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Syntactic variables in pupils' writings: distinctive features of keyboard-typed texts? Bård Uri Jensen University of Bergen / Hedmark University College.

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Presentation on theme: "Syntactic variables in pupils' writings: distinctive features of keyboard-typed texts? Bård Uri Jensen University of Bergen / Hedmark University College."— Presentation transcript:

1 Syntactic variables in pupils' writings: distinctive features of keyboard-typed texts? Bård Uri Jensen University of Bergen / Hedmark University College

2 Contents Purpose of this presentation Purpose of this presentation Background Background Pilot Pilot Extension to main project Extension to main project

3 Why am I here? Statistical results Statistical results Theory-based explanation Theory-based explanation generative? generative? cognitive? cognitive? functional? functional? How can a functional approach help explain differences between hand-writing and keyboard- typing? How can a functional approach help explain differences between hand-writing and keyboard- typing?

4 Purpose / Aim Pupils’ writing in school by hand or word- processing Pupils’ writing in school by hand or word- processing Does production mode affect syntax ? Does production mode affect syntax ? Syntactic variables Syntactic variables Lexical variables Lexical variables

5 Background theory / previous research Word processing Word processing Russell 1999 Harrington, Shermis & Rollins 2000 Kellogg & Mueller 1993 Computer-mediated communication Computer-mediated communication Baron 1998 Crystal 2001 Hård av Segerstad 2002 Production speed Production speed Horowitz & Berkowitz 1964 Written and spoken language Written and spoken language differences resulting from production speed differences resulting from production speed Allwood 1998 Biber 1988 Halliday 1989

6 Hypotheses Increased production speed Increased production speed  more spontaneous language  more spontaneous language Improved editing Improved editing  less spontaneous language  less spontaneous language Results will depend on Results will depend on time frame time frame genre genre writing skills writing skills computing skills computing skills

7 Pilot research questions How are the following variables affected by production mode in pupils’ writing? How are the following variables affected by production mode in pupils’ writing? Lexical density Lexical density Lexical diversity Lexical diversity Rate of subordination Rate of subordination Biber 1988, Halliday 1989 Rate of modal particles Rate of modal particles Rate of certain kinds of topic markers Rate of certain kinds of topic markers Faarlund, Lie & Vannebo 1997

8 Pilot research questions How are the following variables affected by production mode in pupils’ writing? How are the following variables affected by production mode in pupils’ writing? Lexical density Lexical density Rate of subordination Rate of subordination Biber 1988, Halliday 1989 Rate of modal particles Rate of modal particles Faarlund, Lie & Vannebo 1997

9 Text collection 20 pupils in 11th year (16 years old) 20 pupils in 11th year (16 years old) Three hours writing session Three hours writing session little opportunity for revision / rewriting little opportunity for revision / rewriting No Internet connection No Internet connection Text A (Day 1) Text B (Day 2) Pupil1-10HandKeyboard Pupil11-20KeyboardHand Text length Text length

10 Subordination (independent clauses) Subjunction count Subjunction count At, om, som, fordi, når, så, hvis, hvordan, … At, om, som, fordi, når, så, hvis, hvordan, … That, whether, which/that, because, when, so that, if, how, … That, whether, which/that, because, when, so that, if, how, … Å (+ infinitive) Å (+ infinitive) To (+ infinitive) To (+ infinitive) Independent clauses without subjunction Independent clauses without subjunction 1)Han sa han skulle komme. He said he would come. 2)Bilen jeg kjører, er en Toyota. The car I drive is a Toyota. (Question-type (Question-type 3)Hadde jeg ikke kommet, ville det ikke ha skjedd. Had I not come, it would not have happened. )

11 Results: Subordination Significant differences in subordinations by number of (graphic) sentences. Significant differences in subordinations by number of (graphic) sentences. One-way ANOVA s<.05HandKeyboard Mean

12 Modal particles Jo, vel, nok, da, nå, visst Jo, vel, nok, da, nå, visst Jo = Assumed known to both sender and receiver. Jo = Assumed known to both sender and receiver. 1)Jeg kjører jo Toyota. I drive a Toyota, you know. Vel = Uncertainty, appeals to receiver’s knowledge. Vel = Uncertainty, appeals to receiver’s knowledge. 2)Jenter leser vel mer bøker. Girls read books more, don’t they? Nok = Expresses probability or belief Nok = Expresses probability or belief 3)Gutter driver nok mer med data. I think boys use their computer more. Boys probably use their computer more.

