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From Caedmon to Caxton Thomas Honegger

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1 From Caedmon to Caxton Thomas Honegger

2 Tolkiens Weltbild(er) Zweites Tolkien Seminar der DTG FSU April 2005 Hörsaal 6, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 3 Programm Homepage Anglistik oder unter

3 A (Literary) History of the English Language Literary counterpart to Prof. H. Diessels lecture History of the English Language

4 Recommended Reading Barber, Charles The English Language. A Historical Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Barber, Charles The English Language. A Historical Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Baugh, A.C. & Thomas Cable A History of the English Language. 5th edition. London: Routledge. Baugh, A.C. & Thomas Cable A History of the English Language. 5th edition. London: Routledge. Blake, Norman A History of the English Language. London: Macmillan. Blake, Norman A History of the English Language. London: Macmillan.

5 Recommended Reading Freeborn, D From Old English to Standard English. 2nd edition. London: Macmillan. Freeborn, D From Old English to Standard English. 2nd edition. London: Macmillan. Millward, C.M A Biography of the English Language. 2nd edition. Boston: Thomson/Heinle. Millward, C.M A Biography of the English Language. 2nd edition. Boston: Thomson/Heinle. Pyles, Thomas and John Algeo The Origins and Development of the English Language. 4th edition. Fort Worth, Texas: Harcout Brace Jovanovich Pyles, Thomas and John Algeo The Origins and Development of the English Language. 4th edition. Fort Worth, Texas: Harcout Brace Jovanovich

6 Recommended Reading The Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. I-V Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. I-V Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

7 Caedmon The father of English poetry

8 Bedes account of Caedmon Bede (Beda Venerabilis) *637, 735 Bede (Beda Venerabilis) *637, 735 Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum 731 Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum 731 A History of the English Church and People A History of the English Church and People Book IV, Chapter 24 (A.D. 680) Book IV, Chapter 24 (A.D. 680)

9 Caedmons Hymn Nu we sculan herian heofonrices weard Metodes mihte 7 his modgeπonc, weorc wuldorfaeder, swa he wundra gehwaes ece drihten, ord onstealde; He aerest gesceop eorπan bearnum heofon to hrofe, halig scyppend, πa middangearde, moncynnes weard; ece dryhten aefter teode firum foldan, frea aelmyhtig. Nu we sculan herian heofonrices weard Metodes mihte 7 his modgeπonc, weorc wuldorfaeder, swa he wundra gehwaes ece drihten, ord onstealde; He aerest gesceop eorπan bearnum heofon to hrofe, halig scyppend, πa middangearde, moncynnes weard; ece dryhten aefter teode firum foldan, frea aelmyhtig.

10 Caedmons Hymn Now we must praise heaven-kingdoms Guardian Creators might and his mind-thought work Glory-fathers as he of-wonders each everlasting Lord, beginning established. He first shaped of-earth for-children heaven as roof, holy Creator; then middle-earth, mankinds Guardian, everlasting Lord, after determined for-men homeland, Ruler almighty. Now we must praise heaven-kingdoms Guardian Creators might and his mind-thought work Glory-fathers as he of-wonders each everlasting Lord, beginning established. He first shaped of-earth for-children heaven as roof, holy Creator; then middle-earth, mankinds Guardian, everlasting Lord, after determined for-men homeland, Ruler almighty.

