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Taaldiversiteit in het Onderwijs Linguistic Diversity in Education Dr. Alex M.J. Riemersma Lector Frisian & Multilingualism in Education

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Presentation on theme: "Taaldiversiteit in het Onderwijs Linguistic Diversity in Education Dr. Alex M.J. Riemersma Lector Frisian & Multilingualism in Education"— Presentation transcript:

1 Taaldiversiteit in het Onderwijs Linguistic Diversity in Education Dr. Alex M.J. Riemersma Lector Frisian & Multilingualism in Education Ems-Dollard Regiodag Groningen,22 November 2012

2 Overview Global Linguistic Diversity Individual bi- and plurilingualism Transfer & Translanguaging Multilingual Education: why, what, how, results Language Policy at School

3 Startvragen Waar denkt U aan bij: Taaldiversiteit in het onderwijs Taalgericht vakonderwijs Meertalig onderwijs Schooltaalbeleid

4 Global Linguistic Diversity Globe: 6,000 Languages (in oral use) Unesco Language Vitality Index (2009): more than 2,500 languages (in oral use) endangered / threatened with extinct in 21st century

5 Global Linguistic Diversity 600 à 700 Languages with basic infrastructure: Orthography, Dictionary, Grammar Book 475 Languages with complete Bible translation + 1,240 languages with New Testament + 823 languages with (small) part of Bible

6 Unesco Language Vitality

7 Language Vitality factors (6) Intergenerational transmission Absolute number of speakers Proportion of speakers within total population Trends in existing domains Response to new domains & media Materials for Education and Literacy

8 Language Vitality factors (3) Governmental and Institutional Language Attitudes & Politics Community Member’s Attitudes towards their own languages Documentation (& corpus planning)

9 Degrees of Endangerment 5: safe The language is used by all ages, from children up. 4: unsafe The language is used by some children in all domains; it is used by all children in limited domains. 3: definitively endangered The language is used mostly by the parental generation and up. 2: severely endangered The language is used mostly by the grandparental generation and up. 1: critically endangered The language is used mostly by very few speakers, of great-grandparental generation. 0: extinct There exists no speaker.

10 Language Planning Key Words State:Citizen: CapacityCommand OpportunitiesUse Desire / PlanWill

11 International organisations United Nations (195 member states): 6 working languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish Council of Europe (47 member states): 6 working languages: English, French (documents) German, Italian, Russian, Spanish (interpretation)

12 European Linguistic Diversity

13 EU Language Policies Mother tongue + 2 other languages Individual Multilingualism as an asset > (2) Mother tongue + 2 (or more) Lifelong Learning Program (2007-2013) > Erasmus for All (2014-2020)

14 European Policies: EU European Treaty: “EU respects the religious, cultural and linguistic diversity.” Definition “Mother tongue” = state language Principle of “subsidiarity” is in favour of national languages. “All languages are equal” > “mainstreaming” is in fact in favour of English (only) !

15 Individual bi- and plurilingualism 65% of world population uses more than one language in every day life 10% of EU population speaks a minority language Millions of migrant language speakers

16 Individual bi- and plurilingualsm Handicap for happiness? Asset for successes in: > cognitive > character > communication > culture > career

17 17 Old theory / ferâldere ideeën

18 18 New theory / nij ynsjoch

19 Ice berg by Jim Cummins Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma Lectoraat Fries & Meertaligheid in Onderwijs en opvoeding

20 Triple Ice berg and Common Underlying Proficiency Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma Lectoraat Fries & Meertaligheid in Onderwijs en Opvoeding

21 Why multilingual education? Mother tongue development Cognitive developments Easier third language acquisition Flexible communication: > social participation > economic success: career & cash Cultural heritage/language maintenance

22 Foreign language learning Original status & function: > Elite – mainly in reading and writing > Cultural purposes Changing towards: > All students and adults: “M + 2” > Global communication – oral use & ict

23 Development of multilingual education in 20th century Neglect of mother tongue > submersion Transitional bilingualism > subtractive bilingualism Equal footing / immersion > additive / full bilingualism

