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M.Sc. In Pharm (Pharmacology)

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Presentation on theme: "M.Sc. In Pharm (Pharmacology)"— Presentation transcript:

1 M.Sc. In Pharm (Pharmacology)
Antiseptics & Disinfectants Pawitra Pulbutr M.Sc. In Pharm (Pharmacology)

2 วัตถุประสงค์เชิงพฤติกรรม
มีความเข้าใจและอธิบายถึงกลไกการออกฤทธิ์และความเป็นพิษของสารเคมีที่เป็น Antiseptics และ Disinfectants มีความเข้าใจและอธิบายถึงข้อดีและข้อเสียของสารเคมีที่เป็น Antiseptics และ Disinfectants

3 WORDS Sterilization การทำให้ปลอดเชื้อ destroy microorganism including spores Disinfection การทำลายการติดเชื้อ reduce or eradicate microorganism

4 Disinfectants chemicals that inhibit or kill micoorganism use with non-living surface Antiseptics chemicals that inhibit or kill microorganism less toxic use with living surface

5 Properties of good antiseptics & disinfectants
active to all microorganisms rapid & long action water soluble & stable tolerate to soap & organic material non-toxic less systemic absorption, non-allergenic well penetrate no colored, good smell cheap NO antiseptics & disinfectants!!

6 Alcohol rapid evaporation…no residual action can not penetrate organic material may cause irritation & dryness USE antiseptic before injection disinfectants

7 Chlorhexidine has residual action tolerated to organic material
destroy by anionic & non-ionic surfactants less irritation to skin USE chlorhexidine digluconate 2%, 4% pre-operation … skin cleaning infant bathing

8 Halogen iodine chlorine oxidize sulhydryl (SH) into S-S
denature protein protein dysfunction & precipitation

9 Iodine active to bacteria, fungi, protozoa, virus , spore tincture of iodine USP 2% iodine % sodium iodide in alc. Most potent antiseptics irritation & hypersensitivity

10 Iodophor cpx of iodine + surface active agents iodine + polyvinyl pyrrolidine = povidone iodine (betadine®) as active as iodine less irritation & hypersensitivity not staining USE wound antiseptic

11 Chlorine water soluble into hypochlorus, HOCL active to bacteria, virus, protozoa, fungi, spore destroy by organic material Chlorophor..slow release HOCL sodium hypochlorite chloramine

12 Phenolic compounds Phenol toxic….NO longer use carcinogenesis hyperbilirubinemia in neonates Phenolic agents o-phenylphenol, o-benzyl-p-chlorophenol, p-tertiary amylphenol mixture of phenolic derivative cresol, xylenol

13 Phenolic compounds cell membrane / cell wall disturbance
precipitation of protein inactivate enz. Active to bacteria, fungi, virus No effect to spore USE disinfectants to hard lab/ hospital not use in nursery…hyperbilirubinemia

14 Hexachlorophene active to most gm+ bacteria hexachlorophene 3% in soap USE antiseptic in pre-operation infant bathing …. May accumulate..cause heart & brain abnormal ...cerebral edema , convulsion in premature infants

15 Quaternary ammonium compound
cationic surface active detergents benzalkonium chloride cetylpyridine chloride benzethonium chloride inactivate enzyme denaturation of protein active to bacteria(+), fungi, lipophillic virus sporistatic

16 Aldehydes formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde
alkylation protein / nucleic acid active to bacteria, fungi, virus, spore USE disinfectants in medical equipments

17 Release hydroxyl radical …cell membrane disturbance
Hydrogen peroxide Release hydroxyl radical …cell membrane disturbance hydrogen peroxide 3% & 6% USE disinfectants…respirator, soft contact lenses wound antiseptics…catalase/ peroxidase...O2 gas + H2O vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) gaseous sterilant…less toxic than ethylene oxide, formaldehyde

18 Mercury salts thiomerosal (merthiolate) thiomerosal %…preservative in vaccine tincture merthiolate 0.1%…pre-operation antiseptics merbromin (mercurochrome) ยาแดง

19 Silver salts silver nitrate used as eye drop to prevent gonococcal ophthalmitis in newborns silver sulfadiazine burn wound


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