11 Caedmons poetic output Creation of the world and of the human race (Genesis) Creation of the world and of the human race (Genesis) Israels exodus from Egypt (Exodus) Israels exodus from Egypt (Exodus) Entry into the Promised Land (Joshua) Entry into the Promised Land (Joshua) Lords Incarnation Lords Incarnation Passion, Resurrection, Ascension Passion, Resurrection, Ascension Judgment Day Judgment Day

12 English? Nu we sculan herian heofonrices weard Metodes mihte 7 his modgeπonc, weorc wuldorfaeder, swa he wundra gehwaes ece drihten, ord onstealde; He aerest gesceop eorπan bearnum heofon to hrofe, halig scyppend, πa middangearde, moncynnes weard; ece dryhten aefter teode firum foldan, frea aelmyhtig. Nu we sculan herian heofonrices weard Metodes mihte 7 his modgeπonc, weorc wuldorfaeder, swa he wundra gehwaes ece drihten, ord onstealde; He aerest gesceop eorπan bearnum heofon to hrofe, halig scyppend, πa middangearde, moncynnes weard; ece dryhten aefter teode firum foldan, frea aelmyhtig.

13 Old English - English / German nu nu we we sculan sculan herian herian heofon heofon rice rice weard weard now / nun we / wir shall / sollen ––– / hehr heaven / (Himmel) rich / Reich warden / Wärter

14 Old English - English / German mihte mihte weorc weorc wunder wunder aerest aerest gesceop gesceop eorπan eorπan hrof hrof middangeard middangeard might / Macht work / Werk wonder / Wunder ere/ erst shaped / schuf earth / Erde roof / ––––– middle- / Midgart

15 English Nu we sculan herian heofonrices weard now we shall praise heavenkingdoms warden Nu we sculan herian heofonrices weard now we shall praise heavenkingdoms warden spelling & pronunciation? spelling & pronunciation? more or less phonetic spelling of Old English; continental pronunciation more or less phonetic spelling of Old English; continental pronunciation

16 English Nu we sculan herian heofonrices weard now we shall praise heavenkingdoms warden Nu we sculan herian heofonrices weard now we shall praise heavenkingdoms warden inflections? inflections? sculan – sollen – shall__ sculan – sollen – shall__ rices – des Reichs – of the kingdom rices – des Reichs – of the kingdom

17 English He aerest gesceop bearnum heofon to hrofe He aerest gesceop bearnum heofon to hrofe syntax? syntax? subject: he subject: he direct object (acc.): heofon direct object (acc.): heofon indirect object (dat.): bearnum indirect object (dat.): bearnum

18 English vocabulary? vocabulary? He aerest gesceop eorπan bearnum heofon to hrofe, halig scyppend, πa middangearde, moncynnes weard. He aerest gesceop eorπan bearnum heofon to hrofe, halig scyppend, πa middangearde, moncynnes weard. continuation: heofon – heaven, eorπe – earth continuation: heofon – heaven, eorπe – earth semantic change: scyppan – shape (=> replaced by create) semantic change: scyppan – shape (=> replaced by create) substitution: bearn – child substitution: bearn – child

19 Literature? Nu we sculan herian heofonrices weard Metodes mihte 7 his modgeπonc, weorc wuldorfaeder, swa he wundra gehwaes ece drihten, ord onstealde; He aerest gesceop eorπan bearnum heofon to hrofe, halig scyppend, πa middangearde, moncynnes weard; ece dryhten aefter teode firum foldan, frea aelmyhtig. Nu we sculan herian heofonrices weard Metodes mihte 7 his modgeπonc, weorc wuldorfaeder, swa he wundra gehwaes ece drihten, ord onstealde; He aerest gesceop eorπan bearnum heofon to hrofe, halig scyppend, πa middangearde, moncynnes weard; ece dryhten aefter teode firum foldan, frea aelmyhtig.

20 Literature? Criteria for literature? Criteria for literature? topic? topic? diction? diction? form? form? informative - relational - expressive informative - relational - expressive

21 Literature! Nu we sculan herian heofonrices weard Metodes mihte 7 his modgeπonc, weorc wuldorfaeder, swa he wundra gehwaes ece drihten, ord onstealde; He aerest gesceop eorπan bearnum heofon to hrofe, halig scyppend, πa middangearde, moncynnes weard; ece dryhten aefter teode firum foldan, frea aelmyhtig. Nu we sculan herian heofonrices weard Metodes mihte 7 his modgeπonc, weorc wuldorfaeder, swa he wundra gehwaes ece drihten, ord onstealde; He aerest gesceop eorπan bearnum heofon to hrofe, halig scyppend, πa middangearde, moncynnes weard; ece dryhten aefter teode firum foldan, frea aelmyhtig.