24 Goals of Multilingual Education Cultural heritage of home language Transition towards national language versus: Language maintenance & development Full bilingualism / biliterate

25 Characteristics of Multilingual Education Goal oriented > language development > full bilingualism & biliteracy Subject & use (medium of instruction) Communication & culture Continuous curriculum

26 Models of multilingual education One person / one language > identification with ‘native speaker’ Split of time > language rich input Division of subjects > task specific & CLIL: content & language integrated learning Immersion (in the weaker language)

27 Immersion versus CLIL Immersion: from (pre-)school onwards more than 50% teaching time native speakers as teachers CLIL: Mainly in secondary education Less than 50% of teaching time Non-native speakers as teachers

28 Actors at Macro + Meso level Macro (national and international): conflicting policies National: stress on national language only discouraging regional and migrant languages International: EU-/ CoE-policy: mother tongue + 2 Meso (school level): reflects conflicting policies Concept of Multilingual Education (ME) fits better to EU- & CoE-policy  CLIL & Immersion Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma

29 Bilingual Education in the Netherlands NO migrant language education Primary school: English obligatory + 650 schools “Early language learning” Secondary school: English + one + 160 schools with English – CLIL + 2 schools with German - CLIL

30 Why Language Policy at School? Changing world(s): mobility & experiences Position school in multilingual context Awareness raising on linguistic diversity: minority & migrant languages Integrated teaching & learning 30

31 What Language Policy at School? “Every teacher is a language teacher” Integrated Teaching & Learning Comparability of: - teachers’ didactics - students’ results - schools’ results in the region Visibility of languages: source & target 31

32 Language Policy at School Vision on school as: - “language rich school” / TTO / VVTO - Bi-, tri- or multilingual school Agreements on language use: - internal communication at school - internal communication in the class room - external communication: orally and in writing (f.e. on the school website) 32

33 Professional Competencies Language Policy at School In service training aiming at qualified teachers (competencies) towards: “Every teacher is a language teacher” Language support for subject teachers (f.e. native speakers) 33

34 Professional Co-operation Language Policy at School Transfer: (implicit) use of various languages Translanguaging: acquisition of knowledge in one language, use and present in another language CLIL: Content & Language Integrated Learning Comparison of Languages: grammar, vocabulary, pragmatics 34

35 Activities on Language Richness of the School Thematic week on Linguistic Diversity including RMLs & IMLs Weekly Presentation of a student’s language and its culture Special activities language acquisition f.e. Language Village 35

36 Actors for multilingual education Educational authorities (national, regional, local school board) School principals & management Class room teachers Parents & students Social and cultural environemnt

37 Micro (school & class room) Teamwork of teachers of subjects and medium of instruction > integral approach Common descriptors of language command in the target languages > CEFR + Language Portfolio Comparable testing methods > student monitoring system Learning strategies of pupils based on translanguaging and language use Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma

38 Ambitions of lectureship Continuity of Multilingual Education from primary to secondary education; adequate teacher training Didactic approach for teacher training: - effective & integrated learning - aiming at results Language portfolio: - languages integrated - curriculum oriented Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma

39 Ambitions of lectureship Development of measurement tool for comparable results of language command: - Frisian – Dutch - English; Reference levels: - CEFR: Common European Reference Level (Council of Europe) - DFR: Dutch national reference levels - Anglia-levels / Me!English - Frisia-level Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma

40 CEFR & Anglia

41 Comparative levels Levels DFR & CEFR, Anglia & Frisia DFR 1F2F3F 4F CEFRA1A2B1B2C1C2 Anglia Junior Intermediate FrisiaStartStap 1Stap 2Stap 3

42 Relevant literature M. Hajer & Th. Meestringa, Handboek Taalgericht Vakonderwijs. H. Paus e.a., Dertien doelen in een dozijn. Een referentiekader voor taalcompetenties van leraren in Nederland en Vlaanderen. Nederlandse Taalunie. 42

43 43 Eskerrik asko Mange Takk Diolch Tankewol Trugarez Grazia Graciis Dankscheen Mercé plan Kiitos Köszönöm Multimesc Thank you Hvala Dankuwel Tankewol

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