Presentation on theme: "Unstressed Syllables, Schwa and Syllabic Consonants."— Presentation transcript:
Unstressed Syllables, Schwa and Syllabic Consonants
Unstressed Syllables Weak (reduced) vowel → shorter, weaker in energy and closer to schwa /ә/ in place of articulation Vowels of weak syllables: – Schwa /ә/ – /i/ (finally or before a vowel): happy, react – / ɪ / (before a consonant): panic, elect – /(j)u/ (before a vowel or before a a stressed syllable): intuition, regulate, united – /(j) ʊ / (before a consonant plus an unstressed syllable): stimulus, soluble – No vowel, just a syllabic sonorant /m n l r/: final, recent / ɪ / and / ʊ / may also function as full vowels
Unstressed Syllables Before the stressed syllable: never more than 2 weak syllables e.g. if the stressed syllable is the fourth syllable: justifi'cationhalluci'nation + - - + -- + - + - After the stressed syllable: may be 3 weak syllables (in words with certain endings) e.g.: candidacyimpenetrable +- - -- + - - - harvest, biggest, family Weak vowels: often free variation
Schwa http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/gr ammar/pron/sounds/vowel_short_5.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/gr ammar/pron/sounds/vowel_short_5.shtml No prevocalic schwa in English Preconsonantal schwa – Often interchangable with /i/ (spelling: usually /i/ or /e/ not followed by r) – Word-initial schwa: a- or o- Word-final schwa – almost / ʌ /
Syllabic Consonants Schwa followed by a sonorant (/n, l/ and less frequently /m, ŋ, r/) → /ә/ often drops out → the sonorant becomes syllabic [l][n][r] Word-final pedal, quarrelbutton, dozen(not possible) Preconson.: bottled, penaltyhadn’t, certainly(rare:) literal [ -r l] Prevocalic crystallize, traveller listening, definition cigarette, cemetery
Syllabic Consonants Syllabic /l/: always dark Examples with syllabic [m]: prism, handsome Examples with syllabic [ŋ]: bacon, we can go Syllabic: acts as the “vowel” of the syllable Only occur in unstressed syllables How are syllabic consonants indicated in transcription?
Sources Baloghné Bérces Katalin, Szentgyörgyi Szilárd. Az angol nyelv kiejtése -The Pronunciation of English. Available from: http://mek.oszk.hu/04900/04910/04910.pdf http://mek.oszk.hu/04900/04910/04910.pdf Kreidler, Charles W. The Pronunciation of English: A Course Book in Phonology. Oxford; Cambridge: Blackwell, 1999. BBC Learning English webpage http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/gr ammar/pron/sounds/vowel_short_5.shtml Nádasdy, Ádám. Practice Book in English Phonetics and Phonology. Budapest: Nemzeti Tankönyvkiadó, 2003.