Presentation on theme: "Teaching accuracy: drilling"— Presentation transcript:
1Teaching accuracy: drilling MA lecture / ELT2 December 2011
2When learners are given intensive practice of the new structure / language It is carefully guided and strictly controlled by the teacherBoth form and meaning must be correctly formed and consolidated
3Accuracy stagepossibility of error is reduced to minimum - everything has to be correctedSS are given confidence in using the new languageSS are given a chance to increase speedto practice form, meaning (pron.)SS can concentrate on only one language item / problem at a time
4This stage must be done immediately after presentation = accurate reproduction Language must stay within students’ grasp that is, when a new piece of grammar is taught, there should be no new vocabulary!!! should be done quickly and effectively, teacher should demand a high degree of accuracy from SS→ moving from easier to more difficult drills / exercises
5Drilling: a brief history derives from behaviourists’ theory (Skinner):stimulus -response - reinforcementcan be mechanical, boring, meaningless - this is what we can avoid and make drilling:- realistic- meaningful- introduced with an appropriate expression- used for a few minutes only- used as a first stage onlyIt obviously helps students acquire fluency - a desired goal in CLTCertain patterns must become automatic! (chunks!)
7REPTITION DRILL T: Let’s go swimming! S: Let’s go swimming! T: Let’s go dancing!S: Let’s go dancing.→ more meaningful with word prompt onlyT: cinemaS: Let’s go to the cinema!
8SIMPLE SUBSTITUTION T: How many chairs are there in here? S: There are 4 chairs.T: tablesS1: How many tables are there in here?S2: There is only one table in here.Prompts: windows, desks, boards, etc.
9VARIABLE SUBSTITUTION DRILL T: I have been to Dublin.S: I have been to Dublin.T: SusanS: Susan has been to Dublin.T: Susan and her husbandS: Susan and her husband have been to Dublin.
10PROGRESSIVE SUBSTITUTION DRILL Conditional:It sometimes happens that Martha washes up the dishes, then her husband, John, is happy.Prompts:T: sometimes it happens. If Martha…..S: If Martha does the washing up, John is happy.T: It is John’s wish – perhaps she does it:S: If Martha did the washing up, her husband would be happy.T: Martha didn’t do itS: If Martha had done the washing up, John would have been happy.
11SITUATIONALISED DRILL Prompts: can be on board(What a pity! That’s great, Oh, that’s all right!)T: I can’t come to the party!S: What a pity!T: I can lend you some money.S: That’s great!T: I have a new boyfriend.S: ……………………………T: Peter has missed the bus.S:…………………………….T: Sorry, I’m late.S: …………………………….
12TRANSFORMATION DRILL Prompt: T: I went to see Harry Potter. S: Which film did you go to see?T: Robby WilliamsS: Which singer did you go to see?Students can give prompts: Lord of the Rings, U2, Hamlet, etc.
13CLUASE COMBINATION DRILL T: He had a sore throat. He sang at the concert.S: Although he had a sore throat, he…T: raining, go on a tripS: Although it was raining, he went on a trip.T: headache, meeting, etc…
14BALLOON TABLES A FEW MILK BEER A LITTLE A FEW MILK BEER A LITTLE I’VE BEENTHEY’VE BEENMILKBEERAPPLESCHAIRSA LITTLEA FEWI’VE BEENTHEY’VE BEENMILKBEERAPPLESCHAIRSA LITTLE[s1] [s1]
21Oral Drill types – in free practice 1, Guessing Drillse.g. Think of your favourite colour/ country / pop group / animal / etcothers are guessing - meanwhile practise the structuree.g. Think of a foreign country your are going to visit. Which one is it?S1 “Are you going to visit Japan?”S2 “ No, I’m not.
22Oral drills / free practice 2, Imaginary situationsimilar to # 1 - information gap!!!!e.g. I’ve just bought a Mercedes. I haven’t got much money left.- Have you bought a yet? (suppose S1 has a list of what he’s bought)I suppose you have bought a , haven’t you?
23Oral drills / free practice Student A Student B3322344576616751458797011234520476
24Six principles to do drilling 1, Learners have to know what they are saying- if they repeat structures but they don’t understand what it expresses - waste of timemeaningful drill = cannot be performed correctly without an understanding of the meaning of what is saidmechanical drill = SS produce correct examples without needing to think about the meaning of the sentences
25Six principles to do drilling 2, Let the learners hear the pattern several times - teacher = model3, Break down a long utterance or expression into smaller parts / segments4, Do not force individuals to speak until there had been some repetition in chorus5, Keep the drill rapid and short (40-60 seconds for each drill) - Do not give more than 6 drills on one occasion6, Give clear gestures to show who is to speak rather than give the names only
26Chain drillsto practise a particular structure over and over again either in a game format or through personalisation.e.g. I’m Csilla and I’d like to go to Chile. Next: My name is Béla and I would like to go to Brazil - etc. memory element!!!Possible structures to practice: I like doing.... I have never done/been I want/always wanted to do, / I would love to etc...
27Seminar work Drills: word / phrase / sentence prompts Pictures prompts / flashcardsMimesAudio promptsPractising giving prompts for different structures
28READINGUsing Repetition DrillsDrilling - Judicious Use of Brute Force in the ESL ClassroomDrilling can be fun: