Presentation on theme: "Practical ICT Didactics"— Presentation transcript:
1 Practical ICT Didactics Said HadjerrouitAgder University CollegeFaculty of Mathematics and SciencesKristiansand - NorwayIUFM, MontpellierMarch 7, 2006
2 Topics & ObjectivesDidactics of informatics (ICT didactics) as academic disciplineDidactical relation modelLearning theoriesLMS Classfronter as electronic platformClassfronter as learning environmentPedagogical use of ClassfronterICT in the School CurriculumExamples of pedagogical softwareSchool curriculum (L97, R94, New Curriculum)ICT in primary and lower secondary schools (L97)ICT in upper secondary schools (R94)ICT topics in secondary schools (fall semester 2005)Teaching practice programmes with a duration of six weeks;Primary and lower secondary schools: from the end of Sept until the beginning of Nov 2005.Upper secondary schools: from the end of Jan until the beginning of March 2006.Research-based task based on a new ICT training concept
3 Didactics of Informatics Didactics of Informatics is a new discipline.It does not exit any didactical traditionTo lay the groundwork for a strong foundation, we must ask fundamental questions:What? ContentHow? Teaching & learning methodsWhy? Objectives / goalsWho? Teachers, pupils, school leaders, etc.
4 What? What are the particularities, goals and ambitions, and underlying ideas of informatics?Informatics as science & engineering disciplineInformatics as theoretical/mathematical, technical and practical scienceInformatics as interdisciplinary subject (mathematics, language, engineering, etc.)Historical development of informatics and informatics didactics
5 Why? Subject’s legitimacy in schools? Why is ICT important in schools? Why should pupils learn ICT?
6 How? How should informatics content be organized and structured? How to promote students’ learning?How should learning be evaluated?
7 Who? Answers to what, how and why questions depend on who are the pupils ?which school ? andwhich society ?
8 Didactic Relation Model Assumes that different parts of the educational system arerelated to each other, and that there is a reciprocal influencebetween the elements:Students’ characteristics and prerequisite knowledgeCourse contentLearning goalsMethods of working and teaching methodsAssessment proceduresLearning environment, conditions and resources
10 Didactic Relation Model Students’ abilities are prerequisite knowledge and skills, educational background and experience, as well as personal experiences.External conditions are factors that make learning possible, such as computer equipment, resources, library, books, place, classroom settings, economical conditions, legal and ethical conventions, curriculum, time table, syllabus, etc.Learning goals are about what the students should possess after finishing the IT-training course in terms of concepts, methods, theory, practices, ideas and principles.Learning content is learning material that is associated with the subject matter, its topics and subtopics and how these are broken down into lessons.Learning process is concerned with methods and activities based on learning theories, such as reading textbooks, doing exercises, performing projects, as well as the process of changing students’ knowledge to new knowledge.Assessment is the process of assessing the student learning and how this can be done, such as oral and written exams, writing a report, performing a project, etc.
11 Didactic Relation Model: How to prepare, plan, implement and evaluate ICT teaching?
13 BehaviorismThe goal is to transmit knowledge from the instructor to the learners.Learning is seen as largely as a passive process.Teachers/ Instructors are central to learning activities.There are few opportunities for learners to express their own ideas.Behaviorism stimulates surface learning and knowledge reproduction.Stability and certainty with respect to knowledge acquisition and learning outcomes.
14 Cognitive Constructivism (Piaget) Learning is an active construction process whereby learners construct their own knowledge based upon their prior knowledge.Constructivist learning takes place as learners solve authentic tasks within a meaningful, real-world environment.The process of constructing knowledge requires cognitive skills (reasoning, analyzing, reflecting, evaluating, critical thinking).Teachers serve primarily as guides of learning, not as transmitters of knowledge.Assessment should focus on student’s cognitive development.
15 Social Constructivism (Vigotsky) Learning is derived from and proceed by social relationships through participation in social activities with others.Learning occurs through discussion, dialogue, collaboration, and information sharing with other people, e.g. teachers, fellow learners, etc.Assessment should focus on students’ collaborative skills, group and project work.
