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Scientific Case for Ultra-intense Laser-Matter Interaction Physics in Solid-density Plasma 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Scientific Case for Ultra-intense Laser-Matter Interaction Physics in Solid-density Plasma 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Scientific Case for Ultra-intense Laser-Matter Interaction Physics in Solid-density Plasma
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2 Helmholtz Beamline at European XFEL: Scientific Motivation
Unique science enabled by combining European XFEL with ultra-intense lasers - strong field QED, e.g., vacuum birefringence Highest quality x-ray probing of laser-driven experiments isochorically heated matter (laser-ions, self- & externally-magnetized targets, interface collisional heating, laser-ablation-driven shocks) ion induced damage in materials time-resolved spectroscopy of excited-state chemical pathways extreme fields & currents in ultra-intense laser-matter interaction high pressure phenomena in laser-driven shocks multi-view tomography, multi-frame imaging spectroscopy Add laser-based multi-species probing to XFEL experiments - proton radiography, fs-electron diffraction, hard bremsstrahlung,… Spin-offs e.g., high-field X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism with small pulsed magnets single-shot implementation of conventional synchrotron techniques

3 Helmholtz Beamline at European XFEL: Scientific Motivation
ns-pulse, kJ-class, ramped compression laser  create strongly-correlated matter at extreme pressure Fundamental Goal: precision & systematic study of P > 5 Mb cold matter (advance beyond complex, expensive, single-shot laser expts) Technique, requirements: ramped-pulse isentropic compression  solid-phase!! laser-compression, XFEL probe Rep-rate >0.1 Hz, with 10 Hz desired Why Euro XFEL: multi-user => “dedicated” HED beamline not planned elsewhere (LCLS, SwissFEL, SCSS?) Scientific Applications: planetary science fundamental solid-state “new chemistry”

4 Helmholtz Beamline at European XFEL: Scientific Motivation
ultra-intense short-pulse PW-class (>100 TW) laser hot-dense matter, and WDM generation probing of XFEL-driven WDM initiate dynamic processes & non-equilibrium conditions Fundamental Goal: precision & systematic study of near-solid density hot matter systematic probing directly inside solid-density plasma (advance beyond complex, single-shot laser expts) Technique, requirements: Isochoric heating with laser + XFEL (& laser-) probing WDM: laser-ions (~1 ps) WDM & HEDP: laser-electrons, self- & external-B, interfacial shocks Isochoric heating XFEL (<50 eV) + Laser- probing (complements XFEL split+delay) Laser-initiation of dynamic & non-equilibrium phenomena in solid plasma (filamentation, transport, heating relaxation, diffusion) Ultrafast creation & probing Rep-rate >0.1 Hz, with 10 Hz desired (move beyond complex, single-shot laser expts) Why Euro XFEL: XFEL pulse-train-based synchronization to ~10 fs not planned elsewhere at 100+ TW level

5 Helmholtz Beamline at European XFEL: Scientific Motivation
ultra-intense short-pulse PW-class (>100 TW) laser hot-dense matter, and WDM generation probing of XFEL-driven WDM initiate dynamic processes & non-equilibrium conditions Scientific Applications: fundamental physics in P-T-r regimes accessed by isochoric heating WDM & HED plasmas in strong B fields fundamental study of dynamic & non-equilibrium phenomena in solid plasma (filamentation, e-transport, rad-transport, ionization, radiation, heating, relaxation, magnetic diffusion, anomalous & collisional resistivity) Goal: Predictive understanding of ultra-intense laser-matter interaction  control & improvement of laser-ion acceleration, compact radiation sources for application in research, medicine & industry (e.g., better backlighters, ion sources, ultrafast probing…)

6 Helmholtz Beamline at European XFEL: Scientific Motivation
ultra-intense short-pulse PW-class (>100 TW) laser (II) initiate radiation-induced processes in materials, bio, chemical systems Fundamental Goal: access the dynamics of particle-induced damage in materials study fundamental atomic-level “jump” processes in materials systematic study of chemical & biophysical processes initiated by radation Technique, requirements: Sample irradiation with laser-generated ions, electrons, x-rays, g-rays, neutrons… (NB: optical pumping does not require TW-PW class) Probe with XFEL, complementary laser-generated probes (?) Ultrafast creation & probing (Rep-rate >0.1 Hz, with 10 Hz desired )? Key challenge to identify best probing techniques (XANES, EXAFS, diffraction, XCPS?…) Why Euro XFEL: 100+ TW for secondary particle & radiation production, not planned elsewhere GOAL: Predictive understanding of fundamental materials processes at atomic- and nano-scale

