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Fight for your life: antipredator mechanisms in amphibians Egon Heiss University of Vienna.

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Presentation on theme: "Fight for your life: antipredator mechanisms in amphibians Egon Heiss University of Vienna."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fight for your life: antipredator mechanisms in amphibians Egon Heiss University of Vienna

2 „arms“ against enemys Eisner and Aneshansley, 1999 Arnold, 1982 © Steinmann

3

4 Ambystoma gracile Ambystoma cingulatum Bolitoglossa franklini Taricha rivularis Euricea lucifuga Ambystoma laterale Echinotriton andersoni Tylototriton shanjing Brodie, 1977

5 response to predator-like stimulations „tail elevated posturing“ „body-arched posturing“ secretion

6 Histological studies revealed 3 types of skin glands GG I GG II MG Glands

7 MG GGI GGII PAS AB CB

8 Glands MG GG I GG II 5 µm

9 active secretion Myoepithelium GCt G MyE Ct

10 100µm

11 active secretion

12 Gland density Parotoid Glands: Densely packed GGI

13 nano-LC-ESI/MS basepeak chromatogram

14 Hurt yourself to hurt your enemy! Heiss et al., 2010

15 „relaxed“ „threatened“ Mobility of the ribs

16 „relaxed“ „threatened“ Mobility of the ribs

17 „threatened“ „relaxed“ Mobility of the ribs

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19 di pa tu ca

20 skin penetration

21 Echinotriton sp.Tylototriton sp. Pleurodeles Echinotriton Tylototriton © Salamanderland Brodie, 1983

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23 Tylototriton verrucosus

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25 Rib movements as useful strategy to appear larger © utaherps

26 Blackburn et al., 2008

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28 Arnold, 1982 Von Byern et al., in press

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30 Conclusions > Skin gland distribution correlates with behaviour > Specialized behaviour potentiates effect of skin gland secretions > Skin glands in amphibians are highly specialized and actively used in defence

31 Thank you for your kind attention! Brodie et al., 1993


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