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Teaching accuracy: drilling MA lecture / ELT 2 December 2011.

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1 Teaching accuracy: drilling MA lecture / ELT 2 December 2011

2 When learners are given intensive practice of the new structure / language It is carefully guided and strictly controlled by the teacher Both form and meaning must be correctly formed and consolidated

3 Accuracy stage possibility of error is reduced to minimum - everything has to be corrected SS are given confidence in using the new language SS are given a chance to increase speed to practice form, meaning (pron.) SS can concentrate on only one language item / problem at a time

4 This stage must be done immediately after presentation = accurate reproduction  Language must stay within students’ grasp that is, when a new piece of grammar is taught, there should be no new vocabulary!!!  should be done quickly and effectively, teacher should demand a high degree of accuracy from SS → moving from easier to more difficult drills / exercises

5 Drilling: a brief history derives from behaviourists’ theory (Skinner): stimulus -response - reinforcement can be mechanical, boring, meaningless - this is what we can avoid and make drilling: - realistic - meaningful - introduced with an appropriate expression - used for a few minutes only - used as a first stage only It obviously helps students acquire fluency - a desired goal in CLT Certain patterns must become automatic! (chunks!)

6 Types of drill

7 REPTITION DRILL T: Let’s go swimming! S: Let’s go swimming! T: Let’s go dancing! S: Let’s go dancing. → more meaningful with word prompt only T: cinema S: Let’s go to the cinema!

8 SIMPLE SUBSTITUTION T: How many chairs are there in here? S: There are 4 chairs. T: tables S1: How many tables are there in here? S2: There is only one table in here. Prompts: windows, desks, boards, etc.

9 VARIABLE SUBSTITUTION DRILL T: I have been to Dublin. S: I have been to Dublin. T: Susan S: Susan has been to Dublin. T: Susan and her husband S: Susan and her husband have been to Dublin.

10 PROGRESSIVE SUBSTITUTION DRILL Conditional: It sometimes happens that Martha washes up the dishes, then her husband, John, is happy. Prompts: T: sometimes it happens. If Martha….. S: If Martha does the washing up, John is happy. T: It is John’s wish – perhaps she does it: S: If Martha did the washing up, her husband would be happy. T: Martha didn’t do it  S: If Martha had done the washing up, John would have been happy.

11 SITUATIONALISED DRILL Prompts: can be on board (What a pity! That’s great, Oh, that’s all right!) T: I can’t come to the party! S: What a pity! T: I can lend you some money. S: That’s great! T: I have a new boyfriend. S: …………………………… T: Peter has missed the bus. S:……………………………. T: Sorry, I’m late. S: …………………………….

12 TRANSFORMATION DRILL Prompt: T: I went to see Harry Potter. S: Which film did you go to see? T: Robby Williams S: Which singer did you go to see? Students can give prompts: Lord of the Rings, U2, Hamlet, etc.

13 CLUASE COMBINATION DRILL T: He had a sore throat. He sang at the concert. S: Although he had a sore throat, he… T: raining, go on a trip S: Although it was raining, he went on a trip. T: headache, meeting, etc…


15 Picture prompts






21 Oral Drill types – in free practice 1, Guessing Drills e.g. Think of your favourite colour/ country / pop group / animal / etc others are guessing - meanwhile practise the structure e.g. Think of a foreign country your are going to visit. Which one is it? S1 “Are you going to visit Japan?” S2 “ No, I’m not.

22 Oral drills / free practice 2, Imaginary situation similar to # 1 - information gap!!!! e.g. I’ve just bought a Mercedes. I haven’t got much money left. - Have you bought a......yet? (suppose S1 has a list of what he’s bought) I suppose you have bought a , haven’t you?

23 Oral drills / free practice Student AStudent B

24 Six principles to do drilling 1, Learners have to know what they are saying - if they repeat structures but they don’t understand what it expresses - waste of time meaningful drill = cannot be performed correctly without an understanding of the meaning of what is said mechanical drill = SS produce correct examples without needing to think about the meaning of the sentences

25 Six principles to do drilling 2, Let the learners hear the pattern several times - teacher = model 3, Break down a long utterance or expression into smaller parts / segments 4, Do not force individuals to speak until there had been some repetition in chorus 5, Keep the drill rapid and short (40-60 seconds for each drill) - Do not give more than 6 drills on one occasion 6, Give clear gestures to show who is to speak rather than give the names only

26 Chain drills to practise a particular structure over and over again either in a game format or through personalisation. e.g. I’m Csilla and I’d like to go to Chile. Next: My name is Béla and I would like to go to Brazil - etc. memory element!!! Possible structures to practice: I like doing.... I have never done/been I want/always wanted to do, / I would love to etc...

27 Seminar work Drills: word / phrase / sentence prompts Pictures prompts / flashcards Mimes Audio prompts Practising giving prompts for different structures

28 READING Using Repetition Drills repetition-drills.html repetition-drills.html Drilling - Judicious Use of Brute Force in the ESL Classroom html html Drilling can be fun:

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