7 Helmholtz Beamline at European XFEL: Scientific Motivation
ultra-intense short-pulse PW-class (>100 TW) laser (III) Strong-field physics nuclear physics??? Fundamental Goal: directly measure polarization of QED vacuum Technique, requirements: Vacuum birefrigence measured with XFEL x-rays …. Why Euro XFEL: 100+ TW for strong optical fields, not planned elsewhere

8 Laser Isochoric Heating
Isochoric heating with laser-accelerated protons Patel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, (2003) Electrostatic hot electron confinement using reduced-mass targets Perez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, (2010) Self-generated magnetic confinement Rassuchine et al., PRE 79, (2009) Interface shock heating in heterogenous solid targets Sentoku et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, (2007) Pulsed external ~MG magnetic transport inhibition Bakeman et al., Megagauss XI (2007)

9 Short-pulse laser heating can access extreme states of matter
Hot coronal plasma (collisionless) Relativistic positron-electron "plasma" Isochoric heating (at depth) - resistive return current - electron cascade (hot  warm  ions) - electrostatic ion shock - secondary beam Confinement to increase Tion, ne+; and to probe EOS - inertial (e.g., large target heated with ion beam) - electrostatic (e.g, sheath fields) - magnetic (external, or self-generated)

10 H. Yoneda, 2008 WDM Winter School

11 J. Rassuchine et al, PRE 79, 036408 (2009)
Electron transport & strong fields in laser-driven targets Extreme current densities, magnetized current filaments, and strong quasi-static magnetic fields in ultra-intense laser-matter interactions Extreme Ex Current filamentation 1013 A/cm2, > 1000 T, 1013 V/m, ~keV solid density Important for: Laser-ion acceleration Isochoric heating Fast Ignitor physics Laser-plasma x-ray sources Magnetized HEDP Quasistatic 5000 T fields in shaped targets, electron transport inhibition, enhanced heating J. Rassuchine et al, PRE 79, (2009)

12 Extreme Ex Concept – image B-fields by x-ray Faraday rotation
5000 Tesla quasi-static field  x-ray Faraday rotation imaging Extreme Ex with K= 2.629×10-13 M.K.S. units. Channel-cut Si cyrstals: I. Uschmann et al, HI-Jena LCLS-Matter in Extreme Conditions (HEDP) concept paper ( ): “Relativistic electron transport, isochoric heating, and multi-MG magnetization in solid density plasma” T.E. Cowan, M.S. Wei et al., (HZDR, UCSD, LANL, LLNL)

13 Realization – use channel-cut Bragg crystal polarimeter
I. Uschmann et al, “Determination of high purity polarization state of x-rays,” ESRF expt. (2010) (5 x polarization) Channel cut Si 400 crystal

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15 Open questions & future directions
Begin with proof-of-principal (ride-along desirable) Imaging through channel-cut crystals appears feasible (in progress) Collimation requirements (diverging, or collimated with post-magnification) Feasibility of post-magnification (convex Bragg mirror)? What is short-pulse laser intensity, pulse energy available at LCLS? MEC: 35fs/150mJ/800nm; 2-20ns/2x25J/527nm Interesting directions: fields in pre-formed plasma during hole boring radial propagating near-surface fields filament propagation in solid (ionization, heating, Weibel) quasi-stationary fields from current filaments magnetic diffusion (relaxation, >6 ps) quasi-static resistive fields material dependence

16 Example: material dependence
(g-1)ne B┴ Zavg Filamentation in 6×1019 W/cm2, 300 fs, 20 J irradiation of Al, Cu, Au Resistive B-field evolution: η - collisional resistivity in Al, dominant. B  5 MG Individual filaments. in Au, dominant. B  100 MG Confines net electron flow. in Cu, both important. Al ± 5 MG Cu ±100 MG Au theo: Y. Sentoku, A. Kemp; exp: J. Fuchs, T.E. Cowan et al ±100 MG

17 FLASH experiment Larger Faraday rotation with longer wavelength  FLASH? RAP Bragg crystal (2d = 26.2 Å). nl = 2d sin(45°) = 1.85 nm (670 eV) RAP “channel cut” in development at HI-Jena (I. Uschmann) 3rd harmonic operation, nm, 670 eV (flux?) 10 mm Al sample possible (FLYCHK) for 10 eV Al, OD = 5 > 60 eV Al, OD < 1 Expected signal? Te 10 eV 60 eV 110 eV …. 410 eV . 670 eV

18 Maximum rotation at 250 nc, 1 µm thickness would be ≈ 1 mrad
FLASH experiment -- cont’d Simulation (T. Kluge, 1 mm thick foil -- transient fields) MG 150 100 50 -50 -100 -150 4 2 -2 -4 α/ne dz (µrad/nc µm) Rotation/(density x thickness) y x z 2 µm laser Magnetic field Bz laser Maximum rotation at 250 nc, 1 µm thickness would be ≈ 1 mrad Simulation: 2D3V PIC (picls), 10 nc, 1 µm foil thicknes, 1020 W/cm2. Output taken at 10 fs before pulse maximum

