Presentation on theme: "Unstressed Syllables, Schwa and Syllabic Consonants"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unstressed Syllables, Schwa and Syllabic Consonants
2 Unstressed SyllablesWeak (reduced) vowel → shorter, weaker in energy and closer to schwa /ә/ in place of articulationVowels of weak syllables:Schwa /ә//i/ (finally or before a vowel): happy, react/ɪ/ (before a consonant): panic, elect/(j)u/ (before a vowel or before a a stressed syllable): intuition, regulate, united/(j)ʊ/ (before a consonant plus an unstressed syllable): stimulus, solubleNo vowel, just a syllabic sonorant /m n l r/: final, recent/ɪ/ and /ʊ/ may also function as full vowels
3 Unstressed SyllablesBefore the stressed syllable: never more than 2 weak syllablese.g. if the stressed syllable is the fourth syllable:justifi'cation halluci'nationAfter the stressed syllable: may be 3 weak syllables (in words with certain endings)e.g.: candidacy impenetrableharvest, biggest, familyWeak vowels: often free variation
4 SchwaNo prevocalic schwa in EnglishPreconsonantal schwaOften interchangable with /i/(spelling: usually /i/ or /e/ not followed by r)Word-initial schwa: a- or o-Word-final schwa – almost /ʌ/
5 Syllabic ConsonantsSchwa followed by a sonorant (/n, l/ and less frequently /m, ŋ, r/) → /ә/ often drops out → the sonorant becomes syllabic[l][n][r]Word-finalpedal, quarrelbutton, dozen(not possible)Preconson.:bottled, penaltyhadn’t, certainly(rare:) literal [ -r l]Prevocaliccrystallize, travellerlistening, definitioncigarette, cemetery
6 Syllabic Consonants Syllabic /l/: always dark Examples with syllabic [m]: prism, handsomeExamples with syllabic [ŋ]: bacon, we can goSyllabic: acts as the “vowel” of the syllableOnly occur in unstressed syllablesHow are syllabic consonants indicated in transcription?
7 SourcesBaloghné Bérces Katalin, Szentgyörgyi Szilárd. Az angol nyelv kiejtése -The Pronunciation of English. Available from:Kreidler, Charles W. The Pronunciation of English: A Course Book in Phonology. Oxford; Cambridge: Blackwell, 1999.BBC Learning English webpageNádasdy, Ádám. Practice Book in English Phonetics and Phonology. Budapest: Nemzeti Tankönyvkiadó, 2003.