13 Results: Modal particles Frequency per 1000 words Frequency per 1000 words No significant differences between production modes No significant differences between production modes Jo, nok are slightly more frequent in typed texts Jo, nok are slightly more frequent in typed texts Vel is slightly more frequent in hand-written text Vel is slightly more frequent in hand-written text Significant mean differences between essay questions Significant mean differences between essay questions One-way ANOVA, s<.05 Text A Text B Mean /

14 Results: Modal particles Significant positive correlation: Significant positive correlation: Difference in rate of modal particles with production mode Difference in rate of modal particles with production mode Total text length produced by pupil Total text length produced by pupil Pearson’s correlation 0.57, s<.01 Pearson’s correlation 0.57, s<.01 Pupils who generally produce long texts use more modal particles when typing Pupils who generally produce long texts use more modal particles when typing What characterises these pupils? What characterises these pupils? good production skills / high text competence? good production skills / high text competence? motivated? motivated? utilise increased speed to produce ”fluently”? utilise increased speed to produce ”fluently”? get carried away? get carried away?

15 Results: Lexical density Ratio of lexical words to total words Ratio of lexical words to total words Nouns, adjectives and verbs Nouns, adjectives and verbs Minus function verbs å ha (to have), å være (to be) Minus function verbs å ha (to have), å være (to be) Lexical adverbs not included Lexical adverbs not included Production mode or total text length show no influence Production mode or total text length show no influence Significant negative correlation between Significant negative correlation between Difference in lexical density between production modes Difference in lexical density between production modes Difference in text length between production modes Difference in text length between production modes Pearson’s correlation -.61, s<.01 Pearson’s correlation -.61, s<.01

16 Results: Lexical density Pupils who type substantially longer than they write, also type less densely than they write. Pupils who type substantially longer than they write, also type less densely than they write. What characterises these pupils? What characterises these pupils? good typing / word-processing skills! good typing / word-processing skills! increased motivation? increased motivation?  utilise this to produce ”more fluently”?  utilise this to produce ”more fluently”?  get carried away?  get carried away? influenced by CMC text-types (chat, games, etc.)? influenced by CMC text-types (chat, games, etc.)?  produce texts more oral in nature?  produce texts more oral in nature?

17 Main project extensions More pupils (ca 60) More pupils (ca 60) gender gender writing skills writing skills computer skills computer skills Two genres Two genres argumentative ~ narrative argumentative ~ narrative Two time frames Two time frames 3 hours ~ 7 days 3 hours ~ 7 days More grammatical variables More grammatical variables

18 Grammatical variables Inspired by previous research. Examples: Inspired by previous research. Examples: Coordination and subordination Coordination and subordination Constituent order Constituent order Formal subject det Formal subject det Sentence fragments (e.g. lacking subject) Sentence fragments (e.g. lacking subject) Lexical diversity (e.g. in verbs, nouns) Lexical diversity (e.g. in verbs, nouns) Frequency of different parts of speech (e.g. adjectives) Frequency of different parts of speech (e.g. adjectives) Clefting Clefting Passives Passives Noun : pronoun ratio Noun : pronoun ratio

19 Discussion related to functional linguistics Do hand-written and typed texts serve different purposes or functions? Do hand-written and typed texts serve different purposes or functions? Do (some) pupils perceive them as serving different purposes or functions? Do (some) pupils perceive them as serving different purposes or functions? Do characteristics of other kinds of keyboarded texts (sms, chat, games,...) rub off on typical school writings? Do characteristics of other kinds of keyboarded texts (sms, chat, games,...) rub off on typical school writings? Is length a signal of function? Is length a signal of function?

