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| office of the university health, safety & environmental services 18-10-20121 Atoom- en kernfysica René Heerlien, MSc.

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Presentation on theme: "| office of the university health, safety & environmental services 18-10-20121 Atoom- en kernfysica René Heerlien, MSc."— Presentation transcript:

1 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services Atoom- en kernfysica René Heerlien, MSc

2 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services Atoom: kleinste eenheid van een stof die alle stofeigenschappen nog bezit elektron proton neutron Helium (He) Atoombouw

3 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services A z symbool Z = atoomnummer (aantal protonen) A = massagetal A = Z + N Neutraal atoom bevat: Z elektronen Z protonen N neutronen elektron proton neutron 4 2 He Atoombouw

4 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services  Energietoestanden eenheid van energie: joule (J) elektronvolt (eV) 1 eV = 1,6  J elektron proton neutron 7 3 Li excitatie ionisatie K L M

5 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services Isotopen (C-7, C-8, C-9…..), Z is constant Isobaren (C-7, B-7, Be-7….) A is constant Isomeren (Tc-99, Tc-99m) variatie in energietoestand Nuclidenkaart Z/N

6 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services Natuurlijke radioactiviteit / Kunstmatige radoactiviteit

7 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services Radioactief verval Spontaan proces!

8 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services /07/2014  machtsverheffen 9 = 3 2 machtsverheffen er zijn twee inverse functies 9 = ? 2  ? = 2  9worteltrekken 9 = 3 ?  ? = 3 log(9)logaritme nemen we noemen 3 het grondtal van de logartitme de “natuurlijke” logaritme heeft grondtal e = 2, we schrijven de natuurlijke logaritme als ln(x)

9 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services  logaritmisch grafiekpapier

10 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services /07/2014  voorvoegsels milli(m)10 -3 micro(  )10 -6 nano(n)10 -9 pico(p) kilo(k)10 3 mega(M)10 6 giga(G)10 9 tera(T)10 12 Eenheid van activiteit: - becquerel (Bq) - curie (Ci) 1 Bq = 1 verval per seconde 1 Ci = activiteit van 1 gram Ra = 3,7  Bq

11 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services   - -verval  Z = +1  A = 0  E ,max / 3 Neutronenoverschot

12 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services  1.  + -verval  Z = -1  A = 0 annihilatie  + + e -  2  (2x 511 keV) Energieverschil moet groter zijn dan 1022 keV Neutronentekort

13 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services  2. elektronvangst  Z = -1  A = 0 gat in elektronschil wordt opgevuld  röntgen-foton auger-elektron

14 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services Atoom- en kernfysica  röntgen-foton (fluorescentie) E K = B K – B L  auger-elektron E KLL = B K – B L – B L dit zijn concurrerende processen! lage Zauger-emissie dominant hoge Zröntgen-emissie dominant K L X-foton L K Auger-elektron

15 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services   -verval  Z = -2  A = -4  -deeltje = 4 He-kern Terugstooteffect: Riskant  strenge wettelijke normen

16 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services Atoom- en kernfysica   -verval en interne conversie  Z = 0  A = 0 dit zijn concurrerende processen ! conversie-elektron E K = E  - B K röntgen-foton auger-elektron K  -foton E  K

17 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services  Kernsplijting A  A 1 + A 2 + neutronen + energie A 1  95 A 2  140 energie  200 MeV voorbeelden: U  Rb Cs + 3n U + n  Kr Ba + 2n

18 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services  Vervalschema’s

19 | office of the university health, safety & environmental services  Moeder – dochterrelaties  T1/2 moeder >> T1/2 dochter  ingroei van activiteit  Ce-137 (30,17 jaar)  Ba-137 m (2,55 min)  Tc-99 m (6,0 uur)  Tc-99 (2,1·10 5 jaar)


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