16 Learning Theories, Teaching Methods and ICT BehaviorismSkinnerCognitive constructivismPiagetSocial constructivismVygotsky
17 Course Teaching Methods Lectures (4 hours x 15 weeks)Group workProject workDiscussion forumTeaching practice in primary and secondary schoolsCompulsory workResearch workOral and written examsIntensive weekend seminars may be part of the course.
18 Course Electronic Platform: LMS Classfronter Classfronter is an LMS (Learning Management System)Classfronter is a net based arena where teachers, lecturers, students and othersmay read, store, delete, change course informationmay share different kinds of information resources with all or selected users in the systemmay need to collaborate and communicate electronically (discussion, chats)
19 LMS Classfronter Classfronter is totally web based. Users need an Internet connection (http://www.hia.no/classfronter)a web browser (Internet Explorer) anda PC setup that allow communication with the Classfronter serverClassfronter is an access controlled system. Users needa user name andpassword to access the system.
20 Discussion Forum Discussion topics ICT as tool to support learning at primary and lower secondary schoolsICT as academic discipline at upper secondary schoolsFace-to-face and Classfronter discussions
21 ICT in the School Curriculum Using ICT as an educational tool in primary school, lower secondary, and upper secondary school level:Standard softwarePedagogical softwareInternet & webICT as medium to support dialogWeb-enabled discussion /Discussion forum, chatsICT as academic discipline (informatics) at the upper secondary school level.
22 ICT in Primary and Lower Secondary Schools: Topics State of the artPupils’ use of ICT (Internet surfing, e-post, word, games)Teachers’ use of ICT (most for teaching)Pupils’ and teachers’ skillsSchools’ PC equipmentHome computing more and more important for ICT competencePedagogical softwareSchool Curriculum L 97 for compulsory education (age 6 – 16)
23 Pedagogical SoftwareSchool curriculum L 97 defines 3 types of software:Standard software- Text processing (Word), spreadsheets (Excel), Power Point, databases (Access), etc.Data network (Internet)Another type of softwarePedagogical software is included in “another type of software".Classification criteriaDomain of use (mathematics, science, language, etc.)Student group (age, school stage, etc.)Technical criteria (memory capacity, platform, etc.)
25 Pedagogical Software: Multimedialab Solar systemPythagoras axiomNapoleon’s liveNorwegian artistsComputer configuration
26 School CurriculumCurriculum for Primary and Lower Secondary Education (L 97)Curriculum for Upper Secondary Education (R 94)New curriculum (gradually from )
27 Curriculum for Primary and Lower Secondary Education: L 97 L 97 consists of three main parts:The core curriculum for compulsory, upper secondary and adult education (general part) - became effective from September 1993Principles and guidelines for compulsory education - is the bridge between the core curriculum and the subject syllabuses.Subject syllabuses - are based on the core curriculum and formulated in accordance with the principles and guidelines for compulsory educationSeparate curriculum, L97 Sami, for the Sami pupils in order to preserve anddevelop the Sami language, culture and social life.
28 Curriculum for Primary and Lower Secondary Education (L 97) ForewordCore curriculum: General partPrinciples and guidelines for compulsory educationChristian Knowledge and Religious and Ethical education NorwegianNorwegianSign Language as a first language - Language for deaf pupils.MathematicsSocial StudiesArt and CraftsScience and the environmentEnglishMusicHome economicsPhysical educationCompulsory additional subjectsClass and pupil council activitiesSchool’s and pupils options
29 L 97: The School Structure Structural changes:School starts at the age of six (instead of seven)10 years schooling (instead of nine)Compulsory education is divided into three stages:Primary stage: grades 1– 4 (age 6–10)Intermediate stage: grades 5 – 7 (age 10–13)Lower secondary stage: grades 8 – 10 (age 13–16)
30 Core curriculum for Primary and Lower Secondary Education: General Part ForewordIntroductionThe spiritual human beingThe creative human beingThe working human beingThe liberally-educated human beingThe social human beingThe environmentally -aware human beingThe integrated human being
31 Principles and Guidelines: The bridge between the core curriculum and the subject syllabuses. IntroductionOne school for allAn environment in which to learn and grow upSubject syllabus – Content and StructureLocal work on subject syllabusesCharacteristics of the main stagesMethods, learning materials and assessmentLearning materialsAssessmentAllocation of subjects and periods
