulMetrics

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 9 Tool support: SoulMetrics

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 10 Tool support: SoulMetrics

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 11 Represent software as graphs Directed attributed multi-graphs

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 12 Primitive graph functions pred: Node P F (Node)predecessor nodes succ: Node P F (Node)successor nodes fanIn: Node P F (Edge)incoming edges fanOut: Node P F (Edge)outgoing edges path: Node Node P F (Edge)edge paths + iterative versions pred i, pred +, pred*, succ i, succ +, succ*

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 13 Primitive graph functions pred(c 4 )

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 14 Primitive graph functions succ(c 4 )

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 15 Primitive graph functions fanIn(c 3 )

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 16 Primitive graph functions fanOut(c 3 )

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 17 Primitive graph functions path(c 2,c)

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 18 Qualified graph functions pred: Node NodeConstraint EdgeConstraint P F (Node) idem for pred i, pred +, pred*, succ i, succ +, succ* fanIn: Node EdgeConstraint P F (Edge) idem for fanOut path: Node Node NodeConstraint EdgeConstraint P F (Edge + ) begin is defined in terms of pred* calculates all nodes that have no predecessors end is defined in terms of succ* calculates all nodes that have no successors

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 19 Qualified graph functions fanIn(c,isNoUsesEdge)

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 20 Qualified graph functions pred(c,isClassNode,isUsesEdge)

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 21 Object-oriented inheritance metrics Let n Node such that isClassNode(n) subclasses(n) := pred(n,isClassNode,isInheritsEdge) descendants(n) := pred + (n,isClassNode,isInheritsEdge) leafClasses(n) := start(n,isClassNode,isInheritsEdge) inheritanceToRoot(n) := path(n,m,isClassNode,isInheritsEdge) m end(n,isClassNode,isInheritsEdge) NOS(n) = |subclasses(n)| NOD(n) = |descendants(n)| NOL(n) = |leafClasses(n)| DIT(n) = average(inheritanceToRoot(n),map(length))

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 22 Object-oriented inheritance metrics subclasses(c)NOS(c)=2

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 23 Object-oriented inheritance metrics descendants(c)NOD(c)=4

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 24 Object-oriented inheritance metrics leafClasses(c)NOL(c)=2

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 25 Object-oriented inheritance metrics inheritanceToRoot(c 2 )DIT(c 2 )=2

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ICGT, 10 October 2002, Barcelona © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 26 Ratio Metrics MethodHidingFactor(n) = 1 – Ratio(succ,isMethodNode,isPublicNode,isContainsEdge)(n) = 1- |succ(n,isMethodNode isPublicNode,isContainsEdge)| |succ(n,isMethodNode,isContainsEdge)| AbstractSubclassRatio(n) = 1 – Ratio(pred,isClassNode,isAbstractNode,isInheritsEdge)(n) LeafclassRatio(n) = 1 – Ratio(pred*,isClassNode,isInheritanceLeaf,isInheritsEdge)(n)

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