22 Alliteration / Stabreim Examples from the OE poem Beowulf (try to find the alliterating sounds) Examples from the OE poem Beowulf (try to find the alliterating sounds) on fagne flor feond treddode, on fagne flor feond treddode, ligge gelicost leoht unfæger ligge gelicost leoht unfæger recedes muπan. Raπe æfter πon recedes muπan. Raπe æfter πon eode yrremod; him of eagum stod eode yrremod; him of eagum stod

23 Alliteration / Stabreim on fagne flor feond treddode, on fagne flor feond treddode, a a // a x a a // a x ligge gelicost leoht unfæger a a //a x ligge gelicost leoht unfæger a a //a x recedes muπan. Raπe æfter πon a x // a x recedes muπan. Raπe æfter πon a x // a x eode yrremod; him of eagum stod a a //x a eode yrremod; him of eagum stod a a //x a

24 Alliteration / Stabreim Basic rule for alliterative long line: Basic rule for alliterative long line: at least one (and at most two) of the stressed syllables of the first half-line alliterate(s) with one (usually the first) stressed syllable of the second half-line: at least one (and at most two) of the stressed syllables of the first half-line alliterate(s) with one (usually the first) stressed syllable of the second half-line: a (a) // a x a (a) // a x identical consonants alliterate identical consonants alliterate all vowels alliterate all vowels alliterate glottal stop glottal stop

25 Before Caedmon ca. A.D. 680 Caedmon ca. A.D. 680 Caedmon A.D. 597 Re-christianisation of England through missionaries from Rome (Augustine of Kent and his followers) A.D. 597 Re-christianisation of England through missionaries from Rome (Augustine of Kent and his followers) A.D. 449 Anglo-Saxon invasion A.D. 449 Anglo-Saxon invasion A.D. 409/10 Rome calls back the last remaining legions in Britain A.D. 409/10 Rome calls back the last remaining legions in Britain A.D. 43 Roman army conquers Britannia A.D. 43 Roman army conquers Britannia ca. 500 BC Celtic settlement of Britain ca. 500 BC Celtic settlement of Britain

26 Before Caedmon ca. 500 BC Celtic settlement of Britain => Britain with a Celtic speaking population ca. 500 BC Celtic settlement of Britain => Britain with a Celtic speaking population A.D. 43 Roman invasion => Celtic speaking population with Latin speaking upper class / administration A.D. 43 Roman invasion => Celtic speaking population with Latin speaking upper class / administration 4th cent. A.D. Christianisation of Roman Britain 4th cent. A.D. Christianisation of Roman Britain

27 Before Caedmon A.D. 409/410 retreat of the Roman occupation/protection force => Celtic speaking population, Latin among educated people A.D. 409/410 retreat of the Roman occupation/protection force => Celtic speaking population, Latin among educated people A.D. 449 onwards: Anglo-Saxon invasion => conquest of Britain goes hand in hand with the loss of Roman culture (towns, roads, literary culture, administration) A.D. 449 onwards: Anglo-Saxon invasion => conquest of Britain goes hand in hand with the loss of Roman culture (towns, roads, literary culture, administration)

28 Before Caedmon Anglo-Saxon invasion => oral culture (cf. Tacitus Germania A.D. 98) Anglo-Saxon invasion => oral culture (cf. Tacitus Germania A.D. 98) pagan culture pagan culture

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34 English and Indo-European English is a Germanic language English is a Germanic language the Germanic language group is part of the Indo-European language family the Germanic language group is part of the Indo-European language family