32 Curriculum for Upper Secondary Education (R 94) Common general subjects:NorwegianCivics Advanced Course IReligion and EthicsHistorySecond and Third Foreign Language
33 Curriculum for Upper Secondary Education (R 94) Specialized Subjects in General and Business StudiesBusiness StudiesBiologyEnglishPhysicsGeographyICT Operator - Training in Working LifeInformation TechnologyChemistryMarketingMathematicsMedia StudiesAccounts LawSociologyEconomics
34 Information Technology Chapter 1: General information 1Introduction 1The specialized subject Information Technology 3User Systems (1A) 3System Development (2A) 4Information Processing (1B) 4System operations (2B) 5Chapter 2: Objectives and learning targets 6Common objectives for the specialized subject, InformationTechnology 6Information Technology 7User Systems (1A) 7System Development (2A) 9Information Processing (1B) 12System Operations (2B) 14Chapter 3: Assessment 17Why assessment? 17What shall be assessed? 17How shall assessment be carried out? 17Special conditions – Project work 18AppendixDistribution of tuition hours per module in Information Technology 19
35 Information Technology IT is a specialized subject. It consists of 4 modules,each of 187 hours (an average of 5 hours per week):Module 1A must be taken by all who take IT and is founded on what is learned on the foundation course in General & Business Studies.Module 2A is a depth study module founded on 1A.Module 1B is founded on 1A, but can be taken simultaneously with 1A.Module 2B is a depth study module founded on 1B.
37 User Systems (1A)Software tools that are used at all levels of public & private lifeaccording to laws and rules (data privacy, ethical norms, etc)Word processingSpreadsheetsDatabases, andPrograms for simulation, graphics, multimedia, networks (Internet, intranet, web)
38 System Development (1 B) Development of information systems in organizations.Analysing and assessing situations, detecting problems, constructing software solutions and implementing them.Evaluation, maintenance and further development.Modelling approaches, methods and techniques (UML).Analysis of social effects for people affected by SD, as direct or indirect participants in the developmental process.
39 Information Processing (1B) 1B can be viewed as enlarging on and pursuing further topics in 1A.Understand terms such as hypothesis, theory, model, method, technique, & toolsGeneral principles for modelling and applications of models such as analysis, specification, design, abstraction, generalizations, specialization, reuse, interpretation, experimentation & realization.Use of models in private & public establishments in implementing information systems.Examples are models used as the basis for numerical calculations (including budgeting), databases, object-oriented software libraries, simulation, statistical analysis and graphic representation (including animation).
40 System Operations (2B)Module 2B is a further development of some of the topics in 1A & 1B.Evaluate, select, install, configure, and maintain computer equipment (hardware and software) and operating systemsKnowledge of networks and security proceduresOperational tasks for small & medium-sized systems; operations on local area networks, cooperative and shared use of computer resources.
41 New Curriculum (from 2006-2007) Core curriculum maintainedIntroduction of a National framework for qualityContinuous curriculaClear competence goals for pupils and apprenticesObjectives for basic skills integrated into all subjects
42 New Curriculum: Basic Skills The ability to express oneself orallyThe ability to readThe ability to do arithmeticThe ability to express oneself in writingThe ability to use information and communication technology
43 New Curriculum: Information Technology Information Technology I(187 hours)Information Technology IIDigital EquipmentInformation Systems DesignProgrammingDatabasesMultimedia ApplicationsWeb Development IWeb Development II
44 Teaching Practice Programmes in Schools Primary and lower secondary schools: from the end of Sept until the beginning of Nov 2005ICT as a tool to support teaching & learningIntegration and development of ICT in schools.Upper secondary schools: from the end of January until the beginning of March 2006ICT as subject matter / disciplinePractical informatics educationTeacher’s observations and evaluation of students’ teaching (4-5 hours for each student)
46 Research-Based Activity As compulsory research-based activity based on use of a new ICT training method.Research work is performed during students’ teaching practice at upper secondary schools.
