Presentation on theme: "Thomas Honegger firstname.lastname@example.org From Caedmon to Caxton Thomas Honegger email@example.com."— Presentation transcript:
1 Thomas Honegger firstname.lastname@example.org From Caedmon to CaxtonThomas Honegger
2 Tolkiens Weltbild(er) Zweites Tolkien Seminar der DTGFSU April 2005Hörsaal 6, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 3Programm Homepage Anglistik oder unter
3 A (Literary) History of the English Language ‘Literary’ counterpart to Prof. H. Diessel’s lecture History of the English Language
4 Recommended ReadingBarber, Charles The English Language. A Historical Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressBaugh, A.C. & Thomas Cable A History of the English Language. 5th edition. London: Routledge.Blake, Norman A History of the English Language. London: Macmillan.
5 Recommended ReadingFreeborn, D From Old English to Standard English. 2nd edition. London: Macmillan.Millward, C.M A Biography of the English Language. 2nd edition. Boston: Thomson/Heinle.Pyles, Thomas and John Algeo The Origins and Development of the English Language. 4th edition. Fort Worth, Texas: Harcout Brace Jovanovich
6 Recommended ReadingThe Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. I-V Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
7 The father of English poetry CaedmonThe father of English poetry
8 Bede’s account of Caedmon Bede (Beda Venerabilis) *637, 735Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum 731A History of the English Church and PeopleBook IV, Chapter 24 (A.D. 680)
9 Caedmon’s HymnNu we sculan herian heofonrices weard Metodes mihte 7 his modgeπonc, weorc wuldorfaeder, swa he wundra gehwaes ece drihten, ord onstealde; He aerest gesceop eorπan bearnum heofon to hrofe, halig scyppend, πa middangearde, moncynnes weard; ece dryhten aefter teode firum foldan, frea aelmyhtig.
10 Caedmon’s HymnNow we must praise heaven-kingdom’s Guardian Creator’s might and his mind-thought work Glory-father’s as he of-wonders each everlasting Lord, beginning established. He first shaped of-earth for-children heaven as roof, holy Creator; then middle-earth, mankind’s Guardian, everlasting Lord, after determined for-men homeland, Ruler almighty.
11 Caedmon’s poetic output Creation of the world and of the human race (Genesis)Israel’s exodus from Egypt (Exodus)Entry into the Promised Land (Joshua)Lord’s IncarnationPassion, Resurrection, AscensionJudgment Day
12 English?Nu we sculan herian heofonrices weard Metodes mihte 7 his modgeπonc, weorc wuldorfaeder, swa he wundra gehwaes ece drihten, ord onstealde; He aerest gesceop eorπan bearnum heofon to hrofe, halig scyppend, πa middangearde, moncynnes weard; ece dryhten aefter teode firum foldan, frea aelmyhtig.
13 Old English - English / German nuwesculanherianheofonriceweardnow / nunwe / wirshall / sollen––– / hehrheaven / (Himmel)rich / Reichwarden / Wärter
14 Old English - English / German mihteweorcwunderaerestgesceopeorπanhrofmiddangeardmight / Machtwork / Werkwonder / Wunderere/ erstshaped / schufearth / Erderoof / –––––middle- / Midgart
15 EnglishNu we sculan herian heofonrices weard now we shall praise heavenkingdom’s wardenspelling & pronunciation?more or less ‘phonetic’ spelling of Old English; ‘continental’ pronunciation
16 EnglishNu we sculan herian heofonrices weard now we shall praise heavenkingdom’s wardeninflections?sculan – sollen – shall__rices – des Reichs – of the kingdom
17 English He aerest gesceop bearnum heofon to hrofe syntax? subject: he direct object (acc.): heofonindirect object (dat.): bearnum
21 Literature!Nu we sculan herian heofonrices weard Metodes mihte 7 his modgeπonc, weorc wuldorfaeder, swa he wundra gehwaes ece drihten, ord onstealde; He aerest gesceop eorπan bearnum heofon to hrofe, halig scyppend, πa middangearde, moncynnes weard; ece dryhten aefter teode firum foldan, frea aelmyhtig.