19 FLASH experiment - cont’d.
Expected signal l = 1.86 nm ne = 6x1023 cm-3 = 6x1029 m-3 (solid density hot Al) Bz = 100 T / MG Df = 54.6 mrad * ( B[MG] * Dz[mm] ) for 5 MG & 10 mm, Df = 2.7 mrad (or 50 MG & 1 mm) with K= 2.629×10-13 M.K.S. units. Al foil CPA beam FLASH 3rd harmonic FR image transmission image (Te) RAP analyzer Df (x,y) ≈ FR image ÷ transmission image

20 Electron transport & ionization dynamics
2D space-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy Self emission spectroscopy Dt ~ 5-10 ps Bulk electron temperature Tbulk ( x, y, t ) Space-averaged spectrum with D. Thorn, T. Stoehlker (HI-Jena, GSI), M. Harmond, S. Toleikis (DESY)

21 Laser-driven electron transport & ionization dynamics
Streaked optical emission 1013 A/cm2 , V/m, >1000 T, ~keV solid density Y Laser pulse Electron Beam X-ray pulse

22 (Experiments at UNR begun in December 2005.)
Collisions, electron diffusion by scattering, and radiative energy loss have now been included in simulation. (Y. Sentoku, A. Kemp, M. Bakeman et al.) Z=6 ni=4•1022 1/cm3 ne=Z•ni Ti(0) = 0 Th(0)= 30keV Tc(0)= 1keV/Z I=2•1017W/cm2 Pulse length = 700fs Target = 10m nh=10•1021 1/cm3 Ion temperatures of several 100 eV, at solid density (Z=6) for up to a few ps, may be possible with the “Tomcat”-Zebra coupling. (Experiments at UNR begun in December 2005.)

23 NEEC/NEET with Short Pulse Laser
Nuclear Excitation by Electron Capture with ultra-intense short-pulse lasers: 169Tm NEEC at Draco 150 TW HZDR LLNL?) Isochoric heating to keV temperatures (Sentoku et al, PoP 14, , 2007) Streaked spectroscopy for 4 ns, 8.4 keV atomic nuclear M L 150 TW few Hz X-ray Streak t l conical HOPG Au / 169Tm / Au target A. Kritcher et al., JINA Workshop, London March 13, 2011

24 NEEC/NEET with Short Pulse Laser
“Isochoric heating in heterogenous solid targets with ultrashort laser pulses,” Sentoku, Kemp, Presura, Bakeman and Cowan, Phys. Plasmas 14, (2007) Au layers 169Tm layer 4 J, 25 fs < 10 Hz few keV 10 g/cc few ps

25 A Kritcher et al., JINA Workshop,
NEEC/NEET with Short Pulse Laser A Kritcher et al., JINA Workshop, March 13, 2011, London Potential for 1st observation of NEEC Short-pulse separates excitation from decay Repetition rate for signal averaging & systematics Resolve unknowns, e.g., Lifetime vs. Plasma Temperature High-rep-rate 150 TW laser “Draco” at HZDR tamped targets – short-pulse isochoric heating large collection Bragg spectrometer Fast X-ray streak, few ps (R. Shepherd) Slow X-ray streak, few 100 ps (R. Shepherd) 150 TW few Hz X-ray Streak t l conical crystal Au / 169Tm / Au target kT ~ keV, t ~ few ps, n ~ solid density, 10 mm3 Rate ~107 /s, Int. Conv. a=263.5 Ng ~ (1012 nuclei)(107 s-1)(10-12 s)(1/a) ~ 104 per shot Signal: (~ few g / shot) × (few shot / s)

26 NEEC/NEET with Short Pulse Laser
Detailed simulations of “shock” heating in CD2/Al/CD2: Lingen Huang, T. Kluge, M. Bussmann, et al. and planning for Callisto (LLNL) experiment: B. Ramakrishna, R. Shepherd et al. 1020 W/cm fs Longitudinal Electric Field Deuteron Density

27 Nuclear physics and Anti-matter creation with ultra-intense lasers
Relativistic laser-matter interactions open new vistas… At I = 1021 W/cm2 : Eo ~ I1/2 l = 1014 V/m Bo = Eo/c = Tesla Atoms are ionized and electrons accelerated to >20 MeV in half-cycle Nuclear physics and Anti-matter creation with ultra-intense lasers APS News 8, No. 3, March 1999 APS Centennial Meeting Highlights Atlanta, March 1999 Rückstrom 3 J / 20 fs 1020 W/cm2 e- B > 1000 Tesla Pre-formed plasma Fsc ~ 10 MV

28 We shall consider gaseous and solid density targets
plasma wavelength < pulse length


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