47 Research-Based Activity: Projects Creating forms and templates in the web development programMicrosoft FrontPageCreating diagrams using the spread sheet program Microsoft ExcelConnecting a database to a website using the database programMicrosoft Access and the web development program Microsoft FrontPageUsing hyperlinks and style sheets in Microsoft FrontPageUsing hyperlinks, creating and changing backgrounds and font colorsin Microsoft FrontPageDrawing graphs with the calculator simulating program TI-interactiveUsing scientific calculator (with advanced functions and derivation)Implementing of the project management tool Microsoft ProjectUsing basic functions in the photo imaging software Adobe Photoshop 6.0
48 Practical Didactics in ICT: Credits Two variants:INF112 : 15 credits - 2 semestersINF113 : 30 credits - 2 semesters
49 Course Evaluation Methods Two standard questionnaires (pre- and post questionnaires)Classroom dialog and discussionsObservations and discussions during the supervision of compulsory and project workOral and written examsResearch work and reports
50 ICT and Learning 1 Autumn 2005 INF103 Standard Programs for Teaching and Learning10 creditsINF104INF105ICT in Learning and Teaching
51 ICT and Learning 2 Spring 2006 INF106 Software for Multimedia and Webdesign10 creditsINF107Electronic Teaching Aids - Program design and DevelopmentINF108Local Networks and Data Communication
52 Practical ICT Didactics Thank you for your attention
53 Elevers bruk av IKT på skolen På alle klassetrinn brukes det lite tid ved datamaskinerEt fåtall anvendelsesområder, i hovedsak:InternettsøkTekstbehandling13% do not use computers at all50% use computers less than 1 hour a weekSmå forskjeller mellom kjønneneElever og lærere har ulike oppfatning av hvordan og hvor mye datamaskiner brukesProsjektarbeid er den arbeidsformen der det i størst grad brukes IKT
54 Læreres bruk av IKT på skolen Lærere bruker datamaskiner mest til forberedelse av undervisningPå skolen bruker lærere mer tid ved datamaskin enn elevene gjørLæreres bruksmønster er forholdsvis likt elevenes (med unntak av at elevene spiller mer spill)
55 Læreres bruk av IKT hjemme Mannlige lærere bruker datamaskinen mer hjemme enn kvinnelige lærereMannlige og kvinnelige lærere bruker like mye tid hjemme til skolearbeid ved datamaskinen
56 Elevers og læreres ferdigheter De fleste elever og lærere mener selv de har god generell kunnskap om datamaskinerDe fleste elever og lærere mener de har gode ferdigheter i bruk av Internett, e-post og tekstbehandlingPå en del avanserte anvendelsesområder vurderer elevene sine egne ferdigheter som bedre enn det lærere vurderer sine ferdigheter på samme områdeElevenes ferdigheter og digitale kompetanse skapes i omfattende grad hjemme, og i mindre grad på skolen
57 Viktige faktorer som gir variasjoner Tilgang på datamaskiner og nettverkStore forskjeller mellom skoletrinnSkoleledelsens satsning på IKTVgs har i større grad utviklet visjoner for bruk av IKT, 9.kl er det trinnet i undersøkelsen som i minst grad har noen klar IKT-satsningSatsning på lærernes kompetanseutviklingRektorene overvurderer lærernes bruk av IKTPedagogiske arbeidsformerBidraget fra IKT i undervisningen vurderes som moderat på de fleste områdeneStørst bidrag gir IKT i forhold til gruppe –og prosjektarbeidIKT bidrar mest på de områdene som i minst grad preger dagens undervisning (prosjektarbeid)Digitale mapperDe fleste elever har personlige mapper, men få utnytter disse mappene på en systematisk måte - Brukes lite og usystematiskTilgang på digitalt innholdInternett brukes mye, men skole- og fagrettede sider lite
58 KonklusjonerDet er aller mest avgjørende hvor mye tid elevene bruker ved datamaskinenSkolebruk og hjemmebruk påvirker hverandre positivtTilgang på maskinvare og nettverk betyr myeSkolens satsning på IKT, visjoner, planer, engasjement har betydningBruk av digitale mapper er den viktigste skolefaktoren
59 Elevers bruk av IKT hjemme De fleste elevene har bedre datautstyr hjemmeElevene gjør mer avanserte og komplekse ting ved hjemmemaskinenElevene bruker med tid ved datamaskin hjemme enn på skolenGutter bruker mer tid ved datamaskinen hjemmeGutter og jenter bruker like mye tid til å gjøre skolearbeid ved datamaskinen
60 Network for IT-Research and Competence in Education - Faculty of Education, at the University of Oslo (http://www.itu.no/)