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39 Evidence for IE languages 700 English 700 English 500 Armenian 500 Armenian 400 Gothic 400 Gothic Latin 200 Latin 400 Classical Sanskrit 400 Classical Sanskrit 800 Greek 800 Greek 1200 Hittite 1200 Hittite 1500 Vedic Sanskrit 1500 Vedic Sanskrit 3000 Proto Indo-European 3000 Proto Indo-European

40 Theories about a common source correspondences across languages: correspondences across languages: Engl. two - Goth. twai - Latin duo - Greek duo - Sanskrit dva Engl. two - Goth. twai - Latin duo - Greek duo - Sanskrit dva Engl. fish - Goth. fisks – Latin piscis – Greek ikhthys Engl. fish - Goth. fisks – Latin piscis – Greek ikhthys Engl. father - Latin pater - Greek pater – Sanskrit pitar Engl. father - Latin pater - Greek pater – Sanskrit pitar

41 Theories about a common source James Parson, 1767, The Remains of Japhet, being historical enquiries into the affinity and origins of the European languages James Parson, 1767, The Remains of Japhet, being historical enquiries into the affinity and origins of the European languages languages of Europe, Iran and India derived from a common ancestor languages of Europe, Iran and India derived from a common ancestor the language of Japhet and his offspring, who had migrated out of Armenia, the final resting place of the Ark. the language of Japhet and his offspring, who had migrated out of Armenia, the final resting place of the Ark.

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47 Theories about a common source Sir William Jones (1796): Sir William Jones (1796): The Sanskrit language [bears to both Greek and Latin] a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could have been produced by accident; [...] no philologer could examine all three without believing them to have sprung from some common source The Sanskrit language [bears to both Greek and Latin] a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could have been produced by accident; [...] no philologer could examine all three without believing them to have sprung from some common source

48 Reconstructing the Common Source Avis, jasmin varna na a ast, dadarka akvams, tam vagham garum vaghantam, tam, bharam magham, tam manum aku bharantam. (Schleicher 1868) Avis, jasmin varna na a ast, dadarka akvams, tam vagham garum vaghantam, tam, bharam magham, tam manum aku bharantam. (Schleicher 1868) Owis, jesmin w e l´na ne est, dedoke ekwons, tom, woghom g we rum weghontom, tom, bhorom megam, tom, gh e monm oku bhertontm. (Hirt 1939) Owis, jesmin w e l´na ne est, dedoke ekwons, tom, woghom g we rum weghontom, tom, bhorom megam, tom, gh e monm oku bhertontm. (Hirt 1939)

49 Reconstructing the Common Source owis, k w esyo wlhna ne est, ekwons espeket, oinom ghe g w rum woghom weghontm, oinomk w e megam bhorom, oinomk w e ghmenm oku bherontm. (Lehmann and Zgusta 1975) owis, k w esyo wlhna ne est, ekwons espeket, oinom ghe g w rum woghom weghontm, oinomk w e megam bhorom, oinomk w e ghmenm oku bherontm. (Lehmann and Zgusta 1975) A sheep, on which wool not was, saw horses, one, a wagon heavy pulling, one, a load great, one a man swiftly carrying. A sheep, on which wool not was, saw horses, one, a wagon heavy pulling, one, a load great, one a man swiftly carrying.

50 In search of the IE homeland Linguistic evidence: Linguistic evidence: common words for: cold, winter, snow, honey, wolf, beech, pine common words for: cold, winter, snow, honey, wolf, beech, pine no common words for: ocean, palm, elephant, camel no common words for: ocean, palm, elephant, camel

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53 simplified depiction of the development of the Germanic languages Protogermanic NorthgermanicWestgermanicEastgermanic Anglo-FrisianGothic () Old NorseOld English Old High German Anglo-Norman Old FrisianMiddle English Middle High German Old Dutch FrisianEnglishGerman Yiddish Scandinavian languagesFlemish Dutch Afrikaans


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