20 Discussion Problem of grammatical unit of measurement Problem of grammatical unit of measurement Problem of grammatical unit of measurement Problem of grammatical unit of measurement Differences in text length Differences in text length Differences in text length Differences in text length  different categories of pupils?  different categories of pupils?  different categories of pupils?  different categories of pupils?  different writing situations?  different writing situations?  different writing situations?  different writing situations?  different purpose/function of writing?  different purpose/function of writing?  different purpose/function of writing?  different purpose/function of writing? Corpus size Corpus size Corpus size Corpus size Pupils’ knowledge of norms? Pupils’ knowledge of norms? Pupils’ knowledge of norms? Pupils’ knowledge of norms?

21 References Allwood, Jens (1998). Some Frequency based Differences between Spoken and Written Swedish. In proceedings from the XVI:th Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics, Allwood, Jens (1998). Some Frequency based Differences between Spoken and Written Swedish. In proceedings from the XVI:th Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics, Department of Linguistics, University of Turku Baron, N. S. (1998). Letters by phone or speech by other means: the linguistics of . Language & Communication, 18(2), Department of Linguistics, University of Turku Baron, N. S. (1998). Letters by phone or speech by other means: the linguistics of . Language & Communication, 18(2), Biber, D. (1988). Variation across speech and writing. New York: Cambridge University Press. Biber, D. (1988). Variation across speech and writing. New York: Cambridge University Press. Crystal, D. (2001). Language and the Internet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crystal, D. (2001). Language and the Internet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Faarlund, J. T., Lie, S., og Vannebo, K. I. (1997). Norsk referansegrammatikk. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. Faarlund, J. T., Lie, S., og Vannebo, K. I. (1997). Norsk referansegrammatikk. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. Halliday, M. A. K. (1989). Spoken and written language (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Halliday, M. A. K. (1989). Spoken and written language (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Harrington, S., Shermis, M. D., og Rollins, A. L. (2000). The influence of word processing on English placement test results. Computers and Composition, 17(2), Harrington, S., Shermis, M. D., og Rollins, A. L. (2000). The influence of word processing on English placement test results. Computers and Composition, 17(2), Horowitz, M. W., og Berkowitz, A. (1964). Structural advantage of the mechanism of spoken expression as a factor in differences in spoken and written expression. Perceptual and motor skills, 19, Horowitz, M. W., og Berkowitz, A. (1964). Structural advantage of the mechanism of spoken expression as a factor in differences in spoken and written expression. Perceptual and motor skills, 19, Hård af Segerstad, Y. (2002). Use and Adaptation of Written Language to the Conditions of Computer-mediated Communication. Göteborg University, Göteborg. Hård af Segerstad, Y. (2002). Use and Adaptation of Written Language to the Conditions of Computer-mediated Communication. Göteborg University, Göteborg. Kellogg, R. T., og Mueller, S. (1993). Performance amplification and process restructuring in computer-based writing. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 39(1), Kellogg, R. T., og Mueller, S. (1993). Performance amplification and process restructuring in computer-based writing. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 39(1), Russell, M. (1999). Testing on computers: A follow-up study comparing performance on computer and on paper. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 7(20). Russell, M. (1999). Testing on computers: A follow-up study comparing performance on computer and on paper. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 7(20).

22 Corpus size Difficult to obtain significance Difficult to obtain significance Some substantial differences / correlations Some substantial differences / correlations Less substantial differences may be significant in a larger corpus. Less substantial differences may be significant in a larger corpus.

23 Unit of measurement Basic principle: Basic principle: Number of occurances per possible places of use Number of occurances per possible places of use Subordination Subordination Per graphic sentence (i.e. between ) Per graphic sentence (i.e. between ) Should be per independent clause. Should be per independent clause. Requires time-consuming manual analysis. Requires time-consuming manual analysis. Modal particles Modal particles Per 1000 words Per 1000 words Should be per indpendent clause Should be per indpendent clause Lexical density Lexical density Per total number of words Per total number of words

24 Knowledge of norms Long sentences, Long sentences, Independent clauses often piled onto each other Independent clauses often piled onto each other Without conjunctions Without conjunctions Without full stops Without full stops Without commas, sometimes Without commas, sometimes Often seem quite oral in nature Often seem quite oral in nature If pupils don’t know the norms, can’t be expected to strive towards them If pupils don’t know the norms, can’t be expected to strive towards them Maybe differences will only show in pupils with good writing skills? Maybe differences will only show in pupils with good writing skills?