22 Alliteration / Stabreim Examples from the OE poem Beowulf (try to find the alliterating sounds)on fagne flor feond treddode,ligge gelicost leoht unfægerrecedes muπan. Raπe æfter πoneode yrremod; him of eagum stod
23 Alliteration / Stabreim on fagne flor feond treddode,a a // a xligge gelicost leoht unfæger a a //a xrecedes muπan. Raπe æfter πon a x // a xeode yrremod; him of eagum stod a a //x a
24 Alliteration / Stabreim Basic rule for alliterative long line:at least one (and at most two) of the stressed syllables of the first half-line alliterate(s) with one (usually the first) stressed syllable of the second half-line:a (a) // a xidentical consonants alliterateall vowels alliterateglottal stop
25 Before Caedmon ca. A.D. 680 Caedmon A.D. 597 Re-christianisation of England through missionaries from Rome (Augustine of Kent and his followers)A.D. 449 Anglo-Saxon invasionA.D. 409/10 Rome calls back the last remaining legions in BritainA.D. 43 Roman army conquers Britanniaca. 500 BC Celtic settlement of Britain
26 Before Caedmonca. 500 BC Celtic settlement of Britain => Britain with a Celtic speaking populationA.D. 43 Roman invasion => Celtic speaking population with Latin speaking upper class / administration4th cent. A.D. Christianisation of Roman Britain
27 Before CaedmonA.D. 409/410 retreat of the Roman occupation/protection force => Celtic speaking population, Latin among educated peopleA.D. 449 onwards: Anglo-Saxon invasion => conquest of Britain goes hand in hand with the loss of Roman culture (towns, roads, literary culture, administration)
28 Before CaedmonAnglo-Saxon invasion => ‘oral’ culture (cf. Tacitus’ Germania A.D. 98)pagan culture
39 Evidence for IE languages 700 English500 Armenian400 Gothic200 Latin400 Classical Sanskrit800 Greek1200 Hittite1500 Vedic Sanskrit3000 Proto Indo-European
40 Theories about a common source correspondences across languages:Engl. two - Goth. twai - Latin duo - Greek duo - Sanskrit dvaEngl. fish - Goth. fisks – Latin piscis – Greek ikhthysEngl. father - Latin pater - Greek pater – Sanskrit pitar
41 Theories about a common source James Parson, 1767, The Remains of Japhet, being historical enquiries into the affinity and origins of the European languageslanguages of Europe, Iran and India derived from a common ancestorthe language of Japhet and his offspring, who had migrated out of Armenia, the final resting place of the Ark.
47 Theories about a common source Sir William Jones (1796):The Sanskrit language [bears to both Greek and Latin] a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could have been produced by accident; [...] no philologer could examine all three without believing them to have sprung from some common source
48 Reconstructing the Common Source Avis, jasmin varna na a ast, dadarka akvams, tam vagham garum vaghantam, tam, bharam magham, tam manum aku bharantam. (Schleicher 1868)Owis, jesmin wel´na ne est, dedok’e ek’wons, tom, woghom gwerum weghontom, tom, bhorom megam, tom, gh’emonm ok’u bhertontm. (Hirt 1939)
49 Reconstructing the Common Source owis, kwesyo wlhna ne est, ekwons espeket, oinom ghe gwrum woghom weghontm, oinomkwe megam bhorom, oinomkwe ghmenm oku bherontm. (Lehmann and Zgusta 1975)A sheep, on which wool not was, saw horses, one, a wagon heavy pulling, one, a load great, one a man swiftly carrying.
50 In search of the IE homeland Linguistic evidence:common words for: cold, winter, snow, honey, wolf, beech, pineno common words for: ocean, palm, elephant, camel
52 Early historical distribution of the major IE linguistic groups
53 simplified depiction of the development of the Germanic languages ProtogermanicNorthgermanic Westgermanic EastgermanicAnglo-Frisian Gothic (†)Old Norse Old English Old High GermanAnglo-NormanOld Frisian Middle English Middle High GermanOld DutchFrisian English German YiddishScandinavian languages Flemish Dutch Afrikaans