25 Categorization of pupils

26 Results: Lexical diversity Distribution of word frequency Written Written 10 words = 19% 10 words = 19% 50 words = 38% 50 words = 38% words = 87% Hand Hand 10 words = 24% 10 words = 24% 50 words = 53% 50 words = 53% 700 words = 91% Spoken 10 words = 23% 50 words = 52% words = 97% Allwood 1998 PC 10 words = 24% 50 words = 53% 700 words = 90%

27 Hand PC 1detit4,004,0detit4,014,0 2eris3,817,8eris3,627,6 3ogand3,1711,0ogand3,3611,0 4som that (adj) 2,3013,3som 2,2913,3 5ikkenot2,1915,5å to (inf.) 2,2415,5 6iin1,9117,4påon1,8917,4 7påon1,8419,2at that (subs) 1,8319,2 8at 1,7121,0ikkenot1,7621,0 9å to (inf.) 1,7022,7dethey1,7422,7 10dethey1,6524,3forfor1,6324,4 11jegI1,5825,9ena/an1,4825,8 12medwith1,4127,3jegI1,4527,3 13ena/an1,3328,6iin1,4228,7

28 Hand PC 1detit4,004,0detit4,014,0 2eris3,817,8eris3,627,6 3ogand3,1711,0ogand3,3611,0 4som that (adj) 2,3013,3som 2,2913,3 5ikkenot2,1915,5å to (inf.) 2,2415,5 6iin1,9117,4påon1,8917,4 7påon1,8419,2at that (subs) 1,8319,2 8at 1,7121,0ikkenot1,7621,0 9å to (inf.) 1,7022,7dethey1,7422,7 10dethey1,6524,3for 1,6324,4 11jegI1,5825,9ena/an1,4825,8 12medwith1,4127,3jegI1,4527,3 13ena/an1,3328,6iin1,4228,7

29 Hand PC 1detit4,004,0detit4,014,0 2eris3,817,8eris3,627,6 3ogand3,1711,0ogand3,3611,0 4som that (adj.) 2,3013,3som 2,2913,3 5ikkenot2,1915,5å to (inf.) 2,2415,5 6iin1,9117,4påon1,8917,4 7påon1,8419,2at that (subs) 1,8319,2 8at 1,7121,0ikkenot1,7621,0 9å to (inf.) 1,7022,7dethey1,7422,7 10dethey1,6524,3forfor1,6324,4 11jegI1,5825,9ena/an1,4825,8 12medwith1,4127,3jegI1,4527,3 13ena/an1,3328,6iin1,4228,7

30 Hand PC 1detit4,004,0detit4,014,0 2eris3,817,8eris3,627,6 3ogand3,1711,0ogand3,3611,0 4som that (adj.) 2,3013,3som 2,2913,3 5ikkenot2,1915,5å to (inf.) 2,2415,5 6iin1,9117,4påon1,8917,4 7påon1,8419,2at that (subs) 1,8319,2 8at 1,7121,0ikkenot1,7621,0 9å to (inf.) 1,7022,7dethey1,7422,7 10dethey1,6524,3forfor1,6324,4 11jegI1,5825,9ena/an1,4825,8 12medwith1,4127,3jegI1,4527,3 13ena/an1,3328,6iin1,4228,7

31 Hand PC 1detit4,004,0detit4,014,0 2eris3,817,8eris3,627,6 3ogand3,1711,0ogand3,3611,0 4som that (adj.) 2,3013,3som 2,2913,3 5ikkenot2,1915,5å to (inf.) 2,2415,5 6iin1,9117,4påon1,8917,4 7påon1,8419,2at that (subs) 1,8319,2 8at 1,7121,0ikkenot1,7621,0 9å to (inf.) 1,7022,7dethey1,7422,7 10dethey1,6524,3forfor1,6324,4 11jegI1,5825,9ena/an1,4825,8 12medwith1,4127,3jegI1,4527,3 13ena/an1,3328,6iin1,4228,7

32 Density in written and spoken language Written: Investment in a rail facility implies a long-term commitment. Spoken: If you invest in a rail facility, this implies that you are going to be committed for a long term. Halliday (1989)


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